Advances in technology reduce radiozametnosti led to a means of countering them. For example, the first theory, and then the practice has shown that the detection of stealth aircraft can be made, including, and with the help of old times rather radar stations. For example, in 1999, downed over Yugoslavia plane Lockheed Martin F-117A was found with a standard radar air defense missile system S-125. So Makarov, even for UHF special coating becomes difficult obstacle. Naturally, increasing the wavelength affects the accuracy of the target coordinates, but in some cases, such kinds cost per detection stealth aircraft may be deemed applicable. Yet, radio waves, regardless of their length, are subject to reflection and scattering, which leaves the burning question of specific forms of stealth aircraft. But, this problem can be solved. In September of this year was presented a new tool, the creators of which promised to solve the problem of the scattering of radio waves radar.
At the meeting in the first half of September, Berlin exhibition ILA-2012 European aerospace concern EADS presented its latest development, which, in the conviction of the creators, could turn all notions of stealth aircraft and the means of combating them. The company Cassidian, part of the concern, offered his own version of the radar version of "passive radar". The essence of such a radar is the absence of any radiation. Practically passive Radar is a reception antenna apparatus and the respective calculation methods. The entire complex can be mounted on at least some suitable chassis. For example, in the marketing materials of EADS There is a two-axle vehicle, which is mounted in the passenger compartment all the necessary electronics, and a rooftop bar with a telescopic unit receiving antennas.
The principle of an act of passive radar at first glance, very simple. In contrast to ordinary radar, it does not emit any signals, but only receives radio waves from other sources. The equipment set up for the reception and processing of the signals transmitted by other sources such as classical radar, television and radio stations, as means of communication that uses radio. It is assumed that the foreign source of radio waves is at a certain distance from the passive radar receiver, which is why it signal, hitting on the stealth aircraft, may be reflected in the direction of the latter. So Makar, the main task of passive radar is the collection of all radio signals and correct their treatment in order to isolate that part of them that is reflected by the title of the aircraft.
Practically speaking, this idea is not new. First proposal to use passive radar appeared quite a long time. But until such time nedavneshnego target detection method was simply not feasible: it was not the equipment that allows you to stand out from all the received signals specifically the one that was reflected wanted by the object. Exclusively in the late 90's began to appear the first real development that can ensure the selection and processing of the desired signal, for example, the South American project Silent Sentry company Lockheed Martin. Employees of concern EADS, as they say, too, failed to make the desired set of electrical equipment and corresponding software that can be featured on the kind of "identify" the reflected signal and calculate the characteristics such as elevation and distance to the target. Clearer and more detailed information, by itself, was not announced. But representatives of EADS told about the ability of passive radar to look for all the space around the antenna. With all this update disk imaging on the operator's screen is just a half a second. It was also reported that passive radar while working exclusively in the 3 radio bands: FM, DAB (digital radio) and DVB-T (digital TV). Error when a target is detected, according to official data, does not exceed 10 meters.
From the construction of the antenna unit passive radar shows that the complex may determine the direction of the target and the elevation angle. But the question remains to determine the distance to the detected object. As the official data did not have to do with the information available on the passive radar. Representatives of EADS say their radar operates with signals applied and radio and TV broadcasting. Fully say that their sources have fixed seating which also clear in advance. Passive radar can immediately take direct signal television or radio station, also find it in reflected and attenuated form. Knowing your own coordinates and the coordinates of the transmitter electronics passive radar by comparing the direct and reflected signals, their power, azimuth and elevation angles can calculate the approximate distance to the target. Based on the stated accuracy, European engineers were able to make not only the viability of, and promising technique.
It is also necessary to note that the new passive radar clearly confirms the possibility of a fundamentally practical use of radar such class. Maybe interested in the development of modern European and other countries, too, will start their work in this direction or speed up existing ones. Thus, the U.S. could resume work on the project harsh Silent Sentry. In addition, certain of development on this subject were from the French and British companies Thale Roke Manor Research. Great attention to the subject of the passive radar can eventually lead to a wide dissemination. In such a case, already at this point to approximately represent what the consequences for the kind of modern war would be such a technique. The most natural consequence is to minimize the advantages of stealth aircraft. Passive radar will be able to determine their position, ignoring both technologies reduce visibility. Also, passive radar is able to do useless anti-radar missiles. New radars are able to take advantage of a signal at least some of the respective radio spectrum and power. Accordingly, plane the enemy will not be able to find it on the radar radiation and anti-radiation storm ammunition. Destruc
tion of all the big emitters of radio waves, in turn, is very complicated and expensive. Finally, passive radar at the theoretical level and can work with transmitters to the simplest designs that on its own would cost even cheaper prices countermeasures. Second to counter the problem of passive radar for electronic warfare. For effective suppression such radar is required to "turn off" quite a large range of frequencies. If all this is not ensured tribute to the effectiveness of EW: When a signal is present, which was not included in the vast range of passive radar station may proceed to use it.
Certainly, a vast spread of passive radars will cause methods and means to counter them. But at the current time, the development and EADS Cassidian has virtually no competitors and peers that still allows it to remain sufficiently promising. Representatives of the developer group said that 2015 will be the experimental complex vsepolnotsennym means of detection and tracking of targets. During the remaining time before the action designers and the military of other countries have to, if you do not create their analogues, then at least make up their world view on the subject and come up with at least the general methods of resistance. First, the brand new passive radar can tap the potential of the U.S. Air Force combat. Specifically, the United States pay the greatest attention to stealth aircraft and make new designs with very probable introduction of stealth technology. If passive radars confirm their ability to detect subtle for conventional radar aircraft, the kind of promising U.S. aircraft can endure harsh configuration. As for other states, as long as they do not put low profile at the center and to a certain extent will allow to reduce the possible nasty consequences.
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