In recent decades the global defense industry has invented many new weapons. In the midst of other specific interest is the idea setting comparable massive armament relatively easy wheeled chassis with a suitable book. Such military equipment received unofficial title of «wheeled tank.» With all this similar question systematization armored hitherto has no precise and definite answer. The fact that different countries use differing definitions. As a result, in some armies are languishing armored vehicles, in others — gun armored cars, while others use armored reconnaissance vehicles. In the end, the contract CFE similar appliances listed as combat vehicles with languid arms (BMTV). With all of this, all three or four «class» technology do not differ from each other in the main features of their own species.
Unfortunately creators of ideas, problems with systematization — it is far not the most severe difficulties wheeled tanks. At the level of most of their own ideology they have a number of relevant features, which for many years active cause controversy in military circles, also in the midst of professional and amateur military equipment. In most cases, wheeled tanks compared with languid tracked armored vehicles, which is why the discussion is very rarely completed consent of the parties. Try to understand what is decent and what bad wheel BMTV also try to predict the future of armored vehicles with massive guns.
First you need to understand the prerequisites for the emergence of the first wheeled tanks and formation of their kind. If their older counterparts tracked formed to work in the European criteria, which have undergone great wars of the last century, the wheeled armored vehicle with cannon armament in some measure are the «offspring» of the landscape other continents. As an example, the first wheel of the tank is often cited French armored car Panhard AML, one of the modifications which carried 90-millimeter cannon. Wheel undercarriage of the armored car proved to be excellent in the criteria Africa during the various wars with France’s role. As for weapons, the gun CN-90FJ actually was effective against all the purposes for which the soldiers had to fight the French. But the main impetus for the creation languid armored car with severe gun battle were acts in southern Africa. Military South Africa quite rapidly concluded that more effective in those criteria will be wheeled armored vehicles with at least bulletproof protection and anti-tank weapons, for example, a gun or ATGM. Once this appeared first ideas against armored system MRAP.
Wheeled chassis were considered more promising because of their decent resource. During the battles with the Angolan armed groups South African soldiers very often had to take long marches by road. Caterpillars traditional tanks then rapidly fell into disrepair and the vast majority of the latest technology to make steel on wheels. In addition, the impact of production capacity and geographic features of the area. Because of comparable hard soil properties savannah terrain tracked tanks were sverhizbytochnymi that, but had virtually no effect on the wear tracks. Such a fascinating approach to the selection Coil eventually affected all kind of South African army — even real self-propelled artillery executed on wheelbase.
Practically speaking, specifically excellent running properties on ordinary roads, coupled with the highest resource mover was the main prerequisite that right behind the South African armored vehicles began to appear Ratel FSV90 other machines of similar species. Over time the number of heavy armored vehicles with gun armament of those reached the size at which it was possible to talk about the trends formed. Now widely known French ERC-90 and AMX-10RC, Italian Centauro, South American M1128 MGS and other machines in its class. Russian military and designers have not yet led to the necessity of similar equipment for our armed forces, but have already shown interest in zabugornye developments that may assist to form a general idea of the construction of the wheel of the tank.
It should be noted in the main will enjoy only structural details. The fact that the entire mass of wheeled tanks in real large-scale hostilities managed to participate only South African Ratel FSV90. Other machines of this class participated in the battles only in small amounts and only in small local conflicts, where they had to fight a war with poorly kitted adversary. So, in 1992, eight Italian Centauro were deported to Somalia, where participated in peacekeeping operations. Almost immediately it became clear that the power of a 105-mm cannon LR extra to deal with the overwhelming majority of goals encountered Italian peacekeepers. Because most of the combat missions concerned observation of the terrain and the issuance of disk imaging patrols why very useful the new observation instruments. Heavy weaponry was used armored vehicles in some cases exclusively for self-defense. In all this did not work without prirekany. First soldier did not suit the strength of the tire. Condition of roads in Somalia was, to put it mildly, unsatisfactory: even the main highway of the country, «Imperial Highway» at the time of the arrival of armored «Centaur» is four years not beheld repairmen, and other ways the situation was even worse. Because of this Italian peacekeepers very often had to change tires because of constant damage. Over time Centauro were equipped stronger tires. More severe problem appeared reservations. Housing Italian wheeled tank was made with the expectation of shelling out 12.7-millimeter small guns, but in some cases during all sorts of ambushes «Centaurs» received severe damage from DShK. Heavier weapons, such as RPG-7 could just kill the armored car. For these reasons, the Italians had to urgently book with England kits dynamic protection ROMOR-A. Through timely enhance the protection, Italy has not lost in Somalia or the 1st wheel tank.
Noteworthy that during the fighting in Somalia appeared all of the major shortcomings of the concept of the wheel of the tank. Despite the preliminary calculations, wheel mover in practice had huge advantages over crawler. Large highest speed in real criteria was impossible due to the lack of good-quality roads and off-road cross-country wheeled vehicles was often worse than the caterpillar. In addition, «Centaurs» wheels with the first embodiment, as already govorilos have been exposed to permanent damage to the tires. With regard to resource Coil, that is because of specific loads when driving on rough terrain actual wear was even higher than calculated, just at the level of tank tracks. In the end, everything seemed advantages associated with different qualities of movement, had «killed» the real situation. In the coming Centauro armored car was slightly modified, namely increased resource Coil.
Second «Somali» problem was related to the level of protection. In developing the first wheeled tanks assumed that this technique will take on the role of the main tanks in conflicts with poorly-armed enemy. Because most of the armored vehicles with languid arms are not equipped protivosnaryadnym booking. Yet, already the first uses of wheeled tanks in local conflicts have shown, at least, understood temper such technical solutions. Cars with anti-bullet armor can adequately confront the enemy, armed with only small instrument. But against artillery or tanks they just worthless. Here we can recall sverhizbytochnuyu power tools, manifested even in Somalia. As a result, quite out of weird car with a wheelbase massive gun and a weak defense. In armor throughout history has evolved along the way the balance of weapons and defense. Wheeled tanks, in turn, tried to break this techno «tradition», but especially of success not have gained. Moreover, the installation of a massive gun in the case with some BMTV has conceived a very noteworthy consequences. Most wheel tanks is comparable highest mass center (higher than the traditional tank circuit) that upon rotation of the tower at a large angle from the longitudinal axis may lead to the machine tipping over sideways. Crawler MBT such prepyadstviya not have.
As already mentioned, the Italian «Centaurs» while working in Somalia received additional protection modules. Along the same path and went to other countries. For example, the South American tank wheeled Stryker M1128 MGS family is equipped with a whole set of tools to increase the level of protection. All of these armor panels and grilles protivokumulyativnymi increasing overall weight of the machine, which exacerbates its driving characteristics. At the same time, almost all military wheeled tanks have less mass of 20-25 tons, is substantially less than a respective parameter at least some modern ground battle tank. As a consequence, the transfer of wheeled vehicles with languid arms becomes more commonplace, if transportation tanks.
The possibility of carrying wheeled tanks military transport aircraft by more vserasprostranennyh aircraft (C-130 and others like him) is one of the main reasons that this class of technology continues to evolve and yet does not leave the military «scene». Military conflicts in recent years have led to the formation of the modern concept of introduction of troops, implying a spirited transfer of the combat area. Military some states have developed this idea to form an exciting: the first place to come to be comparable fights easy technique, such as armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles of the same wheeled tanks. Further, as appropriate, to the band edge can be delivered more languid armored vehicles like tanks or vsepolnotsennyh self-propelled artillery. So Makar, light and medium armored vehicles, including tanks and wheel, giving the function main striking force of the Army, which has the highest mobility.
And yet the introduction of wheeled vehicles with a massive arms requests the correct approach to the planning of operations. For example, wheeled tanks shall not meet in battle with the caterpillar or artillery, otherwise the outcome of this clash is unlikely to be good for appliances on wheels. In this case, wheeled tanks must fight with lightly armored enemy vehicles, for example, with armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles, without going into the affected area of their guns. It concerns the armed conflicts of the highest intensity. In the case of counterterrorism, counterinsurgency or peacekeeping operations, the use of wheeled tanks also asks proper planning, but all this is no longer necessary because «cherish» wheeled armored vehicles to meet with the caterpillar tanks and artillery. At the same time, guerrilla attacks opponents may claim a corresponding approach to the protection of machines that need to be performed in accordance with the concept of MRAP.
Professionals have long no secret that wheeled tanks with caterpillar twin the only one word in the title to the same informal, as a large caliber guns. But sometimes in a different context the question pops ousting the main tanks wheeled armored vehicles with languid arms. As is clear from the above facts, the present state of affairs wheeled tank will not be able not only to do all the functions vsepolnotsenno MBT, and even just walk up to the last for a number of traits. In this regard, a substitution of tracked vehicles wheel, even partial, yet never out of the question. As for the future of wheeled tanks, the future development of this idea is likely to go the way of improved protection while maintaining comparable low mass combat. Armament should stay the same, because the installation even more massive guns, than, for example, in Italian «Centaur» is associated with a number of technical problems that are simply impossible to decide whether to keep the existing advantages of this class of vehicles.
But the last word in shaping the future form of wheeled tanks still remains with the realities of military conflicts shortly, in which participated this technique. During the practical implementation of all available BMTV accumulated a huge amount of claims to the design, some of which has already been solved. Yet, a large number of problems remained and correction may significantly change the type of wheeled tanks. But most likely, and in this case they fail one hundred percent displace conventional tanks crawler.