Colitis.  Photo from

Uneducated citizens think that the colitis — is abdominal cramps. In fact, it's not that. Just in Greek "Kolon" — thick gut, and "-itis" taken place at the end, if the disease is associated with inflammation of the organ. So colitis — an inflammatory disease internal (mucosal) membrane of the large intestine.

Acute colitis occur quickly and violently, chronic — long and slow. Acute inflammation of the colon often occurs simultaneously with the inflammation of the small intestine (enterocolitis), and stomach (gastritis).

Colitis are different: ulcer (in the walls of the intestines are formed ulcers), infections (they blame the pathogens), ischemic (poor blood comes to the intestine), drugs, radiation, etc.


Several causes of colitis:

  • intestinal infection (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa — such as dysentery, salmonella, etc.);
  • long-term use of certain antibiotics (eg, lincomycin), and other medicines (laxatives, neuroleptics, etc.);
  • circulatory disorders of the intestine (seen in the elderly);
  • poor diet (excess flour and animal foods in the diet, excessive alcohol and spicy food, monotonous food);
  • the effects of radiation;
  • intestinal dysbiosis;
  • food allergies;
  • worms;
  • poisoning by lead, arsenic, etc.;
  • bad heredity;
  • foci of infection in the gall bladder and pancreas;
  • mental and physical stress of the day and the wrong mode.
  • unspecified reasons. In particular, it has yet to give reasons for the development of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease — chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

What's going on?

The basis of any colitis — damage to the intestinal mucosa. Most rapidly flowing colitis, caused by an intestinal infection. Bacteria, protozoa (such as an amoeba) or other germs, getting on the intestinal mucosa, causing it damage. Develops an inflammatory process. The wall of the intestine swells, breaks down its contraction (peristalsis) and mucus secretion. There are painful urge to defecate, diarrhea, sometimes with blood and mucus, abdominal pain. Substances produced by the bacteria into the blood, which leads to an increase in body temperature. In chronic colitis in damage to the intestinal mucosa cause a variety of factors: impaired blood supply to the bowel wall, poor diet, food allergies, etc.

The first sign of any of colitis — abdominal pain, may be concerned with the rumbling or bloating. Stool disorders: constipation, diarrhea, or unstable stool (constipation alternating with diarrhea). In the faeces sometimes appears mucus or even admixture of blood. Man feels lethargy, weakness, in severe cases, heat may be. Sharp colitis lasts from several days to several weeks, chronic — longer.

Diagnosis and treatment

The problem deals with colitis gastroenterologist or coloproctologist doctor. During the consultation, a specialist will listen to your complaint will examine and then assign additional research. First of all, you need to pass a stool, by which to judge how well the gut is working and whether there is an intestinal infection. For the diagnosis of colitis also apply:

  • barium enema — X-ray examination of the intestine with preliminary filling of contrast material;
  • sigmoidoscopy — a site intestine (30 cm) examined using a special endoscopic device (proctoscope) inserted through the anus;
  • colonoscopy — a study similar to the sigmoidoscopy, but the site is inspected intestine length of one meter.

To fulfill these studies must be carefully prepared. The purpose of training — clear intestines.

For the diagnosis of the doctor may also order an ultrasound of the abdomen.

Treatment of any colitis begins with the appointment of a special diet. Further strategy depends on the specific cause of the disease. If the disease has resulted in intestinal infection, can be treated with antibiotics. If colitis caused by prolonged use of drugs, the drugs overturned. In chronic colitis used antispasmodics (eg, Nospanum), regulators of intestinal motility, anti-diarrheal (for example, loperamide, Imodium), anti-inflammatory agents (eg, sulfasalazine), in severe cases — glucocorticoid hormones.

Additionally, physical therapy can be assigned (thermal treatment), psychotherapy, as well asspa treatment (Essentuki, Zheleznovodsk, Pyatigorsk, Borjomi).

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