Dive-bomber of the Arkhangelsk — AP-2

History of Creation
Beginning of the 40s. 22th aircraft factory, according to the decree number 230 of CO 7/29/39, the crosses in January 1940 to create a modernized version of SB aircraft with engines mounted M-105, and two months later with M-106. The motors provide the speed the aircraft is 500 km / h and altitude up to 6.5 km.

Dive Bomber Archangel - AP-2

At this time began the tests of the second aircraft with engines M-104 "MCM" and Aircraft Security number 20/207, in what was the capacity for filling the fuel tanks with gas. SAT tests went aircraft number 18/206 and M-103 with installed compressor TK-2. There was a working installation of compressors for aircraft with M-105.

The subsequent decision number 240 of 06/01/40, the constructor commits to early September to test 3 aircraft engines installed with SAT-M 105TK-2. But the difficulties did not have allowed a period of three to equip the aircraft with new engines. New engines have two of them, or test some of them fails. Turbochargers "do not sell" and other test swatches. Production schedules are very high-altitude aircraft corrected. A. Arkhangelsky Design Bureau was to test two aircraft with M-Sat 105TK-2, and one plane with 2M-J05TK-2 to send to the state tests, then, immediately start the ready 20 aircraft SB 2M-105TK-2, which will go to the army tests. And to speed up work on the installation of turbochargers for engines with 2M SB-103. Apart from the work on the engine and turbocharger, and conducted tests and other developments — weapons systems, equipment and bombing. Flight tests were conducted, during which practiced dive planes kitted motors M-104 and M-103. To ensure the bombing in swordplay developed a bomb stop to exit the aircraft out of the dive. It was established by serial plane SB No. 11/248, with engines mounted 2M-103.

In the middle of July 1940 tests begin troop 5-SAT engines with 2M-105 and screws VISH-22E and a DB-3 with screws VISH-23, made in a diving version. 2nd reference number SB-RK 1/281 equipped with the first copies Brake moving grids and automatic type «Ju88» to exit the dive. This equipment has started to create up to 213 factory located in Moscow. This aircraft took place from July 27 to 2-week tests. Apart from the bombing in a dive, with the aircraft began firing rocket-type projectiles. The results of these tests, missile weapons systems for aircraft, began to develop in the forced mode. Aircraft, armed with missile batteries in a dive at an angle of 45/60 degrees should be able to eliminate them as armored and inaccessible objects like tanks, ships, river and sea-based, etc. RBS system performed for ammunition 82, 132 and 203 mm caliber. With the standardization of rocket ammunition, likely was a substitution of the armor-piercing warhead on concrete-that would ensure destruction of protected structures such as fortification. Objects with common defense — artillery systems, machines, facilities and air defense force was alive, it was planned to destroy the missile 132-mm high-explosive projectiles type. The main advantage of RBS before the same bombs — increased accuracy with a power dive and act warhead. Create a volley of fire meant the introduction of two, four, eight and 1st rounds. Specifically volley fire was the most desired by firing RBS. The main carrier systems RBS had to be a "I-15bis", "I-16 with 8 RBS 82-mm", "Aircraft Security with 22 RBS 132 mm caliber," DB-3 with 9 RBS caliber 203 mm. Accommodation — wing and fuselage regardless of the aircraft and its mission. Installation and removal is starting with RBS on the plane — 1-3.5 hours Force technicians.

Dive Bomber Archangel - AP-2

Tests aircraft SB No. 221 with anti-armor missile and shrapnel shells MS / RBS — 132 established under the wing of the aircraft took place at the site since 06/26/40 till 04/08/40 the year. Was worked out in a dive with a shooting attack angles of 45-50 degrees, the range of implementation tools 1.5-1.7 km. CWE shells RBS-132 was less CWE RS-132 1.4 times — 30 (39) m in a lateral direction, 39 (55) meters in range. Although the fire was found to be successful, RBS-132 forbid the use of aircraft — when you start the shells of the gas jet aircraft ailerons were distorted. Considered inappropriate to somehow change the very design of suspension RBS. But the plane Pe-2, IL-2 and Su-2 in the middle of 1941 are already proving ground tests without similar "trouble."

The above actions are not random — particularly against the background of the events, was the modernization of aircraft Sat Aerodynamic improvements to SB-RK — test results MCM 2M-105 and SB-2M RK-105, which took place in the middle of 1939 and 1940 and the aircraft SBB, tests which were modifications in the SB. According to the decree of 01.06.1940, the CO number 240, an aircraft factory number 22 to 15/08/1940, the aircraft must line up three SB-RK improved the aerodynamics of the reference standard. They must have the highest altitude display speed of 490 km / h, and have in store a strength of 8.5.

The construction and equipment of the reference SB-RK:
— installed on the nose of the aircraft MCM "F-1", which showed good aerodynamics on the tests;
— set smaller (height) canopy gunner-radio operator "turtle";
— trim between 4and 8 formers performed balinitovoy of plywood glued together with wood glue bulkhead parts 5,6,7 VIM;
— establish sub-frame advanced design;
— motors have improved hoods;
— used in the construction of aircraft vodoradiatory ribbed-tube type;
— installed brand new system of oil supply — a water-oil and one air-oil radiators for each motor;
— upgraded oil-benzo tanks installed tanks each have a capacity of 330 liters.;
— set screws (D = 3m) with a variable pitch VISH-22E;
— for aiming at bombing without picks set sights NKPB-3 and SB-1M;
— to make pickup bombs on the target set by swordplay PBP-1, the attitude indicator and overload indicator;
— set lattice planes under braking at the hydraulic control;
— Machine to exit out of the dive;

Dive Bomber Archangel - AP-2

Armament SB-RK:
— ShKAS gun sight with a mechanical type ball mount on the nose, 500 rounds ammunition;
— ShKAS gun with red dot sight of K-8T in the back of the installation TSS-1 top performance. A thousand rounds ammunition;
— ShKAS gun with an eye type OP-2L in the lower turret retractable type MB-2. Ammunition 600 rounds;
— one ton bomb load, maximum 1.5 tonnes. FAB-250 — up to 4 units or FAB-500 and 3 units in swordplay, and FAB-500 to 3 units or FAB-250 and units, or 12 units to 100 kilogram bombs horizontal bombing;
— chemical weapons — 2 VAP-500 (up to 1,000 pounds) and the pouring type 2 UHAP-500 (up to 100 kilograms) of the generic type. Perhaps the introduction of at least some types of materials and consistencies were in service;

ive Bomber Archangel - AP-2

First tests SB-RK reference standard starting in the autumn of 1940. After the 10-ka flight revealed major shortcomings:
— water and oil temperatures in flight did not drop less than 95 degrees;
— longitudinal stability was insufficient.
On the aircraft continued to set the standards of advanced equipment and machines. State tests are completed first in 1941. The reference standard SB-RK Order No. 704 of 09.12. 1940 renamed the plane AP-2. The results of state tests:
— AP-2 — the weight of 6.6 tons;
— 10 km altitude ceiling;
— range of actions under arms with 2 FAB-250 at an altitude of 5 km and a speed of 390 km / h — a thousand miles;
— 5 km climb — a little more than 7 minutes;
— the maximum speed achieved at the height of 4.7 km — 475 km / h;
— run-up on the runway — 340 meters.

The longitudinal instability was solved "peretsentrovkoy" — factory 30.5-32.7 percent of MAR required to change for 27.25 percent of the MAR. The stern of the tests have shown that can be fully continue the flight to the 1st zadrosselivannym motor. Features dives conducted on state tests:
— number of dives conducted — 25;
— Dive angles — 40 degrees 75;
— speed before the dive — up to 300 km / h;
— elapsed before the dive height — 4 km;
— the rate of emergence of a dive — 550 km / h;
— average overload — 4.5.
— while the straight section, which provides precision bombing -9 seconds.

Dive Bomber Archangel - AP-2

The main shortcomings of the aircraft — the creation of the shortcomings of rotary-wing groups. At the trials due to damage motor systems, they are often out of order, the cooling system should have low limits, and in the winter it became difficult to operate the machine. Vodoradiatory were made without the usual ability to drain the water. Remained unresolved question of overheating the oil and water. Note that in the upcoming CB A. Arkhangelsky still had brought to the brain rotary-wing group in the AP-2.

February 1941. On state tests come Ar-2 at No. 1/511. Configurations made to the aircraft:
— motors endure forward by 15 cm to provide longitudinal stability;
— set screws VIT1T-22E (D = 3.1 m);
— exhaust pipes and brake lattice made thinner;
— improved the overall quality of the ready aircraft.
This ultimately led to the increase in the speed of aircraft: by adjustment 5 km it showed 512 km / h But the creation of this aircraft was not a priority, other planes that pass the tests and development, held under the motto typical "rate increase." As a result, the bombers holding oversized high-speed features that would not be fully used for the intended purpose — the required minimum load is reduced by half.

At the beginning of WW2 Reddish Army had in its composition of about 160-165 aircraft Ar-2 2M-105. Due to poor organization between aviation and ground forces, bad training of officers and crews, "the pursuit of victory," the lack of an implementation strategy bomber capable aircraft Ar-2 is not fully utilized. A lack of strategy covering fighters led to the end of 1941, most Ap-2 was lost.

In 1941 he was stopped production of AP-2 in favor of mass-produced bomber Pe-2. While many leaders and experts at Air Force and Navy were treated Ar-2 as a main dive bomber type, and the Pe-2 as a fighter escort him away, everything happened, on the contrary, with the next stop production of Ar-2. Total from 1939 to 1941, was built about 200 dive-bombers of the Archangel.

Dive Bomber Archangel - AP-2

TTX PB Ar-2:
— wing span of 18 meters;
— length of 12.5 meters;
The height of 3.5 meters;
— Weight empty / normal / max — 4.5/6.6/8.1 ton;
— Control — two PD "M-150r" total power 2200 hp;
— Team — 3 people;
— armament 7.62 mm machine gun ShKAS — 4 units, the required load (bombs) — up to 1.6 tonnes.

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