Scientists are studying the language of animals. What for? To talk to them? No. The main purpose is different: to understand the logic of non-human, then to use it to decrypt the message representatives of extraterrestrial intelligence.
How to recognize a reasonable signal
Suppose that scientists intercepted talks aliens, or directly receive messages from them. How to decipher them? Or at least recognize a cacophony of cosmic signals? This is seriously thinking Lawrence Doyle of the Institute for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI Institute) in Mountain View, California. He proposed an original method by which it was found out that the dolphins say naѕ extraterrestrial language.
To make sense of these marine animals whistle, Doyle with experts in animal behavior from the University of California at Davis used the methods commonly employed in the art of communication. They are based — mathematical techniques that allow us to analyze any sequence of characters, whether it's a series of DNA bases, numbers, letters or phrases for the content of its information.
First, you need to understand that you are dealing with a signal that indeed carries information, not just random noise. The way to determine whether it makes sense in a strange message, developed at Harvard linguist George Zipf. He calculated how many times in a typical English text are different letters. After all, in meaningful text can not stand several consecutive identical characters they meet with some frequency. And then the scientist has built a schedule for the number of occurrences of letters in a certain order and in a logarithmic scale, and turned sloping line with slope equal to 1 (see chart). For texts in other languages slope was prepared in the same. A totally random string of letters that do not carry any information on the chart is horizontal, without tilting. That is, any abracadabra that passed through the sieve of mathematical formulas, such a graph will show a zero result.
So, scientists have studied the dolphin whistle, using the method of Zipf, and received the same slope as that of the human language, that is, having information! But "talk" was much more primitive monkeys. She could hardly hold out to the coefficient of -0.6. So, dolphins are closer to us in intelligence, do scientists concluded. Now it is up to understand what they want to tell us these "whistlers."
Who whistles on the moon of Jupiter?
Around these marine animals have long made up a lot of striking hypotheses. One of the latest advanced astronomer Simon Clark, who works at the Kennedy Space Center. According to him, delfinyѕ are indigenous inhabitants of one of the moons of Jupiter. "Forget about the" little green men "- the most intelligent creatures after a man in our solar system may be the dolphins" — said the scientist at a press conference in Florida in early January.
The fact is that when a few years ago, NASA launched the space station "Galileo" flew from Jupiter's moon Europa is just 400 km, its sensitive radio detectors fixed under the ice in the ocean some movement and sound sensors caught coming straight from Ice whistle. Then the directive from the higher echelons of NASA obliged to classify all the data on the program "Galileo". Therefore, details of discoveries became known only recently.
— Once these facts have been transferred to the earth and subjected to a thorough computer analysis — said Clark — scientists were amazed. Audiograph showed that the frequency of the sounds coming out of the ocean in Europe, was identical to the sounds of the earth izdavaemymѕ dolphins! The probability of error is 0.001%.
Although at present it is impossible to say that for being "talking" in the oceans of Europa, scientists hypothesize that distant Jupiter live organisms, similar to the conventional terrestrial dolphins.
In a secret ocean laboratory located on the coast of Florida, marine biologists are now conducting complex experiments. They give a listen to the tape of the mysterious "European" dolphin sounds, trying to get them to understand the language of the alien creatures. Then with the next expedition to Jupiter went there recording "conversations" dolphins, which will be broadcast to Europe via radio transmitters.
We have a "brother" a lot in common
Maybe people do and Dolphins — the most intelligent beings in the universe? With this question, we turned to the researcher of the Laboratory of Bioacoustics Vladislav Tarchevskaya, which for many years has been the problem of acoustic communication dolphins.
— It may well be! — Was not surprised by Vladislav A.. — These creatures are fraught with extraordinary opportunities. Frequency range of sound signals in dolphins significantly overlaps that of a man. Judge for yourself: if our audio communication takes place in a frequency band up to 20 kHz (and the musicians are able to distinguish up to 40 kHz), the dolphins have this "ceiling" raised up to 300 kHz. Moreover, as a result of our research was that our "brothers" about the same levels of the organization of sounds, and how much a person six. Sound, syllable, word, sentence, paragraph, context. In humans, the meaning arises from the third level, that is a word. But what level it starts at the dolphin, we do not know yet. But the complexity of the organization of sounds in human and dolphin almost identical. In general, there are many notable parallels between the two species — Homo sapiens and Orcinus orca. They, like us, who can eat anything, but they do not attack anybody. Their lifespan is about the same as that of the people they mature at the same age, is very outgoing, live in families. And they have their own dialects — something like our languages.
Happiness — is when you understand
The next in line for the study of non-human languages are killer whales, crows and jays. Thus, considering the complexity of communication, "our little brothers" on Earth, scientists hope in the future to understand the language and "fellow human beings" from space. Science fiction writer Stanislaw Lem said in an interview: "No one can imagine might look like an alien. Maybe it will be much easier to find a common language with a whale or a dog than a person. "
Whose languages are still being studied by scientists?
Cuttlefish makes eyes
Scientists are trying to decipher the information that passes through the cuttlefish pictures on his body. John Anderson of the University of Sussex, taking pictures of the mollusk at the aquarium, very surprised when cuttlefish emuѕ winked! It turned out that the two black spots appear at her from behind with a sense of threat, and in "good spirits" in the center of the body comes through the white square. Scientists are puzzled: why this plainness essentially complex language of symbols?
Elephants communicate feet
And elephants "talk", stamping their feet on the ground. This is the conclusion zoologist Lynette Hart of Stanford University. With the help of these seismic signals they discourage "telegrams" type "Where are you?" To their brethren. And then listen to the answer, dying on the spot, leaning forward and raising one leg. The fact is that if one rear leg, the pressure increase on the other limb — and this helps to listen. After all, the vibration caused by the excited whisper, apply to 32 km. And the ears of elephants can hear each other at a distance of not more than 10 km.
Svetlana COUSIN February 4, 2004 g