First in the world of underwater minelayer CRAB (part 2)

Part 1

First combat sortie UW mine layer "CRAB"

When the first global war, the Black Sea Fleet obviously superior to the power of the navy of Turkey. But 12 days after the start of the war (Turkey was still neutral) to Constantinople (Istanbul) came two German ship — the battle cruiser "Goeben" and the light cruiser "Breslau" that erupted in the eastern Mediterranean by ships of England and France, and then went through Straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus to the Dark Sea. "Goeben" is a modern battle cruiser armed with 10 guns caliber 280 — mm, and has a velocity of 28 knots.

At the same time, the Black Sea Fleet consisted only of obsolete battleships, any of whom was armed with 4 305-mm guns (a battleship "Rostislav" — 4-254-mm guns), their speed did not exceed 16 knots. All Russian armored brigade of ships on the number of guns of large caliber artillery armament superior battlecruiser "Goeben," but he, in The advantage of using the speed was always able to avoid the Russian squadron. Present-day Russian ships were under construction in Nikolaev, and neither one of them when the war was not ready. It is clear, therefore intrigued by Russian Black Sea Fleet Command fleet replenishment of these ships.

In the summer of 1915 was due to come into service the first of these battleships — "Empress Maria" (12 guns of 305 mm and 20 guns of 130 mm). But first the transition from Nikolaev to Sevastopol ship had to make another untested with cerebral caliber gun turrets. Naturally, the transition it can be deemed to have been in this case preclude meeting battleship "Empress Maria" with the German battle cruiser "Goeben". In order to ensure that this transition is "Empress Maria" in Sevastopol, had the idea to block the "Goeben" out in the dark sea. To do this it was necessary to secretly put in the Bosporus minefield. More suitable for such setting mines nearby enemy coast could be underwater minelayer. That is why the implementation of the tasks entrusted to the submarine was "Crab" is not yet completed their own tests.

June 25, 1915 at 07.00 "Crab" under the commercial flag with 58 mines and torpedoes on board 4 cast off.
On the layers, not including military personnel, were: Chief Shark team captain V.E.Klochkovsky, flagship navigator Lieutenant M.V.Parutsky team captain and was commissioning the plant mechanical engineer Lieutenant V.S.Lukyanov (the latter went hiking in the voluntarily). Suppressor accompanied the new submarine "Walrus", "Seal" and "Seal".
According to the acquired instructions Submarine "Crab" had to put a minefield for the ability to strip Bosporus beacons (Rumeli Fener-and Anatoli-Fener) up to 1 mile. Submarine "Nerpa" was to close the Bosporus with remainder (east), being in a lighthouse Shealy (on the Anatolian coast of Turkey, east of the Bosporus) Submarine "Seal" was to hang on to the news (west) of the Bosphorus, and the submarine "Walrus" — take a position against the very Bosporus.
In 0920, while on the parallel of Cape Sarich, PL "Crab" has set its sights on the Bosphorus. Submarine "Walrus", "Seal" and "Seal" were going to wake column, with the head Submarine "Seal" was on the port beam "Crab". The weather was clear. Wind 2 points. PL "Crab" went under with 2 kerosene engines starboard. After a few hours of work meant to go on the left of the shaft motors in order to look around first and put in order.

From 10 up to 11 hours spent artillery and small exercise: were tested with 37-mm cannon and machine guns. At noon, on the orders of the submarine crew chief were raised military flag and pennant. At 20.00 submarines began to diverge, so that in the dark as not to embarrass each other in maneuvering. During the day they again had to encounter.
PL "Crab", wielding a faster rate than other submarines came to the meeting point in the morning on June 26, earlier than his company submarines. Because to use the free time, the motors stopped and made a dive and trimming minelayer "Crab". When immersed found that the "Crab" loses buoyancy aft. As it turned out, aft trimming tanks filled with water due to the fact that the neck of the tank was leaking water out of options. I had to swim out and change the tires on the neck of the tank. The damage was corrected and again started trimming.
During the trimming found impossible to pump water from one tank to another Trim due to low power pump. When you ascend minelayer remaining in the superstructure lowered the water through the pipes
In the hold, but it turned out that it happens very slowly, so we had to open the mouth of the trim aft tank and drain the water into it, and then pump out the water cannon it overboard.

At 10.50 submarines were all assembled. After udefferentovaniya "Crab" submarine "Nerpa" and "seal" headed to the position data, and the submarine "Walrus", as his position was outlined against the Bosphorus, followed with "Crab". To the Bosphorus remained 85 miles. Captain Klochkovsky mine is planned to produce the statement in the evening twilight, so that in the event of possible failures and defects minelayer in the time of or directly after the NIGHT MODE remained a reserve of time. Because he decided to make a statement of mine day or later in the evening, that is, June 27.
At 14.00 motors allowed, and then gave the course and immediately began to charge the battery. At 20.00 submarine "Walrus" is gone, having received instruction on the subsequent morning encounter against the Bosphorus, but out of sight of the submarine from the shore. June 27 at 00.00 battery charging completed (adopted 3000 A-hours), engines stalled, and "Crab" stood in place until 0400, after that he went to a low speed. At 06.30 on the nose opened store, and 07.35 in the right abeam seemed submarine "Walrus". At 09.00-sparing virtually disappeared in the darkness of light. "Crab" is 28 miles from the Bosphorus Strait. The motors have been stalled, and then at 11.40, after lunch, again been started, but already on the screw and charging to mine for the upcoming production of the batteries were fully charged. At 16.15 is 11 miles from the lighthouse Rumeli Fener-stalled motors and started sinking at 16.30, and after 20 minutes was given submerged speed of 4 knots. Head of the team decided to put the submarine minefield Anatoli from the lighthouse to the lighthouse-Fener Rumeoli-Fener, and not the contrary, as in the latter case, the error in the speed of the submarine "Crab" could pop up on the Anatolian saved.

Determination of the place in a submarine periscope performed. But for that to yourself to be found, was in the cabin crew chief of the submarine periscope was taking bearings, exposing it to the surface only for a few seconds, then count on a circle he passed the flagship navigator, who led the plotting.
At 18.00 minelayer was 8 miles from Anatoli-Fener. It was at a depth of 50 feet (15.24 m), measured from the keel of the submarine to the surface. Then dive depth increment of up to 60 feet (18.29 m). At 19.00 when deciding where minelayer (the periscope) across the strait was found Turkish patrol boat, who was in the minelayer of 10 cables. But the attack of the steamer captain I rank Klochkovsky refused, fearing to find himself by setting disrupt minefield. By increasing the depth of 65 feet (19.8 m) to pass under the keel of the Turkish ship, the "Crab" set course 180 degrees.
In was in the minelayer 1
9.55 13.75 cab from the lighthouse Anatoli-Fener. At 20.10 started setting min. After 11.5 minutes suppressor slightly touched the ground. Because the head of the submarine crews tried to put a minefield can be closer to the beacons, he introduced what came to touch Rumelian shallows. Because Klochkovsky immediately ordered to put the steering wheel on the right side, to suspend the mine elevator and blow high-pressure tank. The sign at this point last mines have not yet been set.
At 20.22 followed by a strong push, followed by a few others. Suppressor swam up to 45 feet. (13.7 m), with a large trim on the nose, but then does not pop up, apparently hitting the nose for something. Then purged with an average tank and stalled progress to allow the submarine escape and wound minrepy on the screw (if suppressor hit the minefield). After a moment, "Crab" floated up to half cutting, having a course to north. In the porthole cabin on the port side show up at dusk lighthouse Rumeli-Fener …
At 20.24 minelayer sank again, increasing the speed to 5.25 knots.
After a moment when you try to put the "final mine," it turned out that the pointer worked inaccurate: the mine was put into place just before touching the ground. Minelayer speed was reduced to 65 ft (19.8 m) in order to pass freely under the keel of ships colliding and a probable mine barrage.
At 20.45 "Crab" increase speed to 4.5 knots., To quickly retreat from the Bosphorus, as there were huge and there was a different of the assumption that the submarine hull is damaged. At 21.50 I rank Klochkovsky captain gave the order to swim. Upon surfacing, the head of the brigade, along with the commander of the submarine came up at the bridge. It was gloomy. Circle can not see anything: a dark band on the shore near the Strait appeared outbreak of fire, but the west of it — weak flickering light … including ventilation submarines and allowed those in need in the most fresh air go up, and these were, especially in the aft compartment layers, where there were kerosinomotory … This is what wrote in his report the commander of the submarine's own art. Lieutenant L.K.Fenshou: "In view of the shortcomings of time left before you dive into the Bosphorus view, could not be cooled as kerosinomotory and went under the water with hot motors.
From the highest temperature emanating from them and from hot elektromotoroy prolonged 6-hour course underwater, there were significant vapor emissions of kerosene and oil, so strong that it is not only in the stern of the submarine, where most of the team mad, but even in the wheelhouse, where there were chief of the submarine crew, the flagship navigator, vertical manager and commander of the submarine, very watery eyes and breathing was difficult, so that after surfacing submarine of the team went out on deck, and I. senior mechanical engineer warrant officer Ivanov carried in a semi-conscious state. "
At 23.20 launched kerosinomotory starboard, and after 25 minutes — kerosinomotory port side. Head of the team was to give the commander submarine "Walrus" the agreed radiogram, but it could not be done, because during the course of the underwater minelayer antenna broke.

The forthcoming voyage Submarine "Crab" to Sevastopol came without incident. They were afraid just is not enough lubricating oil, as its flow rate was more than anticipated. Recently, there was a sudden, because more April 8, when tested on surface minelayer move the committee found it necessary to change the device for lubricating bearings and stubborn to put the refrigerator for cooling the oil flowing, then, but to a true campaign did not have time to do.
In the approach to Sevastopol on June 29 in 07.39 minelayer "Crab", sold with a squadron of the Black Sea Fleet from Sevastopol published. Head Brigade submarine fleet commander informed on a combat mission wavetraps. In 0800 once again raised the flag commercial, and 09.30 "Crab" otshvartovalsya at the base in the South Bay.

First campaign showed that the frequency barriers inherent in a significant number of structural defects, such as: the complexity of the dive, resulting in a dive up to 20 minutes; clutter PL mechanisms, the highest temperature in the rooms at work kerosinomotorov and harmful to their evaporation, making it difficult the work of the personnel of the minelayer. In addition, it should be borne in mind that the personnel did not have time before going to learn how to craft a complex device such as a minelayer. Only urgent and fundamental mission led commanders to send more, in fact, is not quite finished the construction of a so-layer responsible campaign.

Thanks to the ingenuity and complete peace of mind, as hard and dedicated work of the personnel of the submarine, eliminating a lot of flaws, managed to perform a given operation. Indeed, when in the evening on June 27 during a mine-productions followed 4 bumps in the nose of the minelayer and current mine elevator motor has significantly improved, there is concern that the fuse of the auxiliary circuit and stop all the auxiliary machinery, while stopping minelayer and the ongoing work of the elevator mines will be put under the stern of the submarine. Lieutenant V.V.Kruzenshtern immediately suspended the elevator, thus avoiding the threat. At the same time, during the strikes ended up working the greatest switch hydroplanes. Managing boatswain's mate N. Tokarev, instantly realizing what is shifted from the handlebars turned razomknuvshiysya greatest switch than pinned-layer from the huge and unsafe trims. Midshipman N.A.Monastyrev, fearing that the shock can be damaged by torpedo tubes and ballast tank, has taken the necessary measures: given the order to keep alert and compressed air pump for pumping water. Despite the severe lethargy and migraines — symptoms ugoraniya — Mechanical Engineer Warrant Officer M.P.Ivanov always in the middle of the team and encouraged everyone.
Deliverer of the plant mechanical engineer V.S.Lukyanov, appearing at the right time in the compartments and giving directions, helped normal operation of devices minelayer.

For the successful execution of a mission statement on the Bosporus min officers were promoted to the rank or awarded. The commander of the submarine "Crab" L.K.Fenshou was promoted to the rank of captain 2 rank flagship navigator submarine crews M.V.Parutskogo made to the rank of lieutenant, N.A.Monastyreva made a lieutenant, M.P.Ivanova — to engineer Mechanical — lieutenant.
Awarded medals: V.E.Klochkovsky — Order of Vladimir 3rd degree with swords, V.V.Kruzenshterna — Order of Ann 3 ystepeni, M.P.Ivanova — Order of Stanislav third degree. Later, the order of the commander of the Black Sea Fleet from September 26, 1915 I. senior officer Lt. minelayer. V.V.Kruzenshtern was awarded the George tool for the fact that "at the time of the minefield of the valiant and selfless work of the submarine brought critical position than contributed to the success of combat operations. During this campaign, and also bestowed sailors: crosses of St. George — 8 persons, St. George's Medal — 10 people, the medal "For diligence" -12 people.

The next day, after setting mines found by the Turks floated mines barrage, which was put Submarine "Crab". Picking up one of them, the Germans realized that the mines supplied submarines. Division minesweepers immediately started trawling, and 3 July commandant Bosphorus informed that minefield eliminated.
But it was a very hasty conclusion: to "etched" fence was blown nose Turkish gunboat "Isa Flight." It was towed to shore and rescued.

July 5, 1915 went out to meet four Turkish steamers with coal cruiser "Breslau". At 10 miles to the north-east of Cape Kara-Burnu East, he was blown up by a mine, taking 642 tons of water inside (with displacement of 4550 tons). This minefield was exposed in December 1914, the mine-layers BSF — "Alex&q
uot;, "Jora", "Constantine" and "Xenia". Under the protection of minesweepers cruiser "Breslau" entered the Bosphorus, and stood in the dock in the wall. His repair took a few months, and in February 1916 he entered the system. It was a significant loss to the German-Turkish fleet, given that in its composition of light cruisers remained the only low-speed "Hamidi." Battle cruiser "Goeben" in this period did not come out in the dark sea, as it was decided to use only in the latter cases. The reason for such solutions — shortage of coal caused by the fighting Russian ships in the coal region of the Anatolian coast.

July 23, 1915 Battleship "Empress Maria" came safely from Nikolaev to Sevastopol.
After returning minelayer "Crab" in Sevastopol on it until August repaired and eliminated the imperfections left out because of an urgent campaign to combat.

After the repair, 20-21 August 1915, he went to sea. First, in December came from the commander of the Black Sea Fleet disposal to "crab" in the case of suitable weather came on mine setting, and then — blocked the port Zunguldak.
December 10 minelayer "Crab" went to sea to meet the commander of the Black Sea Fleet of the order, but due to stormy weather on December 12 had to return to Sevastopol. So Makarov, in recent months, 1915 "Crab" did not hold minefields. In August, Captain 2nd Rank L.K.Fenshou was assigned ID Chief of the 1st Division of the submarine, which included "crab", "walrus", "Seal" and "Seal". In October 1915 the commander of "Crab" was appointed art. lt. Misha Parutskogo Vasilyevich (genus in 1886, finished in 1910 diving course) — the flagship of the navigator Underwater Brigade, previously served as commander of the submarine, and in 1912 — Deputy Head of Division submarine on the technical side. Instead of Mechanical Engineers lt. M.P.Ivanova was nominated for "Crab" mechanical engineer P.I.Nikitin midshipman, who served as a senior mechanical engineer from February to October 1916
In February 1916 the "Crab" was ordered to put mine on the Bosporus. February 25 at 17.10 he left Sevastopol under Brady pennant Chief Shark Brigade Captain 1st Rank Klochkovsky. But because of the stormy weather two days later, on February 27 at 20.45, "minelayer was obliged to return to Sevastopol.

June 28, 1916 he was appointed commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Vice Admiral AV Kolchak (instead of Admiral A.A.Ebergardta), on which the rate and the governor lozhili great expectations.
In the implementation of the directive, it was decided to put Betting minefield on the Bosporus. To make the task outlined minelayer "Crab" and four new destroyers of the 1st Battalion — "Restless", "furious", "cheeky" and "piercing". The first had to put mine, "crab", and then on the near approaches to the strait — the destroyers. The last boom was supposed to put in the 20-40 cab from the entrance to the Bosphorus in 3 bands. In June, before the campaign to combat the Bosphorus "Crab" made 6 exits to the sea, and in July, specifically before the campaign — two outputs (11 and 13 July). July 17 at 06.40 submarine minelayer "Crab" under the command of Art. lt. M.V.Parutskogo and under Brady pennant Chief Shark Brigade Captain 1st Rank V. Klochkovsky left Sevastopol to the Bosphorus, having on board 60 min and 4 torpedoes. Responsibilities of senior mechanical engineer executable machine jig Yu.Pusner. The weather was clear. The wind from the north-residual force of 1 point. After recharging the afternoon made Accum. As usual, the campaign was accompanied by a minelayer tragedies: 18 July 0030 in the second cylinder burst shirt kerosinomotora aft starboard. Under the direction of Pusnera damage has been eliminated, and in 0300 launched all 4 motors. After 2 hours revealed new damage: mine machine jig P.Kolenov found that ripped lashing iron wire taps mine nose. Colenov grabbed on the run these outlets, and so makarom this damage has been eliminated. Suppressor approaching the Bosphorus. At 12:30 opened its shores. As to the Strait remained 18 miles, captain Klochkovsky decided to continue sailing in the positional position. Kerosinomotory were stalled. PL was vented. At 13.45 minelayer sank under the water and udifferenovalsya. Have been tried and tested hydroplanes control submarine underwater.
At 14.10 the average tank flushed and fled to the positional status. After 5 minutes, was put right kerosinomotor. When left to the Bosphorus 12 miles, the engine was again ground to a halt; submarine re-vented. Cooled engines, and 16.00 was given an underwater passage at a depth of 12 m time approached mine production. The weather was suitable: wind Northeast 3 — 4 points, white scallops. At 19.50, when the suppressor is 4.5 cab from Rumeli — Fener, Klochkovsky gave the order to begin setting mine and submarine gradually go to the left with the calculation of the demolition of the right, as it has been found rather weak for at West.
By 20.08 placing all 60 minutes was over. The barrier was put up to the south of the strip, joining Capes Yum Burnu and Rodiget, ie in the way of enemy warships, the channel which at last count was held on the north wind to the Cape Poyras. The boom came to the western wing of Rumelian shoals and oriental — did not reach the 6 cab to the Anatolian coast. Remained open only fairway commercial vessels of the enemy. The mines have been exposed at a depth of 6 m from the surface.
After the mine production of "Crab" lay down on the revolving course, going underwater. At 21.30, when quite dark, medium tank was purged, and ran into a positional-layer position, and at 22.15 7 miles from Anatoli-Fener was purged all the main ballast, and the "Crab" defected to the cruising position. After 15 minutes were started kerosinomotory. July 19, 0600 began charging BATTERY, and at 13.00 there was a tragedy: shirt burst fourth cylinder kerosinomotora starboard. I had to lock the starboard engines and stop the charge Accum. But the misfortunes did not end: at 21.00 nasal port side engine burst circuit for the pump.
Motor began to cool battery pump. July 20, 0800 stalled kerosinomotory: from fuel tanks, water came out … I had to give a radio message to the headquarters of the Navy, asking for a tow. But after an hour managed to keep the engine aft port side and PL "Crab" went his own way. On the nose eventually opened saved. At the headquarters of the Navy sent a telegram newest l that the suppressor will reach the base without the help of others. At 11.30 "Crab" lay down the course on the Chersonese lighthouse. Hassle-free repair the damage was commissioned second kerosinomotor.

After 10 minutes, came wavetraps port vessel "Dneprovets" (made submarine escort role), to follow him to the Kherson lighthouse. At 14.45 "Crab" otshvartovalsya alongside the vessel, the submarine base in Sevastopol. So ended the second war patrol the world's first underwater mine layer.

18 August 1916 preparations began for "Crab" to the newcomer campaign. By 13.00 it was submerged for 38 minutes, but suddenly one of the mines gave skewed and jammed in a mine elevator. Because of this it was necessary to dismantle part of the elevator. During the night the elevator was again assembled, and by the following day or 08.00 min loading continued. By 13.00 all 60 minutes have been shipped to the minelayer.
August 20, 1916 at 00.50 "Crab" left Sevastopol and headed to Varna. First, the weather was calm, but by evening zasvezhelo, and by midnight the storm broke out. The waves fell upon-layer, propellers
began to become bare. As usual, began to fail kerosinomotory. At 01.40 kerosinomotor had to suspend the starboard side for inspection and repair of damage. Meanwhile, the wind increased to 6 points. PL put along to a wave. By 0400 roll reached 50 degrees. From the beginning Accum pour acid in the batteries decreased insulation resistance and failed a number of electric mechanisms. In the wardroom to break up the table. The team became seasick. Do people work in the motor languid criteria: the highest temperature, evaporation, and the smell of kerosene oil burned out … Because of the uneven load weakened pitching for the pump circuit. I had to go under the electric motors. At 05.35 kerosinomotory managed to re-start. But at 06.40 broke the chain pump — kerosinomotor starboard quite out of order. PL went slow speed under the influence of feed motor port side. At this time, the submarine "Crab" is located 60 miles from Constanta.
At 09.00 due to clogging oil lines perenagrelsya stubborn left-shaft bearing. On the battleship "Rostislav" standing in Constanta, a radio message was directed to ask for help. Wind came up 8 points. At noon, the "Crab" was 11 miles from the Cape Shabla. Installation of mine had to turn away, and to "Rostislav" sent a second telegram that the suppressor is in Constanta for repair. At 13.00, in spite of the increased cooling, warmed kerosinomotory port side. I had to turn them off. Submarine went under the electric motors. At 15:30, the lighthouse Tuzla "Crab"Met with exiled to his aid EM" sacred "and following him in line, passed the Romanian minefield and entered the port of Constanta.
During the stay "Crab" in the port of Constanta on the seaplanes were raided enemy. First raid was carried out on August 22 in the afternoon between 08.00 and 09.00. "Crab" managed to dive under the water and during the raid was lying on the ground. But in a raid August 25, 1916 did not have time to dive suppressor. Fortunately, everything went well.
August 27 "Crab" was ordered to put minefield in southern approach to Varna (closer to the lighthouse Galata). Experience has shown that kerosinomotory may fail at any moment, so decided: "Crab" destroyer will be towed to a point located on the coast about 22 miles. Then he followed without the help of others to the site mine posing with the calculation to arrive there to sunset. After setting mine-layer initially submerged, and then, with the coming of darkness will go to the meeting point with the destroyer. Tow "Crab" was the purpose of the EM "Furious."
August 28, 1916 minelayer "Crab" udifferentovali in the harbor and to the 22.30 he was willing to accept a tow em. In view of the fact that the "Crab" there was no towing, tug brought through anchor-hole PL.
August 29 at 01.00 Submarine "Crab" in tow EM "Furious" while accompanying trawlers came from Constanta. In 0530 minesweepers were sent away, and the destroyer minelayer and followed without the help of others to Fri destination. It was a beautiful sunny day. The weather was favorable to a campaign. In 0600 the commander of minelayer "Crab" Art. Lieutenant M.V.Parutsky asked destroyer lock the machine to throw the tow rope. When the team chose a submarine cable, "Vicious" suddenly gave full speed. Tow rope jerked, he obtyanuli and cut through the deck superstructure over 0.6 m destroyer opened fire. It turned out that there were two in the air seaplane opponent. Some of them went to the "Crab" and tried to go down, but the destroyer "Furious" with their fire is not allowed to do it.
But the "Crab" could not dive because it prevented the rope dangling on the nose submarines. Seaplane took off near 8 bombs, but none of them failed to make the suppressor. Thanks apt fire destroyer "Vicious", one of the planes was hit. Seaplanes have departed, having spent in store bombs. Attack enemy aircraft failed, and the installation of mine was frustrated because enemy found our ships. It is now the "Crab" was without the help of others. By adopting a new in store bomb enemy planes appeared again over the layers, but the "Crab" managed to dive and attack the enemy was again without result.
At 15.30 suppressor safely otshvartovalsya in Constanta.
By 16.30 the forces of the port superstructure minelayer "Crab" was renovated and towing it established a large hook. In order not to expose more attack aircraft decided to go out in the evening from Constanta. Who is more of an old-layer accompanied destroyer "Resounding". When on August 31 at 17.50 "Crab" came to "boomy" to start the lift, it was not possible. Broke hook. Hike postponed until the next day or.

1 September at 18.30 "crab" now being towed EM "Furious" came from Constanta. At 20.00 the ship at a speed of 10 knots were 2 miles from the lighthouse Tuzla. Home freshen. At 21.00 ripped the tow rope. After 2.5 hours, he was taken again.
2 September 0600 to the wind died down. Dali towline. Having agreed on a rendezvous with layers, EM "Furious" left. At noon, the "Crab" came to Cape Emine. At 15.00 ready to dive. Weather turned bad again: the freshest blew north-north-west, which is spread with a little wave crests. Immersed, "Crab" was at periscope depth at 3.5 knots. At 16.30 in order to reduce the path of Art. Lieutenant Parutsky decided to pass under a barrage of enemy mine, which, according to available data, it was delivered. He did not succeed. At 19.10 "Crab" was in the cab 16 of the lighthouse Galata. Preserving the evening was to hide in the dark. Approaching the lighthouse at 5 cable, minelayer began setting min. Once earned mine elevator, suddenly heard the clang of iron superstructure, and the elevator rose. Included it in the other direction, and then again to stage min. First, the load has increased dramatically — up to 60 A (instead of conventional 10 A), and then the elevator started to work normally. At 19.18, when the index showed that delivered 30 minutes, setting torn off, and after 30 minutes again resumed.
At 19.28 all the mines according to the index, have been exposed. The air in the submarine completely spoiled. Breathing became difficult. Because the tank was purged with high-pressure and vented through a submarine conning-tower hatch. All was quite bleak.
At 21.15 3 miles from the coast began to drain the cerebral ballast tanks, surface-layer was, but for all that his inclination is always increasing and headed for 10 degrees. When clarifying the circumstances of the emergence of this slope established that the right shop min left in place because of the mine shop at the exit of the superstructure at the aft door jammed loopholes. Because of the tragedy because the right elevator was not exposed to all the mines, as demonstrated pointer, and only 30 min. Mines are placed in two bands at intervals of 61 m (200 feet). Relied instead of 30.5 m (100 ft). The slope of 10 degrees to starboard and iridescent water forced the commander in the superstructure "Crab" to fill the propellant left side. Jammed in the right elevator mine decided not to touch until dawn. Under kerosinomotorami at 6 knots suppressor walked away from the coast and headed for a rendezvous with the EM "Furious." At the dawn of a mine in the elevator with the right precautions bolshennymi rasklinili and closed the door aft loopholes.

September 3 0600 "Crab" met EM "Furious" and took with him a tow rope. At 7 miles from Constanta "Crab" stormed seaplanes opponents, dropping 21 bombs, but they did not cause him any harm.
September 4 at 18:00 both ships safely arrived in Sevastopol.
Assessing the final statement of mine, produced by underwater minelayer "Crab" Comm
ander of the Black Sea Fleet in its own report on the actions of the fleet 1 to September 15, 1916, said: "According to the difficulty in that demanded accuracy puteischisleniya because the distance between the shore and the Bulgarian fence does not exceed one mile, and problems in many submarine commander believe execution "Crab" tasks assigned to him, in spite of a number of previous failures, an outstanding feat. "
For setting minutes from the Bosphorus July 18 order of the commander of the Black Sea Fleet of 15 November 1916 gave the commander minelayer Art. Lieutenant M.V.Parutskogo George Cross 4th degree, and performed the duties of a senior officer Lieutenant N.A.Monastyreva order dated November 1, 1916 — St. George's gun. Acting officer, warrant officer M.F.Pzhisetsky mine was promoted to lieutenant and was awarded the Order of Vladimir, 4th Class with swords and bow. More of early order dated June 27, 1916 the submarine crew chief Captain 1st rank bestowed V.E.Klochkovskogo St. George weapon.
Commander of the Order of the Black Sea Fleet from October 6, 1916 26-man squad minelayer "Crab" were awarded the George Cross 3 people 3rd degree. 7 people cross of St. George, 4th degree. 3 people of St. George Medal 3rd degree, 13 people of St. George's Medal of 4th degree. Earlier, the fleet commander gave an order that 3 people with the medal "For diligence" and 9 persons medal at Stanislav ribbon.
After that, the campaign commander of the Black Sea Fleet ordered to "get serious repair and alteration of setting mines minelayer" Crab "" as a result of damage to the devices and many design flaws that create insecurity submarine combat mission. "

At the same time, as litsezreem and ended combat operations the world's first underwater mine layer "Crab".
In autumn and winter 1916 there were some changes in the composition of the officer minelayer. Machine Pusner conductor Yu was promoted to second lieutenant of the Admiralty and the Order of the Black Sea Fleet commander appointed minelayer ship's mechanic and mechanical engineer received a midshipman P.I.Nikitin destination for the newest submarine "eagle." Who served as senior officer Lieutenant N.A.Monastyrev September 28th was assigned to the submarine "Sperm Whale" for the same position. After swimming in it, he was given command of the submarine "Skate".

During the war, civilian monastery served in a white and navy shared the fate of other former military officers who opposed his people: he was at the far Bizerte. Here in the years 1921 -1924. Monastyrev released "Bizertsky maritime collection" and began to study the history of the Russian Navy. His service in a white navy completed in November 1924, after France's recognition of the Soviet Union. During the period of exile N.A.Monastyrev written a number of books and articles on the history of the Russian Navy submarine, the study of the Arctic and other issues.
Certainly, extraordinary submarine officer was also the last commander of the submarine "Crab" Captain 2 rank (promoted to this rank in 1917) M.V.Parutsky, and then he was in exile.
It must be emphasized and Chief Shark Brigade Captain 1st Rank (from 1917 Rear Admiral) Viacheslav E. Klochkovsky, who served in the submarine fleet in 1907 he commanded a submarine, and then compounds the submarine. Like the monastery, Klochkovsky served in a white navy, and then ran into the fleet of bourgeois Poland, where in recent years the service was a Polish naval attache in London. In 1928, he retired.

Successes minelayer "Crab" also contributed to the selfless, courageous and experienced service sailors, non-commissioned officers and conductors minelayer during the heaviest fighting campaigns. Convincing proof of this are rewarding their crosses of St. George and medals.

"CRAB" becomes REPAIR

To address the question of the proper maintenance of underwater minelayer "Crab" by order of the chief of the Black Sea Submarine Brigade Captain 1st Rank V.E.Klochkovskogo and under the chairmanship of 7 September 1916 was called Techno Commission. The commission includes: Captain 2nd Rank L.K.Fenshou, senior lieutenants and M.V.Parutsky Yu.L.Afanasev, Lieutenant N.A.Monastyrsky, Ensign M.F.Pzhisetsky, a mechanical engineer art. Lieutenant V.D.Brod (flagship mechanical engineer Submarine Brigade), a mechanical engineer Warrant Officer P.I.Nikitin, Captain TCG S.Ya.Kiverov (flagship naval architect Submarine Brigade).
In the meeting of the Commission participated as representatives of the Sevastopol port: ship's engineer Lieutenant Colonel V.E.Karpov, a mechanical engineer art. Lieutenant F.M.Burkovsky and mechanical engineer Lieutenant NG Golovachyov.

The Commission concluded that the frequency barriers need a complete overhaul because of its inherent flaws:
1) kerosinomotorov time is limited, because quite often have to completely disassemble them;
2) low battery capacity leads to a limitation of underwater cruising range minelayer;
3) electronic wiring is unsatisfactory;
4) while diving submarine large (up to 20 minutes, but more than 12 minutes), for the reason that slowly filled a large superstructure minelayer. In addition, quite unsuccessfully placed bow trimming tanks — above the waterline;
5) The life of a small corps minelayer because of the narrow shell propellants which, because oborzhavleniya fails before plating sturdy enclosure.
It was proposed to address these shortcomings:
1) change the 4 kerosinomotra diesels respective capacities;
2) instead of the 2-core high-voltage electric motors are used to set on the submarine pressure;
3) change the wiring;
4) change the worn-out battery newest high capacity battery from savings in weight during the installation of diesel engines instead kerosinomotorov;
5) revise the head unit of filling the ballast and replace the nose trimming tanks nasal propellants.

The Commission considered that the timely delivery of new devices minelayer repair will take more than about 1 year. Together with that, it gave herself to report that even when such a long repair will be eliminated only certain devices and shortcomings. But the main drawbacks — small surface and underwater speed, small submarine cruising range is also a great dive time — will be eliminated only in part. Taking into account the need for the role of barriers in the real war, the commission, but considered likely limited only by some corrections, to ensure the combat activity of the underwater minelayer.
These corrections were:
1) the substitution of worn-out battery modern, manufactured at the time in the factory;
2) repair of existing electronic wiring, thus make sure the fuse box, easily accessible for inspection;
3) the substitution of the main stations of electric ordinary and more reliable;
4) full bulkhead kerosinomotorov with the substitution of the new parts are worthless, with the removal of 4 cylinders with each nasal engine (in this case, the speed minelayer would be reduced to about 10 knots), checking and correcting stubborn shaft bearings; released after removal of the cylinder space to use for installation on PL Sperry gyro and improvement of amenities;
5) reduction of supplies of kerosene for 600 pounds (9.8 tons), as kerosinomotorov of the drums will be charged;
6) the introduction of 2-nasal propellants instead removed from the submarine bow trimming tanks;
7) the future development of a superstructure deck scallops and increase the number of dampers to improve its content;
8) elimination of flaws manual vertical wheel.
9) On the proposal of the Commission to carry out this reduction in the volume of repair work will be about 3 months.

September 20, 1916 an act of the Technical Commission was reported to the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, who stressed the event that the commission is not enough to focus attention on the
most important part of the underwater mine layer — mine elevator. The commander of the Black Sea Fleet has put puzzle lead mine elevator "in the condition in which the events during the last operation could not be repeated."

Remove the drums kerosinomotorov he has authorized, assuming that surface and so move minelayer insufficient.
When calculating the time required for the repair of the commission came from the fact that the repair equipment will be confined to their bulkhead, and that in connection with the removal of nasal kerosinomotorov 8 cylinders will use the CACT filmed cylinders to substitute more useless parts. But the decision of the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, prohibiting the removal of the drums increment workload. In addition, when the engines were pulled down, it turned out to pierce 13 cylinders and pistons to make anew 20.
The last work was the Sevastopol port for workshops especially difficult because pistons are manufactured plant brothers Kerting of special cast iron structure — very viscous and fine. Since the iron itself was not available, had a masterful izderzhat month and a half, so choose from the available types of cast iron of the respective properties. And there is still detained entry barriers in the dock, which was occupied by other ships, and "Crab" was introduced there instead of the 20 days of October's only November 26, 1916 Then in 1917 when the substitution of engines "Crab" it reintroduced into the dock .
The same way, it was impossible to repair minelayer finish as scheduled earlier period — 20 December 1916 (the beginning repairs September 19). Because the new expiry date of repair chief mechanical engineer Sevastopol port outlined at the end of March 1917 And this time, as we shall see, was not sustained. Later came the next event, detaining repair PL: December 17, as the "Crab" was put into dry dock and the dock began to fill with water, without taking the respective precautions suppressor lay down on the board and through the hatches otdraennye it was taking on water. This tragedy has claimed the extra time to repair the submarine. By the way, and the new battery plant delayed "Tudor" and contract period (in September), they were not delivered.
January 1, 1917 the head of the Black Sea Submarine Brigade captain V.E.Klochkovsky addressed to the head of diving GAM with the letter.

In the letter, he pointed out that because of the tragedy in the dock repair electrical parts minelayer can be completed only after 4 months if the batteries will arrive on time. Engine repair Kerting presented to the Sevastopol port enormous difficulties, and in addition, there was no guarantee of a satisfactory quality of repairs, leaving these motors on the same frequency barriers impractical for subsequent judgments:
1), these engines work in unreliable;
2) repair of the Sevastopol port not have the means to produce these special works, as, for example, metal casting pistons will do better than the main characteristics of engines and, in the end,
3) motors have served for a couple of years old, worn out, because of the already low their properties will be degraded so that a complete overhaul will only unproductive waste of time and money.

For this reason the proposed change Klochkovsky kerosinomotory Kerting diesel engines rated at 240 hp, to be installed in the submarine type of hypertension. If we assume that in this case, the submarine "Crab" will give full speed 9 knots, and about 7 knots of economic progress, the decision can be considered fully valid.

Minister of the Navy, Admiral I.K.Grigorovich on the report of the chief GAM agreed to this proposal, and January 17, 1917 Chairman of the boards of ships being built in Nikolayev was instructed to send in Sevastopol for minelayer "Crab" two diesel engine rated at 240 hp . to. destined for the first batch Submarine AG, who arrived in Nikolaev for assembly. These submarines built a company commissioned by the Russian Federation in Holland amount of 6 units (previously purchased for the Baltic fleet of submarines 5). They arrived in Nikolaev from America in batches of three submarines each.
In January 1917, the foundations under kerosinomotory were dismantled and removed from the submarine. Even earlier were sent for repairs to the plant in Kharkov "General Electric Company" (WEC), the main electric motors, fans and battery station. On wavetraps was bulkhead torpedo tubes and air compressors. In order to eliminate the found flaws in the combat operation repaired the mine elevator.
Thus, the lower guide straps, between which rolled down the worm shaft roller, proved insufficient thickness, whereby the roller with them slipping off, squares, between which were moving side guide rollers were put out, so that from time to time, these videos interference with the frame and etc.

By the end of October 1917 on the frequency barriers were installed foundations for diesel engines, diesel engines are also themselves, not counting the gas outlet pipes with valves, manufacturing workshops of the Sevastopol port, and compressed air cylinders and pipes. Installation on the submarine left cerebral motor performed a little later than the deadline as motor received from Kharkov with a huge delay: only in late July — early August 1917 the second is the main motor at this time was not ready, as well as fans and battery station. Prerequisites for the delay in the factory IRB seen from the report of the observer on electrowaste in Kharkiv on June 19, 1917
Only 6 — 7 November 1917 was over the right cerebral motor repair, both stations and 1st battery fan (second fan altered due to lack found at reception). To this should be added as the plant "Tudor" has not fulfilled its own obligations by putting only half of the batteries.
So Makar, repair underwater mine layer "Crab" and 1 January 1918 has not been completed.
This delay in the repair minelayer obviously impossible to explain the technical reasons, out of touch with the political events that took place at that time in Russia.
The February Revolution overthrew the monarchy. The war lasted only people carrying innumerable sacrifices, hardships and bitterness of new lesions at the front.
And here came the October Revolution. Russian government immediately offered to all warring parties to immediately conclude a ceasefire and begin negotiations for a peace without annexations or indemnities.
In February 1918, issued a decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the fleet, "declared the debauched and organized by the Socialist Workers 'and Peasants' Reddish fleet … on voluntary basis.
March 3, 1918 signed a peace treaty of Brest. Totally understandable that these criteria the question of completing the repair of the underwater mine layer "Crab" is no longer relevant, since it was not necessary, and even more power, at least for the first time.


In late April 1918, German troops came to Sevastopol. In order to save your own ships from capture
Teams destroyers, submarines and patrol boats, and then the team made the decision to leave the battleships in Novorossiysk. But at the last moment, the team changed their mind submarines and submarine remained in Sevastopol. There were also outdated and repaired ships. In July 1918 the German command filed a Russian government an ultimatum, demanding to return July 19 fleet in Sevastopol and send ships "in storage" until after the war. Part of the Black Sea Fleet ships were scuttled in Novorossiysk, some blown up in Sevastopol. November 9, there was a revolution in Germany and German troops soon left Ukraine and the Crimea and in Sevastopol squadron came allies (the ships of England, France, Italy and Greece). The power in the hands ran across the snow-white. But in January-March 1919 Reddish Army by going to coming, won a series of victories. She pulled Nikolaev, Kherson, Odessa, and the
n the whole Crimea. White Guard troops of General Wrangel and the Entente left Sevastopol. But before leaving, they had to withdraw warships and transports, destroying aircraft and other military equipment, and the remaining ships of old times undermined cylinder machines, bringing the ships into complete disrepair.

April 26, 1919 by the British tug "Elizabeth" brought the remaining 11 Russian submarine raid on the outside. By making holes in them and opening the hatches, they have flooded these submarines.
Twelfth PL — "Crab" was sunk in the North Bay. Among the sunken British submarine had 3 Submarine "Narwhal", 2 Submarine "Bars", completed construction in 1917, the submarine "K-21", 5 submarines of old times and, in the end, underwater minelayer "Crab. . " For the flooding of the submarine on the left side near his cabin was made hole measuring 0.5 square meters. m and is open bow hatch.
Otshumeli last volleys civilian war. Russian authorities defected to the peace-building. As a result, 2-Wars and Dark Sea of Azov turned into cemeteries sunken ships. These ships were to the Russian Federation Russian great value, since some of them may be small, it was possible to renovate and make their navy and merchant fleet Russian Russian Federation, and some melted the metal, so what you want to reviving the industry of the country ..
At the end of 1923 was created underwater expedition special purpose (EPRON), which for many years has been following the main organization that conducted the salvage. In the middle 20's head began work on the search and recovery submarines, submerged by the British in Sevastopol April 26, 1919 As a result, and found the raised submarine "K-21", "salmon", "Pike", "burbot", etc.

In 1934, while searching for the sunken submarine detector gave deviation, indicating the presence in this place a huge amount of metal. During the first inspection found it submarine. In this first decided that this submarine "loon" (such as "Bars"), built in 1917, as implied that other submarines in this place could be. But in the end the next, more painstaking examination in the future, it turned out that it is an underwater mine minelayer "Crab". It lay at a depth of 65 m, buried deep in the stern of the ground, in a sturdy building on the left side there was a hole the size of 0.5 square meters. m guns and periscopes were intact. Work to raise minelayer began in the summer of 1935 in view of the high for the depth of flooding since lifting the submarine decided to carry out the steps that translating it evenly to the smallest depth. 1st pick-layer samples taken in June 1935, but the tear aft of the soil was not possible, and therefore decided to first dilute the ground in the rear of the submarine. This work was very difficult, because the output of the entire system of pipes gruntootsosnyh up was very complicated, and could swell the entire system to reincarnate in the scrap. In addition, due to the great depth of the divers could work on the ground only 30 minutes. All the same. By October 1935, and graduated washes soil from 4 to 7 October, spent three successive lifting suppressor entered the port and brought to the surface. M.P.Naletov drafted the rehabilitation and modernization of minelayer.
But over the years Russian navy in its development went too far ahead. In its structure there 10's new, advanced submarines of all types, including the underwater mine-layers, such as "L". The need of refurbishment "Crab" — PL outdated, of course, disappeared. Because the "Crab" after lifting it from Sebastopol passed scrapped.


It has been over 85 years since that time, like an underwater mine-layer "Crab" was released in the first statement of mine to the Bosphorus … '62 have passed since completed an amazing heart beat Russian patriot and inventor professional Misha Petrovic Naletova. But his name can not be forgotten.

From foreign powers Germany first assessed the significance of the invention M.P.Naletova, which experts at the German sailors and learned, of course, even during the construction of "Crab" in Nikolaev from your own Kerting representative of the Krupp works, often visits the Ministry of the Navy of the Russian Federation.

During the First World War in Germany were ordered and built 212 underwater mine-layers. Each of them was 12 to 18 min. Only a huge underwater mine-layers, "U-71" — "U-80" had over 36 minutes, and "U-117" — "U-121" for 42 — 48 minutes, but the displacement of the latter (above water) was 1160 m, ie is 2 times the displacement of the submarine "Crab".
Even ordered in the year of the war, the German submarine mine-layers, displacement of which is not much different from the displacement of the "Crab" inferior Russian wavetraps.

In Germany, did not know the device Naletova and made his own, which consisted of six special wells located in the stern of the submarine slope at an angle of 24 degrees. In each of these wells were placed on 2 — 3 mines. Upper and lower ends of the wells are open. When the submarine during the minelayer jets of water pushed mine to the lower mouth of the well, which facilitated the formulation min. As can be seen, the German submarine mine-layers, put mines "by itself". Because of this, they sometimes become victims of their own mines. Since killed wavetraps "UC-9", "UC-12", "UC-32", "UC-44" m "UC-42", the latter suppressor died in September 1917, ie 2 years after the entry into operation of the first mine-layers such type.

By the time personnel, of course, had to master the device is excellent for setting mines. The dead German U-frequency barriers for this reason may have been more than 5, as part of the frequency barriers "went missing," and there is a possibility that some of them were killed by their own mines for their formulation.
So Makar, the first German mine-laying device proved to be very unreliable t unsafe for submarines themselves. Only in the vast underwater wavetraps ("UC-71" and others) this device was different.
On these submarine mines were stored in a sturdy housing on horizontal shelves, where they were introduced to two special pipes, ending at the stern of the minelayer. In each of the tubes were only 3 mines. When you put these mines how to enter into the pipes next minute was repeated.

Naturally, with such a device for raising additional minutes were required special tanks, as commissioning mines in pipes and their production caused displacement of the center of mass and trim the submarine, which was compensated by receiving and pumping water. This shows that the last system for mine-laying, adopted by some German U-layers, even harder M.P.Naletova system.

Unfortunately, in the Russian navy valuable experience in the creation of the first submarine minelayer long period of time has not been applied. However, as mentioned, in 1907 at the Baltic Shipyard were developed two versions of the underwater minelayer a displacement of 250 tons from 60 mines. But neither one of them was not implemented: quite clear that with such a small displacement, provide mine-layer 60 was unrealistic, although the plant claimed turnaround. Coupled with the experience of war and combat use minelayer "crab" has shown that the underwater mine-layers, are very necessary for the fleet. Because of this, to get the underwater-layers of the Baltic fleet in the short term may be, it was decided to recycle remake it into 2 of the 1916 Submarine "Bars" in underwater-layers. June 17, 1916, in a letter to the Chief of the Naval General Staff of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, said: "Those modifications will take place only on the submarine's" Trout
"and" Ruff "Baltic plant built just as the plant is taken to do the job on the system, the submarine" Crab " Meanwhile the plant "Noblessner" offers its own system, the drawings of which is still far not been developed. "

Let us remember that even 9 years earlier Baltic Shipyard was taken to establish a mine own device and mines ("the captain of the 2nd rank Schreiber"), rather than the proposed M.P.Naletovym, now, when mine and mine device made by "Crab" they recognized and the Baltic plant … In addition, it should be emphasized that the projects of mine devices and mines have been carried out for underwater minelayer factory "Noblessner" certainly not without a consultant of the plant, but it was naikrupneyshy shipbuilder Dr. Ivan G. Bubnov, for projects which have been built virtually all of the submarine "Russian type" (including submarines "Leopard").
And if you still have preferred "system M.P.Naletova" (which, however, has not called so), it becomes even more obvious the value and uniqueness of the invention M.P.Naletova.
Despite the fact that the submarine "Ruff" and "Trout" were more "Crab", the Baltic factory could not locate them on the same number of minutes, which succeeded in placing Naletova.

Of 2-suppressors for underwater Baltic fleet was completed only a "Ruff", and of the end of 1917
Due to the necessity of the war, setting mines in shallow waters in the southern part of the Baltic Sea in MGSH got a question about building a small submarine mine-layers, which also would be built in the short term (expected by September 1917). This issue is February 3, 1917 reported the Minister of Marine, who gave the order to order 4 small underwater mine-layers. Two of them ("S-1" and "S-2") ordered the plant to the Baltic, and two ("№ -3" and "S-4") — Russian-Baltic Shipyard in Revel.

These multiple-layers differ from each other: the first had a displacement of 230/275 and the perceived 20 minutes, and the second had a displacement of 228.5 / 264 m and perceived 16 min. Wavetraps to finish the rest of the war were not.
Despite the fact that the raid soon after launching the "Crab" was removed from the building, the value of it to develop the world's first underwater mine layer was quite obvious.
Naturally, in the course of construction minelayer and the officers and employees of Nicholas plant was introduced into an initial draft of a lot of different configurations and improvements. Thus, the captain N.N.Shreyber, namely the proposed change chain elevator more perfect corkscrew, and the technical design of its plant constructor executed S.P.Silverberg. then, at the suggestion of Naval Architects, responsible for monitoring the construction of the layers, the head aft ballast tank was divided into two, as it was much more than the bow tank, leading to the ascent of trim and diving submarine, nose trimming tanks, as you know, has been taken out of the bow ballast tanks brain, where it was located, removed as an extra anchor communication between the bulkheads bounding the average tank, etc. etc.
All this is completely natural, since the need for many ship items checked in its construction and in particular during the operation. For example, the nasal trimming tanks in the repair minelayer were going to change the nose compartment propellants as its placement above the waterline proved impractical. But such an arrangement in the construction of the tank minelayer offered V.E.Karpov naval architect, a man, of course, at the technical level, competent and experienced. So Makar, in spite of all the configuration and improvements made to the minelayer during its construction, it should be recognized that both mines and mine device have been performed on the basis of the physical principles and technical judgments that initially laid in the project inventor himself — M. P . raids, and minelayer "Crab" is built in the whole of his project. Despite the flaws (for example, the complexity of the dive), underwater minelayer "Crab" was an unusual design around, borrowed from nowhere and has not been previously undertaken.

When they say that the underwater minelayer "Crab" was inapplicable submarines, it forgets that although the "Crab" is essentially the most experienced submarine, he still participated in the war and performed a number of basic combat tasks on production of mines nearby enemy shores, and that such tasks could be performed only underwater minelayer. In addition, the "Crab" — the first in the world of underwater minelayer, and could not own shortcomings, as any ship entirely new type, who had no similar analogues for themselves. Recall that in the first German submarine mine-layers of "UC" were set very imperfect device for setting mines, resulting in some of these submarines were lost. But shipbuilding technology in Germany was even higher shipbuilding technology royal Russian Federation!

In conclusion, we present the assessment of the inventor himself the world's first underwater mine wavetraps "crab", "crab", with all its advantages and novelty of a nested me in his ideas and designs, this idea making out, had … totally natural shortcomings that have the first instance, even majestic inventions (for example, Stephenson locomotive, an airplane of the Wright brothers, etc.) and submarines since then ("Cayman", "Shark") … "
We also give a similar outlook N.A.Monastyreva, who wrote about the "Crab": "If he had many shortcomings …, it was a consequence of the first experience, and not the idea itself, which was perfect." With this fair assessment can not disagree.

Like this post? Please share to your friends: