Creating the world's first underwater mine layer "Crab" — one of the delightful pages in the history of Russian military shipbuilding. Technological backwardness of the Russian Federation royal t an entirely new type of submarine, which was a "crab", led to the fact that this mine minelayer came into operation only in 1915, but even that of the technical level of a developed country, which was the Kaiser's Germany, the first underwater mine-layers, only appeared in the same year, while in their tactical and technical data are significantly inferior "Crab . "
Mikhail Petrovich raids
Mikhail Petrovich raids was born in 1869 in the family of the employee shipping company "Caucasus and Mercury." His childhood years were spent in Astrakhan, and secondary education he received in St. Petersburg. At the end of secondary education, Misha Petrovic joined the Institute of Technology, and later defected to the Mining Institute in St. Petersburg. And then he had to learn and earn a living lessons and drawings. As a student, he invented a great unique design, for which it was necessary to speed up the work and the hands and feet. At one time, these produced a large artisanal workshop.
Unfortunately, the death of his father and the need to support my family — my mother and younger brother — is not allowed Naletova graduate from college and get a college education. Then he passed the exam for the title of equipment for transportation. M.P.Naletov was very sociable and good man who possessed Myagenko temper.
In the period preceding the Russian-Japanese war, raids worked on construction of the port away. After the war M.P.Naletov was in Port Arthur. He witnessed the death of the battleship "Petropavlovsk", which died a famous admiral S.O.Makarov. Makarova Naletova death led to the idea of developing an underwater mine layer.
First, in May 1904 he went to the commander of the port of Port Arthur to give him for submarines being built gasoline engine from the boat, but he was denied. According Naletova, being built submarines were interested sailors and conductors with the ships of the squadron. They often came to him and even asked him to write a PL team. A huge help Naletova had N.V.Krotkov lieutenant and a mechanical engineer from the battleship "Relight" P.N.Tihobaev. First get out of the port has promoted far you have mechanisms for submarines, and the second let go of his own team of professionals who work together with the dredging of the caravan were working on the construction of the minelayer. Despite all the difficulties, the raids successfully built his submarine.
Housing submarine was a cylinder studded with conical extremities. Inside the case there were two cylindrical ballast tanks. Displacement minelayer was only 25 so he had to be armed with 4 mines or torpedoes with 2 Schwarzkopf. Mines are supposed to put through a special hatch in the middle of the boat "by itself". The following projects raids refused such a system, believing that it is very unsafe for most submarines. This fair conclusion later confirmed in practice — German submarine mine-layers, such as "UC" have become victims of their own mines.
In autumn 1904 the construction of the housing minelayer was over and raids started tests of strength and water resistance. To dive boat on the spot without people he used cast iron ingots, which were placed on the deck of the submarine, and filmed with a floating crane. Suppressor immersed to a depth of 9 m All the tests were normal. Already during the tests was appointed commander of the submarine — Midshipman B.A.Vilkitsky.
After successful tests submarine hull attitude to Naletova has changed in the best way. He was allowed to take its own submarine internal combustion engine from a boat battleship "Relight". But this "gift" of the inventor has put in a difficult position, because Power of 1st motor was insufficient to submarines under construction.
But the days of Port Arthur were already numbered. Japanese troops tightly came to the fortress, and their artillery shells fell into the harbor. One of these shells sank a metal barge, which was moored suppressor Naletova. Fortunately, the length of the mooring lines was sufficient and suppressor remained afloat.
Before the surrender of Port Arthur in December 1904 M.P.Naletov order to minelayer missed the hands of the Japanese, was required to make out and kill its internal hardware, and the case to undermine.
For an active role in the defense of Port Arthur raids was awarded the George Cross.
The trouble with the construction of the underwater mine layer in Port Arthur did not discourage Naletova. Arriving after the surrender of Port Arthur in Shanghai, Michael P. wrote a letter with a proposal to build submarines in Vladivostok. Russian military attache in China, sent a statement Naletova naval command to Vladivostok. But it did not even find the necessary answer Naletova assuming of course, that his sentence is one of those mind-blowing inventions, which do not focus on.
But this was not Misha Petrovic, so give up. On his return to St. Petersburg, he developed a new draft of the underwater mine layer and has a displacement of 300.
December 29, 1906 filed raids to the President of the Naval Technical Committee (ITC) petition, in which he wrote: "In order to offer the Ministry of the Sea submarine project, I worked out on the basis of personal experience and observations of the sea war in Port Arthur, I have the honor beg Your Excellency, if look for likely appoint me the time in which I could personally introduce the above mentioned project and give an explanation of his party, Your Excellency authorized. "
The request was accompanied by a copy of the certificate Feb. 23, 1905, issued by the former commander of Port Arthur, Rear Admiral I.K.Grigorovichem (then Minister of Marine), in what was said that is being built in Port Arthur "submarine in the displacement of 25 tons gave good results in preliminary trials "and that the surrender of Port Arthur has deprived the ability of technology Naletova finish building the boat, which would have brought the besieged Port Arthur a huge benefit." Private Port Arthur project Misha Petrovic regarded as the layout of the new project underwater minelayer.
In 1908-1914, the raids came a couple of times in Nizhny Novgorod, where the family lived in the country Zolotnitskaya in the town of Moss Mountain on the banks of the Volga in the 9 km from Nizhny Novgorod. There he fashioned a toy — a cigar-shaped, similar to the modern submarine, 30 cm long with a small tower and a small rod ("periscope"). Submarines moving under the action of a spring wound up. When submarines were allowed in the water, she swam five meters over the surface, then sank and swam 5 meters under water, exposing only their own periscope, and then he went out to the surface and dive alternated until the whole plant out. PL had a hermetic enclosure. As we see, even making toys, Michael P. Naletov fond of submarines …
NEW PROJECT DIVE mine layer
After the defeat in the Russian-Japanese War Navy Department was engaged in preparations for the construction of a new fleet. A discussion: what is needed fleet of the Russian Federation? Was a question of how to get through the Municipal Duma loans for construction of the fleet.
Since the beginning of the Russian-Japanese war t
he Russian Navy began actively replenished submarines, most of them were built in Russia, and a part is ordered and purchased abroad.
In 1904 — 1905 years. 24 submarines were ordered and purchased abroad finished 3 submarines.
After the war ended in 1906, booked only two submarines, and later, in 1907, — no! This number did not come S.K.Dzhevetskogo submarine with a single engine "Post."
So Makar, due to the end of the war the tsarist government had lost interest in the PL. Many officers in the Navy High Command underestimated their role as the cornerstone of modern shipbuilding programs from battle fleet was considered. Experience in construction M.P.Naletovym in Port Arthur of the first mine layer, of course, been forgotten. Even in the marine literature stated that "only what can be armed submarines — is self-propelled mines (torpedoes)."
These criteria had to possess a clear mind and clear about the prospects of development of the fleet, namely his new stern guns — PL to come up with a proposal of construction of the underwater mine layer. Such a man was Misha Petrovic raids.
When he learned that "the Marine Ministry does nothing for the creation of this new type of warship, despite the fact that the basic idea of it became publicly known, M.P.Naletov December 29, 1906 filed by the Chairman of the Naval Technical Committee (ITC) petition in which he wrote: "In order to offer the Ministry of the Sea submarine project, I worked out on the basis of personal experience and observations of the sea war in Port Arthur, I have the honor to request Your Excellency, if you look for likely appoint me the time that could have a
Personally submit the above mentioned project and give an explanation of his party, Your Excellency authorized. "
The request was accompanied by a copy of the certificate Feb. 23, 1905, issued by the former commander of the Port Arthur I.K.Grigorovichem Rear Admiral (later Minister of Marine), in what was said that is being built in Port Arthur "submarine with a displacement of 25 tons gave good results in preliminary trials "and that" the surrender of Port Arthur has deprived the ability of technology Naletova finish building the submarine, which would have brought the besieged Port Arthur a huge benefit. "
Its Port Arthur PL M.P.Naletov regarded as a model of the new design of the underwater mine layer.
Assuming that the two flaws inherent in submarines as long — a little speed and a small swimming area will not be the last time eliminated immediately, Michael P. examines two options PL: high speed and small swimming area and a huge swimming area and a small rate.
In the first case, the submarine should "expect the approach of enemy ships to the port, near which is the submarine."
In the 2nd case the task Submarine "consists of a 2-part:
1) the transition to an enemy port;
2) blasting enemy ships "
M.P.Naletov wrote: "Without denying the usefulness of the submarine coastal defense, I find that the submarine, priemuschestvenno should be an instrument of offensive war, and for that it must own a huge area of act and is armed not only mine Whitehead and mine boom , in other words, not counting the need to build submarine torpedo coastal defense — underwater torpedo and mine-layers, the vast area of the act. "
For then, those eyes M.P.Naletova the development prospects of the submarine were very progressive. It should result in the expression of Lieutenant A.D.Bubnova: "Submarines represent a nothing but a mine banks" and further: "Submarines are a means of passive trench warfare and as such can not decide the fate of war."
How in matters of diving techniques Railways M.P.Naletov stood above the naval officer Bubnov!
He rightly pointed out that "the underwater mine-layer, as well as any submarines in the possession of the sea … do not need it." A few years later, during the First World War, this statement is absolutely Naletova confirmed.
Talking about the fact that our home is not in a position to build a fleet equal to English, M.P.Naletov emphasizes the special importance for the construction of submarines of the Russian Federation, "50 underwater mine-layers of 300 tons each will be able to fully deliver each month from 3 to 5 thousand mines amount, which may be a little beat, and this will cause a complete stop marine life, without which the United Kingdom and of Japan not last long.
What was the design of the underwater mine layer, represented by M, P.Naletovym at the end of 1906
Displacement — 300 tons, length — 27.7 m, width — 4,6 m, draft — 3.66 m, the buoyancy in store — 12 m), 4%).
On wavetraps must be set for surface speed 2 motor 150 hp each, and the scuba course — 2 to 75 hp electric motor They were to provide the submarine surface speed of 9 knots, underwater — 7 knots.
Suppressor had to take on board for 28 minutes with one torpedo tube and 2-torpedoes or 35 mines without torpedo.
Immersion depth minelayer — 30.5 m
Housing PL — cigar-shaped cross-section — the circle. Superstructure started with the nose submarines and extends for a distance of 2/3 to 3/4 of its length.
"When the round cross-section of the case:
1) the surface it will be less in the same area of the section on frames;
2) the weight of the round bulkhead bulkhead will be less than the weight of the same strength but different cross-sectional shapes submarine whose area equal-area area of a circle;
3) The body will own the lower surface and the minimum weight, naturally. When comparing the PL with the same drill on frames. "
At least some of the pieces chosen for his own project, the raids tried to prove, with an emphasis on the then existing theoretical studies either by logical reasoning.
M.P.Naletov came to the conclusion that the body must be symmetrical. The interior of the superstructure raids meant to fill a cork or any other light material, with the add-in, he offered to do the scuppers through which the lumen of the tube between the layers and the body of the submarine passes freely water would be transferred to the strong pressure inside the submarine hull superstructure.
Tank Brain ballast PL 300 tonnes deadweight project Naletova placed under the battery and on-board tubes (high-pressure tanks). Their volume was 11.76 cu. m at the tip of the submarine were trimming tanks. Between the storage room in the middle of the mines and submarines boards were placed minozamestitelnye tank volume of 11.45 cubic meters. m
Device for setting mines (in the project, it was called "the machine to eject min"), consisted of three parts: the mine pipe (in the first version one), mine chamber and air lock.
Mine came from the tube bulkhead 34th obliquely to the stern bulkhead and out of the submarine hull outwards at the bottom of the vertical rudder. In the upper part of the pipe was a rail on which mines using rollers rolled in poop, thanks to the slope of the pipe. Rail walked the entire length of the pipe and terminate flush with the wheel, and the sides of the rail at the time of setting mines exhibited specific guides in order to give the necessary direction of the mines. Nasal end of the pipe went into the mine mine chamber, where 2 people perceived through the air lock mine and puts them in mine pipe.
To prevent water from inside a submarine mine and mine pipe camera to let in their compressed air is balanced by the pressure of seawater. Compressed air in the mine tunnel was regulated by an electronic contactor ..
Storage min M.P.Naletov situated in the middle of the center plane between the submarine and aircraft minozameschayuschi
mi tanks, and in the bow — on the sides of the submarine. Because they support the normal air pressure, then between them and mine was an air lock chamber with hermetic doors and mine chamber and storage min. Mine had a pipe cap, which, after setting mines hermetically locked. In addition to setting mines on the surface raids offered to make the submarine on deck a special device, the device is left unknown.
As this concise description, the original device for mine laying submarine fully ensured a balance when setting min underwater. Thus, the water squeezing out of the mine pipe performed over the side and not in a special tank; mine, moves further along the top rail to dive into the water at the end of the pipe mine, punctuated equilibrium submarines. Naturally, such a device for the production of underwater mines for mine layer would not do.
Torpedoes underwater minelayer Naletov foresaw a 2-versions: one with TA and 28 mines and without the TA, but with 35 mines.
He himself preferred the second option, believing that the main and only task of the underwater minelayer — setting min, and everything must be subordinated to this task. The presence of at wavetraps torpedoes can only prevent him to fulfill the main task: to safely deliver mine to the place of their performances and successfully put the very formulation.
January 9, 1907 in ITC held the first meeting to review the draft of the underwater mine layer, the proposed M.P.Naletovym. The meeting took place under the chairmanship of Rear Admiral A.A.Vireniusa with the role of prominent shipbuilders and IGBubnov Krylov is also visible mineralization and submariner M.N.Beklemisheva. The Chairman gave an overall presentation present a proposal M.P.Naletova. The raids also laid out the main ideas of his own project of the underwater mine layer displacement of 300 tons. After an exchange of conceptions, it was decided to make out and thoroughly discuss the project at a later meeting of ITC held on January 10. In this session raids carefully laid out the essence of its own project and answered numerous questions of those present.
From the presentations at the meeting and the following reviews of professionals in the project should:
"Project submarine Mr. Naletova entirely feasible, although not fully developed" (ship's engineer I.A.Gavrilov).
"Calculations of Mr. Naletova produced entirely true, carefully and seriously" (Krylov).
Coupled with the fact were noted shortcomings of the project:
1. Small submarine buoyancy in store, what drew attention M.N.Beklemishev.
2. Add fill tube is inappropriate. As pointed out by Krylov, "Compression Tube changes the buoyancy of the water pressure in a terrible way as you go deeper."
3. Submarine dive time — 10 minutes with excess — is very large.
4. On the submarine periscope is missing.
5. Apparatus for setting mines "is not quite satisfactory" (IGBubnov), and the staging of every mine — 2 — 3 Minutka — very large.
6. Power engines and motors, designated in the project, can not provide data speeds. "Almost PL 300 tons will be at 150 hp — 7 knots on the surface and at 300 hp — 9 knots" (I.A.Gavrilov).
Was marked by a number of other, smaller, shortcomings. But the recognition of the prominent spices since the project underwater mine layer "totally feasible" — certainly, creative victory M.P.Naletova.
January 1, 1907 Naletov already submitted to the Chief Inspector of mine works: 1) "Description
Mine improved apparatus for ejecting sea mines "and 2)" Description of modifying the superstructure. "
In a brand new version of the device for setting mines Misha Petrovic already anticipating the "two-tier system," ie, mine the pipe and the air lock (not mine chamber, as it was in the initial version). Air shdyuz separated from the mine pipe sealed lockable lid. Pripostanovke minutes in the "battle" or positional status submarine mine office supplied with compressed air, the pressure of which was needed to balance the external pressure of the water through the pipe mine. After that revealed both the cover and the air shdyuza mines along the rail, going to the top of the pipe, one after another thrown overboard. When setting min submerged when the back cover is closed, the mine was inserted into the airlock. Then the front cover closed, the gateway letting compressed air to the pressure of water in the mine tunnel, opened the back cover, and mine was ejected through the pipe overboard. After that, the rear cover closed, the compressed air is removed from the lock, opened the front cover, and the gateway introduced the newest mine. This cycle is repeated again. Raids pointed out that to set up new mines required with negative buoyancy. When setting min submarine received a trim by the stern. Later, the creator allowed for this defect. Timing of mines was reduced to one minute.
Krylov wrote in his own recall: "The method of setting mines can not be considered completely developed. Better his forthcoming simplification and improvement."
IGBubnov in its own recall of more January 11, wrote: "To adjust the buoyancy of the submarine when so significant configurations enough weight problem, especially in the fluctuating level in the tube."
While working on the improvement of its own apparatus for setting mines, raids in April 1907 proposed a "mine barrage with a hollow anchor negative buoyancy is equal to the positive buoyancy of the mines." This was a decisive step towards the creation of an apparatus for setting mines applicable for installation on minelayers.
Exciting systematization "of devices for discharging minutes of the submarine," Naletova here in one of their own notes. All the "devices" Misha Petrovic subdivided into internal located inside the submarine hull strong, and external, located in the superstructure. In turn, these devices are divided into fodder and nekormovye. In the outer side (nekormovom) apparatus mines were placed in special slots in the sides of the superstructure, of which they were to be released one by one with an arm connected to rolling, walking along the superstructure. The roller was set in motion by turning the knob from the wheelhouse. In principle, such a system was later implemented in the 2-French submarines, built during World War II and then converted into the underwater-layers. The mines were onboard ballast tanks in the middle part of the submarine.
External stern apparatus consisted of the 1st or 2-trenches, marching along the boat in the superstructure. Mina moved by rail laid in the gutter with 4 clips attached at the edges of mine anchors. At the bottom of the trough was an endless chain or rope to which different methods were attached mines. The chain moved by rotating the pulley inside the submarine. This system setting mines raids come, as will be shown in the following versions of their own underwater mine layer.
Inner bottom (nekormovoy) apparatus consisted of a cylinder vertically mounted and connected on one side to mine chamber and on the other hand — via opening in the bottom of the submarine hull with seawater. Such a principle of the apparatus for setting mines Naletov used, as you know, for underwater minelayer, it was being built at Port Arthur in 1904
Internal feed unit was to consist of a tube connecting the mine with the camera seawater at the bottom of the stern of the submarine.
In considering options for a possible device for setting mines M.P.Naletov gave a negative response bottom apparatus: he pointed out the danger of submarines in the very formulation of minutes of such devices. This conclusion concerning bottom Naletova vehicles wa
s just for my own time. Much later, during the First World War, the Italians used a similar technique for its own submarine mine-layers. The mines were in the SAIT-ballast tanks located in the middle of a strong submarine hull. In this case, mines have negative buoyancy 250-300 kg.
To improve ventilation submarine offered ventilation pipe with a diameter of about 0.6 m and a height of 3.5 — 4.5 m Before diving into this tube shape in a special recess superstructure deck.
February 6 in response to a request M.N.Beklemisheva Krylov said: "Increasing the height of the superstructure will improve the navigability submarine surfaced of her voyage, and at an altitude of just proposed would be likely to go with an open wheelhouse when the wind and wave will be higher than 4 points … You have to wait, so that the submarine will dig into a wave that will keep cutting open unenforceable. "
Second and third OPTIONS minelayers
After the ITC has suspended its own choice on the system of "feed external devices," M.P.Naletov, taking into account the comments of the committee members, has developed a second version of the underwater mine layer displacement of 450 tons Length submarines in this variant has increased to 45.7 and , emergent speed increased to 10 knots, and the swimming area at this rate headed for 3,500 miles (3,000 miles instead of the first embodiment). Speed when diving — 6 knots (instead of 7 knots in the first embodiment).
When 2-mined tunnels number of mines with the "anchor system Naletova" has been increased to 60, but the number of torpedo tubes reduced to 1 st. The time required for the formulation of a mine — 5 seconds. If the first option for the formulation of a mine required 2 — 3 minute, then it could already be considered a huge achievement. Flap cutting height above the water line was about 2.5 m, the buoyancy in store — about 100 tonnes (or 22%). However, the transition from the surface position in scuba as before it was quite significant — 10.5 minutes.
First Officer in May 1907 as chairman of ITC, Rear Admiral A.A.Virenius and ID Head Inspector of mine works Rear Admiral M.F.Loschinsky special report to the Minister of Marine comrade on the project, the mine layer M.P.Naletova wrote that the ITC "on the basis of preliminary calculations and check drawings found likely to recognize the project feasible."
Further, the report offered "as quickly as possible," enter into an agreement with the head of Mykolaiv Shipyard (more precisely, "the Society of shipbuilding, mechanical and foundries in Nikolaev), which, as said raids March 29, 1907, granted" the exclusive right to build submarines mine-layers "of its system, or enter into an agreement with the Chief of the Baltic plant, if it is useful recognizes the Minister of Marine.
And, in the end, the report stated: "… you need to immediately attend to the elaboration of special mines, at least on the project Captain 2nd Rank Schreiber."
The latter is obvious is puzzling: it M.P.Naletov presented not only as a project minelayer submarines, and mines with special anchor for him. So at what is still the captain of the 2nd rank Schreiber?
Nicholas Schreiber was one of the most prominent professionals in their own time on the mine case. At the end of the Sea Cadet Corps and then mine the officer class he swam to a greater extent on the Black Sea Fleet officer of mine. In 1904, he served as the head miner Port Arthur, and in the period from 1908 to 1911 g — assistant head inspector of the mine case. Apparently under the influence of invention M.P.Naletova he and the ship's engineer and lieutenant IGBubnov S.N.Vlasevym began to develop mines for underwater mine layer, using the principle of zero buoyancy, ie such as the principle that applied to own mines M.P.Naletov. Within a few months, until MP.Naletov not been removed from the construction of the mine layer, Schreiber sought to prove that neither mine nor the system of their performances with minelayer designed Naletova, are worthless. From time to time his fight against Naletova wore like small quibbles, from time to time, even with malice, he emphasized that the inventor of the minelayer of only the "technician".
Assistant Minister agreed with the Chairman of ITC, and the chief of the Baltic Shipyard in St. Petersburg, was given the task to create a device for the production of 20 minutes under construction at the plant Submarine "Shark" with a displacement of 360 tonnes, and to give its opinion on the price of the underwater minelayer Naletova displacement of 450 tons
With the device for a submarine mine laying displacement of 360 tonnes, which was being built on the Baltic plant, the plant introduced two versions of the underwater minelayer for 60 minutes, "the captain of the 2nd rank Schreiber" displacement of about 250 m, while in one of these options reflects Surface speed equal to 14 knots. (!) leaving the conscience of the Baltic plant fidelity calculations minelayer with 60 mines and a displacement of 250 tons, note just started in 1917, two small submarine minelayer displacement of about 230 tons had only just under 20 minutes.
Coupled with that in the same letter, the chief of the Baltic plant in MTC from 7 May 1907 stated: "What's all the same concerns with regard to the designated number of ITC 450 tons (refers to the version of the draft minelayer M.P.Naletova), it is is not justified by the job, and even find a price submarines, where almost half of the tonnage expended uselessly (?) is unrealistic. "
This formidable "criticism" of the project minelayer 450 t, of course, not without a given plant as the creator of "The System mines" Captain 2nd Rank Schreiber.
Because the construction of submarines in the Baltic Plant 360 tons delayed (submarine was launched in August 1909), the preliminary tests of the device for the production of the mines on the submarine had to abandon.
In the upcoming (in the same 1907) has developed a new version of the raids minelayer submarine tonnage 470 t Surface speed minelayer in this version has been increased from 10 to 15 knots, and underwater — from 6 to 7 knots. Dive time minelayer in the positional status was reduced to 5 minutes, to an underwater position — up to 5.5 minutes (in the previous version 10.5 minutes).
June 25, 1907 Nicholas plant introduced the chief inspector of mine works project contract for the construction of the 1st underwater mine layer, as the principal data on the specification and 2 sheets of drawings.
But the Marine Department has acknowledged that the price of building a better lower frequency suppressor. As a result of the forthcoming correspondence August 22, 1907 factory said that he agreed to lower the cost of building the 1st underwater minelayer to 1,350 rubles, but provided that the minelayer displacement increase to 500 tons
By order of the Secretary of the Navy fellow MTC said the plant on the consent of the Ministry of the proposed plant in a letter of August 22, the price of construction minelayer "… in view of the novelty of the case and transfer gratuitously developed by the mines." Immediately asked the ITC factory may be faster to provide detailed drawings and project contract, which stated that the underwater speed minelayer should not be the least 7.5 unit for 4 hours.
October 2, 1907 with the drawings and specification draft contract for the construction of "underwater mine layer system M.P.Naletova displacement of about 500 tons of" plant were presented.
Fourth, the last option wavetraps M.P.NALETOVA
Fourth, the latest version of the underwater mine layer M.P.Naletova passed to the construction, was a submarine displacement of about 500 tons with a length of 51.2 m, width amidships — 4.6 m, depth —
45.7 m time from surface position in scuba — 4 minute. The rate on the surface of 15 knots with a total capacity of 4 engines of 1200 hp, underwater — 7.5 unit with a total capacity of 2-motors 300 hp The number of electronic BATTERY — 120. Cruising range overwater 15-nodal move 1,500 miles, an underwater 7.5-nodal speed — 22.5 miles. In the superstructure with 2 mine chimney. Number of minutes — 60 Naletova system with neutral buoyancy. Number of torpedo tubes — two with 4 torpedoes.
Housing minelayer consisted of a cigar-shaped part (strong case) with a waterproof superstructure along the entire length. By sturdy casing is fixed cutting, surrounded by a bridge. Extremities were made easy.
The main ballast tank was placed in the middle of a sound body. It was limited to skin a strong body and 2 transverse plane bulkheads. Bulkheads are connected among themselves horizontally arranged pipes and anchors. Total pipe connecting the bulkhead was seven. Of their larger radius tube (1 m) is in the upper compartment, its axis coincides with the axis of symmetry of the submarine. This tube was used for the passage of the dwelling unit in the engine room. Others were of the smallest diameter of the pipe: two pipes by 0.17 m, two — 0.4 m, two — at 0.7 m on the first two pipes from the main vent pipe fed into the living room freshest air, and the other four tubes were ballast tanks of the highest pressure. In addition, have been provided the bow and stern ballast tanks.
In addition to the head of ballast tanks, had the bow and stern trimming tanks, surge tanks and tank torpedozamestitelnaya. 60 min were placed in 2-mined tunnels. Mines had to move on rails laid in mine tunnels, by a chain or rope device driven particular motor. Mina was an anchor for one system and its movement along the rails were 4 wheels. By adjusting the speed of the motor and changing the speed minelayer, changed so makarom putting distance between mines.
According to the specification details of mine pipes had to be developed after the construction of mines and test them in a special landfill.
The specification and drawings of the plant October 2, 1907, were considered in the shipbuilding and mechanical parts of the MTC, and then November 10 — at a general meeting of the MTC, chaired by Rear Admiral AA, Vireniusa and the role of the representative of the Naval General Staff. At the meeting of the MTC on November 30 addressed the issue of landmines, motors and hydraulic sample case minelayer.
Requirements Shipbuilding Division MC were reduced to the next:
Draft minelayer on the surface — less than 4.02 m
Metacentric height above water (mine) — more than 0,254 m
While the vertical rudder steering — 30, and hydroplanes — 20.
Superstructure minelayer closed scuppers should be waterproof.
The transition time from the surface position in the positional should not exceed 3.5 second.
Performance of air compressors shall be 25,000 cubic meters. feet (708 cubic m.) compressed air for 9 hours, which during this period of time needs to be renewed in store full of air.
In submerged suppressor should lay mines, going at a speed of 5 knots.
Speed minelayer surfaced 15 knots. If this rate is less than 14 knots, the Navy Department can come to acceptance minelayer. Speed in the position position (at kerosinomotorami_) — 13 knots.
The final choice of Accum must be made in 3-month period by signing a contract.
Housing minelayer, its ballast tanks and kerosene should be suitably tested by hydraulic pressure, and the leakage of water should not be more than 0.1%.
All tests must be performed with minelayer his full armor, supply and fully staffed team.
According to the requirements of the mechanical department of MTC on wavetraps had set 4 kerosinomotora, developing more than 300 hp each at 550 rev / min. Motor system was to elect plant for 2 months after the conclusion of the contract, and proposed a system of factory engines had to approve the ITC.
After launching the "Crab" M.P.Naletov was obliged to leave the factory, and the upcoming construction minelayer passed without his role, under the supervision of a special commission of the Ministry of the Sea, which consisted of the officers.
Following the removal of Misha Petrovic from the construction of "Crab" and the Ministry of the Navy and the plant scrambled to prove that the mines and mine-layer device, and are not even … "Naletova system." September 19, 1912 in ITC held on this special meeting, the minutes of which was written: "Meeting certify that Mr. Naletova there is no priority in the proposal for the submarine minefields with a hollow anchor (at zero or close to zero buoyancy mines, while she is in SP) since this question was fundamentally designed for mine before the ITC department offers Mr. Naletova. Because there is no reason to believe that not only developed mines, and the whole being built minelayer "system Naletova. "
Creator of the world's first underwater mine layer M.P.Naletov lived in Leningrad. In 1934, he retired. In recent years, Mike worked as a Senior Engineer in the department of brain mechanics of the Kirov factory.
In the last decade of his own life in his spare time working on improving the raids underwater mine-layers and submitted a number of applications for new inventions in this field. N.A.Zalessky advised M.P.Naletova on hydrodynamics.
Notwithstanding own old age and illness, Michael Petrovich until the last days worked in the design and improvement of the underwater mine-layers.
M.P.Naletov died on March 30, 1938 Unfortunately, during the war and the siege of Leningrad, all these materials were lost.
HOW WAS an underwater mine-layer "CRAB"
Strong housing minelayer — cigar-shaped body is geometrically correct. Frames made of steel box and placed at a distance of 400 mm from one another (quad), skin thickness 12 — 14 mm. To the ends of strong corps were riveted ballast tanks and a box of steel cladding thickness — 11 mm. Between 41 and 68 frames a means of angle steel band and a strong body is bolted keel weighing 16 tons, consisting of lead plates. On the sides of the barriers in the 14 — 115 frames placed "propellants" — boules.
Propellants, made of angular steel and cladding width of 6 mm, were attached to a strong body KNITs 4 mm wide. Four watertight bulkheads divide each propellant for 5 compartments. The entire length of minelayer was an easy add-on to the corner of the steel frames and trim width 3.05 mm (thickness of the superstructure deck — 2 mm).
When submerged superstructure filled with water, why in the bow, stern and middle parts from both sides were placed so called "door" (valves), operated from inside a sound body minelayer.
In the middle part of the superstructure was constructed round in cross-section cutting, made of magnetic steel 12 mm wide. Behind the cabin stood a breakwater.
For dipping served three ballast tanks: medium, the bow and stern.
The average tank was between the 62 th and 70 th frames strong body and divided the submarine into two halves: the bow — a living and feed — machine. For messages between these spaces served as communicating tube tank. The average tank consisted of a 2-tanks: a low-pressure tank capacity of 26 cubic meters. m and high-pressure tank capacity of 10 cubic meters. m
Low-pressure tank, occupying all midship section of the submarine was located between the outer skin and 2 flat bulkheads on the 62 th and 70 th frames. Flat bulkheads were reinforced by eight connections: one flat sheet steel (full width PL), running on deck height, and seven cylindrical, one of which is created-through tube for the dwelling, and the other
four — high-pressure tanks.
In the low-pressure tank with a pressure of 5 atm, was made two Kingston drives are derived from the engine room. The tank was purged with compressed air 5 bar, coming in through a relief valve on a flat bulkhead. Filling the tank low pressure can be created by gravity, pump or immediately both. Typically, the tank was purged with compressed air but not of water can be pumped and the pump.
High pressure tank consisted of four cylindrical containers of different diameter, arranged symmetrically to the center plane and passing through the middle of the bulkhead flat tank. Two cylinders high pressure located over the deck and the two — under the deck. High pressure tank served as a pull-keel, ie doing the same role as that of a tear or medium tank at the Submarine "Bars". It is purged with compressed air at 10 atmospheres. Cylindrical vessels tanks were connected by pipes at the board, and any pair of these vessels had its own kingston.
Device allowing the air conduit allows air to each group separately, this could use the tank for aligning meaningful tilt. Filling the tank top pressure was performed by gravity or pump immediately both.
The nose ballast tank volume 10.86 cu. m was divided by a strong spherical body wall on the 15th frames. The tank was designed for a pressure of 2 atm. Filling it was performed through a separate kingston, located between the 13th and 14th frames and fanfare. Water was removed from the tank or pump with compressed air, but in the latter case the pressure difference outside and inside the tank should not exceed 2 bar.
Aft ballast tank capacity of 15.74 cu. m was placed between a strong body and aft trimming tanks, with its first-separated spherical bulkhead to bulkhead 113-m, and from the second — a spherical bulkhead 120th frames. Like the nose, the tank was designed for a pressure of 2 atm. It could also be filled by gravity through its own kingston or fanfare. Water is removed from the tank or pump with compressed air (with the proviso that of the nasal tanks).
Apart from these main ballast tanks on the frequency barriers were installed auxiliary ballast tank in the bow and stern Trim and egalitarian.
Nasal trimming tanks (cylinder with spherical bottoms) of 1.8 cubic meters. m was located in the add-PL between the 12th and 17th frames.
According to the initial project she was inside the bow ballast tank, but because of shortcomings in the last place (it placed klinkety torpedo tubes, shafts and drive nasal horizontal steering, well underwater anchor and hawse pipe from the main anchor) was transferred to the superstructure.
Nasal trimming tanks was designed to 5 atm. Filling it with water pump was performed, and the removal of water — pump or compressed air. This placement of the bow trimming tanks — in the superstructure above the waterline PL — should recognize the bad, which was confirmed at the subsequent operation minelayer.
In autumn 1916 the nasal trimming tanks removed from the submarine and its role should have been doing nasal propellant tanks.
Aft trimming tanks of 10.68 cu. m was located between 120 m and 132-m and frames from the aft ballast tank separated spherical bulkhead.
This tank, as well as nasal, was designed for the pressure of 5 atm. In contrast to the fore aft trimming tanks can be filled and gravity and pump. Removing water from it either compressed air pump.
To repay the residual buoyancy at wavetraps had 4 equalizing tanks, totaling about 1.2 cubic meters. m Two of them were in front and 2 rear cutting it. Filled them with gravity flow through the tap, fits between the frames cabin. The water was removed with compressed air.
Frequency barriers were installed on two small centrifugal pump in the forward compartment between the 26th and 27th frames, 2 large centrifugal pump an average separation between the pump-action frames 54-62, also one big centrifugal pump on the deck between 1.2 — 105-mi frames.
Small centrifugal pump capacity of 35 cubic meters. m per hour actuated by motors rated at 1.3 hp any. Pump starboard serving vicarious tank, drinking water and provisions, oil tank and torpedozamestitelnuyu starboard tank. Pump port side bow served trimming tanks and an oil tanker port side. Any of the pumps was equipped with its onboard Kingston.
Huge centrifugal pump with capacity of 300 cubic meters. meters per hour actuated by electric motors rated at 17 ps each. Starboard pump pumped, and pump the water over the side of the high pressure tank and the bow ballast tank. Pump port side serving of low pressure tanks. Any pump was supplied with your Kingston.
One large centrifugal pump of the same capacity as the previous two, installed in the stern, aft ballast and served aft trimming tanks. This pump has also been equipped with its Kingston.
Ventilation pipes of tanks high and low pressure were taken into the roof bow cabin enclosure and ventilation pipes fore and aft ballast tanks — the deck superstructure. Ventilation fore and aft trimming tanks was put inside the submarine.
In store compressed air wavetraps was 125 cu. m (by design) at a pressure of 200 atm. The air was stored in 36 iron cylinders: 28 cylinders arranged in the feed to the fuel (kerosene) tanks, and 8 — in the forward compartment under the torpedo tubes.
Feed cylinders divided into four groups, nasal — two. Any group is connected to the air line independently of the other groups. To reduce the air pressure to 10 atmospheres (for high pressure tank) in the bow of the submarine was set expander. The imminent reduction in pressure was achieved partial opening the inlet valve and adjustable pressure gauge. Compressed air to a pressure of 200 atmospheres produced by 2-electric compressor for 200 cu. meters per hour. The compressors were installed between the 26th and 30th frames, and the compressed air line was on the left side.
To control barriers in the horizontal plane is the vertical wheel balancer type area of 4.1 square meters. m driving could manage with 2 methods: using the electronic control and manually. With electronically controlled rotation of the steering wheel to transfer funds to the gears and chains Gall on-board steering wheel, composed of iron rollers.
Shturtrosa received from the motion control computer, connected to a gear with electric motor 4.1 hp Motor drives the next gear to the tiller.
Frequency barriers were installed on three vertical rudder control position: on the bridge and on the bridge cabin (removable steering wheel, integrated with the wheel in the cockpit), and in the aft compartment. Steering wheel on the bridge used for steering while swimming submarine cruising position. For manual operation, a post he served in the stern of the minelayer. Compass was in the cabin next to the wheel, spare compasses were located on the bridge cabin (removable), and in the aft compartment.
To control barriers in the vertical plane when diving for diving and surfacing were installed two pairs of horizontal rudders. The nose horizontal pair Rudei total area of 7 square meters. m was placed between the 12th and 13th frames. Rudder axis passing through the nose ballast tank and there joined sleeve vintozubchatogo sector, as the latter was connected to the worm screw, from which came a horizontal shaft through a spherical bulkhead. The control machine located between the torpedo tubes. Maximum angle of rudders was plus 18 degrees minus 18 degrees. The management of these control surfaces, as well as vertical wheel — electronic and manual. In the first case, a horizontal shaft with 2-pairs of bevel gears was connected to an electric motor rated at 2.5 hp In manual operation included extra gear. Rudder position indicators were two: one mechanical, before the control and other electronic, the commander of the submarine.
About control were hydrobarometer, inclinometer and differentomer.
Rudders are protected from accidental bumps tubular enclosure movement.
Stern hydroplanes on their own device was similar to the bow rudders, but the area was less than — 3.6 m. m Control Machine the stern rudder was in the aft compartment submarines between 110-m and 111 — m frames.
Suppressor was equipped with 2 becomes an anchor and an underwater anchor. Hall becomes the anchor weighed every 25 pounds (400 kg), with one of the anchors was a spare. Anchor hole is located between 6th and 9th frames and cross-cutting was performed on both sides. Tube sheet steel hawse was connected to the upper deck of the superstructure. Such a device is allowed to throw an anchor at will on each side. Anchor capstan, rotating electric motor 6 hp, could also serve as a mooring for submarines. Underwater anchor (the same weight as the surface anchor), representing an iron casting with mushroom-shaped extension was placed in a special pit on the 10th frames. To raise the anchor was used underwater electric portside anchor of service.
For ventilation of premises minelayer were installed 6 fans. Four fans (actuated by motors rated at 4 HP each) capacity of 4000 cubic meters. m per hour were in the middle pomp and submarines in the aft compartments (for 2 fans in every room).
On average, pump-action department for about the 54th bulkhead were placed 2 fan capacity 480 cubic meters. m per hour (driven by electric motors with 0.7 HP). They were used for ventilation of batteries and their performance — a 30-fold air exchange per hour.
On wavetraps been prescribed two ventilation pipes going down, automatically closing on their descent. Nasal ventilation pipe was between the 71 th and 72 th frames, and feed — between 101-m and 102-m frames. When immersed tubes were placed in special oiled enclosure in the superstructure. Initially, in the upper part of the pipe terminated in sockets, but then the latter were changed caps. Podymali pipe and fell worm winches drive which was inside the submarine.
Pipes from nasal fans passed through the secondary ballast tank and connected to the ventilator box, from which there was a common pipe to the standpipe portion.
Tube feeding fans were on the right and the left to the 101st bulkhead where united in one pipe, laid in the add-in to the swing of the ventilator tube. Tube battery fans joined the branch pipe main nasal fans.
Management wavetraps came from cuttings, where his commander. Felling was placed on the middle section of the submarine and was an ellipse with axes 3 and 1.75 m
Sheathing, bottom and four cabin bulkhead are made of magnetic steel, the thickness of the spherical shell and an upper bottom — 12 mm and the bottom of a flat bottom — 11 mm. From logging in the sturdy case led the round shaft diameter of 680 mm, located in the middle of the submarine. The top output hatch, a few shifted to nose submarines covered cast bronze cover with 3 zadraykami and valve to release air from the tainted cabin.
By spherical bottoms were attached tables periscopes, which was two. Periscopes have optical system Hertz dyne 4 m and housed in the aft cabin, in this case one of them in a diametrical plane while the other is displaced to the left by 250 mm. The first was a binocular periscope type, and the second — kombinironno-panoramic. At the foundation of logging was set electric motor 5.7 hp to lift the periscope. For the same purpose had a manual transmission.
In the control room located: vertical steering wheel, Main compass, position indicators of vertical and horizontal control surfaces, engine telegraph, depth gauge and control valves high pressure tank and balancing tank. Of the 9 windows with covers 6 were placed in the walls of the cabin and 3 in the exit hatch.
Frequency barriers were installed on 2 bronze three-bladed propellers with a diameter of 1350 mm rotary blades. The mechanism for the transfer of the blades, placed specifically for the main electric motor, a propeller shaft was translated rod. Change of course with the full front to full rear or front performed manually and mechanically by rotating the propeller shaft, why there was a special device. Propeller shaft diameter of 140 mm were made of steel simensmartenovskoy. Stubborn bearings — ball.
For surface speed were installed 4-stroke kerosene engine eight-Kerting capacity of 300 hp each at 550 rev / min. Motors housed two per side and are connected among themselves and with the main motors of friction clutches. All 8 cylinder engine was so arranged that when disconnecting the 2-halves of the crankshaft every 4 cylinder can work separately. As a result of this combination of power received at the board 150, 300, 450 and 600 hp The exhaust gases from the engines were summed to a total box on the 32nd of frames from which the pipe was to bring them into the atmosphere. The upper part of the pipe, out through the breakwater in the aft part of it was made standpipe. The mechanism for lifting of the pipe by hand and was cited in the superstructure.
Seven separate kerosene cylinders with a total capacity 38.5 tons of kerosene were placed inside a strong housing between 70th and 1-2 th frames. Exhausted kerosene replaces water. The right to operate motors fed from a kerosene tank special centrifugal pump supplies 2 tanks, located in the superstructure, where kerosene done by gravity to the motors.
For underwater course were provided 2 main electric system, "Eklerazh-Electric" with a capacity of 330 hp at 400 rev / min. They were located between 94 m and 102-m frames. Electric motors are open for adjustment of the speed from 90 to 400 by the various groups of anchors and polubatarey. They worked specifically on the propeller shafts, thus while the kerosene motor armature motors were flywheels. With kerosene motors electric motors connected friction clutches, and with stubborn trees — pin sockets, and the inclusion of isolation that perform special noisemakers to the motor shaft.
Battery minelayer, located between 34th and 59th frames, consisted of 236 BATTERY system "Meto". The battery was divided at the board on 2 batteries, each of which consisted of a 2-polubatarey to 59 parts. Polubatarei could connect serially and in parallel. Batteries charge the main motor, is here as a generator and is driven by oil engines. Any one of the main motors had its main station equipped for connection polubatarey and anchors alternately and in parallel, launchers and shunt resistances relay for braking, measuring devices, etc.
Frequency barriers were installed on the two torpedo tubes located in the bow of the submarine, parallel to the center line. Devices built factory "G.A.Lessnera" in St. Petersburg, designed for firing torpedoes caliber of 450 mm on the standard 1908 was wavetraps ammunition of 4 torpedoes, and the two of them were in the TA, and 2 were stored in special boxes for residential deck.
To transfer the torpedoes of the boxes in the units on both sides of the rails were laid, are driving a cart with a hoist. Below deck, the nose compartment was located replacement tank, where the water went down by gravity from the torpedo tube after the shot. Water is pumped from this tank pump starboard bow. For the flooding of the pipe between the torpedo and TA designed tanks annular gap on each side of the bow propellants. Torpedoes were loaded through the nose sloping hatch with minbalki mounted on the superstructure deck.
60 min special type wavetraps symmetrically placed on the center line in the PL 2-channel add-equipped mine ways, feeding loopholes through which to make loading and saving minutes, turning and folding a crane for loading min. Mine the way — this is riveted to a strong chassis rails on which the vertical rollers rolled anchors min. In order to mine never left the rails on the sides of minelayer were fabricated frame with angle brackets, between w
hich were moving side rollers anchors min.
Mina moved on mine paths with the worm shaft, which came out anchors minute drive rollers that rolled between the shoulder straps special guides. Worm shaft spinning electric variable power: 6 hp at 1500 rev / min and 8 ps at 1200 rev / min. The electric motor mounted in the bow of the minelayer to starboard between 31 th and 32 th frames, has been linked by the worm gear and a vertical shaft. The vertical shaft passing through the packing strong submarine hull, bevel gear contacted the worm shaft starboard. To transmit the movement of the left side of the worm shaft right vertical shaft is connected with the left vertical shaft via bevel gears, and transverse transfer shaft.
Any of the rows of the board began a few minutes in front of the nose inlet flap minelayer and ended up at a distance of about 2-minutes from the loopholes. Cover loopholes — iron shields with relsaii for min. The mines were equipped with an anchor — a hollow cylinder with a riveted across the bottom bracket for the 4 vertical rollers that rolled on rails mined roads. At the bottom of the anchor were installed two horizontal roller included in the worm shaft and the rotation of the latter moving into its cutting out and move the mine. When a mine with an anchor fell into the water and held upright, the special disconnect the device from the anchor. In the anchor drop-valve, with the result that water flowed inside the anchor and he received a negative buoyancy. In the first moment of mine fell together with the anchor, and then popped up in advance to set the depth, because it has positive buoyancy. A special device made it possible to anchor minrepu unwound to some extent dependent on the depth of the statement of mine. All manufacture of mines for the production (installation depth, glow glasses, etc.) done in the port, as minutes after receiving a minelayer add them already it was impossible to approach. The mines were placed in a checkerboard pattern usually at a distance of 100 feet (30.5 m). Speed minelayer in setting min can be varied from 3 to 10 knots. Accordingly varied and speed setting mines. Running in the course of the mine elevator control its speed, the opening and closing of feed embrasures — all made from within a strong submarine hull. On wavetraps were signposts number set and the remaining minutes, as the provisions of minutes at the elevator.
Initially, the project on an underwater wavetraps "Crab" artillery weapons had been made, but then the first war patrol on it installed one 37-mm cannon and two machine guns. But later, the 37-mm gun was changed to a larger caliber gun. So by March 1916 at the "Crab" artillery armament consisted of the 1st 70 mm Austrian mountain guns mounted in front of the cabin, I 2-machine guns, one of which was installed in the nose, and the other — behind the breakwater.