Zheltuginskaya republic in the Amur region lasted only three years — from 1883rd to 1886 year. But this is the only experience over the past two years (previously — Cossack republic in the Don and Kuban), when the Russian managed to do — and very successfully — statehood below. However, the management of the republic had to give the German president and Baptists.
Immediately explain about "the only experiment." Yes, in Russia there were 10's "project-tumor" — from the Socialist Republic of Northern in 1918-1919 to Lokotskaya Republic and Old Believer Zuev in 1941-43. But they are one way or another if they were built from the bottom, then under close supervision or occupation, or remnants of the Russian state ("white" and "red" in civilian clothes). There were projects and "peasant" republics in the same plain clothes (with Antonov to Makhno), but they lasted a few months, besides not having time to make a coherent legal system state (the Constitution).
Only Zheltuginskaya Republic had all the properties of the so-called "People's State" — built from below, a general election authorities, the Constitution written. ProtoSShA, no wonder she got a second, unofficial title "Russian California "- its" citizens "was considered a model specifically America.
In the spring of 1883 on a tributary of the Amur River Zheltuge were found large gold deposits. And these thousands of people flocked mines. If illumine to 1883 there lived about 1 million people, by the end of the "state", in 1886 — about 14 thousand people.
Legally, the area belonged to China, defended by 5-10 km from the border with Russia. But in this reach, wooded region to the beginning of the mines he has never been any officials or security forces of both countries. Impeccable situation for the organization of life, as you want.
The colonists immediately chose the artel form of supplies to the area. The brigade consisted usually of 10-15 people, each accounted for some 10 of meters along the streams and the river itself (usually 3-4 pit). First arriving here lyudom management took the alliance cooperatives — the first settlers. Too little South American situation — practically the first ship of the colonists 'Mayflower' founding fathers USA.
And right in the newly formed colonies went awry. Informal leadership on Zheltuge captured urkagan — escaped convicts, "spirtonosy", also all kinds of adventurers, who were traveling here from all over the world. Delivery man robbed — and protect them was to find not from anyone, simply whistleblowers killed in gambling houses have multiplied, the rule is almost a wholesale drunkenness and fornication. The last is to direct attention. At the beginning of "statehood" artel alliance decided that there will be no ladies, Tipo, where a lady — there stabbing and debauchery. And Zheltuga plunged into homosexuality. Later Pole Nosovskiy wrote that "the sin of half the population of the colony fell, even former farmers who seemed to be resistant to morality."
The last straw was the murder in December 1884 of the local chefs. Its not just destroyed — eka prodigy, killed every day — and hacked to pieces. So urkagan want to show "who's power."
Alliance artel, which seemed to be lost political influence in the colony, was able to challenge this lawlessness. This Alliance met weekly. The result was a decision gatherings that "republic" needs a president and parliament. And president should be "fighting small that had the power to resist the nits."
At the general gathering, it was decided to divide the mine by number Zimova into 5 segments, which have received the title states (4 winter quarters were "white", 1 — Chinese). Each state residents had to elect from their own environment 2-chiefs for a period of 4 months.
At the head of the republic was "foreman" or "president" — he was elected by popular vote in all five states. Representatives of the states — 10 people, creating the Parliament. Gathering were established three main principles of the existence of "Russian California": the election of governments, friendship cooperatives (code of economic relations) and the body of law that forms the Constitution. With all the insoluble contradictions establishes the supremacy of the "law of Moses", ie The Old Testament (and this is also referring to the United States, where the Bible — one of the foundations of the country).
The first president was elected Karl Karlovich Fosse — the Austro-Hungarian citizen of Trieste. For another version of his name was Adolf Karlovich Fass, and he was born in the Austro-Hungarian Bohemia. At the end of the day, and was the third version of his name — Karl Karlovich Ivanko — Germanize Rusin, originally from the territory of today's Slovakia. The discrepancy was due to the fact that Zheltuga was a place where people flocked from all over the world, many have been in trouble with the law, and even then preferred not to reveal his own true biography. Certainly there was only one — the first president had at least former subjects of the Austro-Hungarian and German culture medium.
Looking ahead to say that the second President of "Russian California" was elected overman Jeremiah (Jeremiah) Sakharov — Molokan (Russian Baptist), originally from somewhere in Georgia.
German and Russian sectarians generally prevailed in all elected bodies. Of the 10 members of the first parliament of 2 were Chinese (and this is understandable — they were elected from the state, inhabited by only the Chinese), 5 Russian sectarians (Molokans and Old Believers), 1 Ostsee Teuton, 1 Russian (student dropout from St. Petersburg), and 1 Pole . In the next parliament, the ratio Russian sectarians (half), and immigrants from Europe or from the western borders of the Russian Empire maintained.
In the hands of the president and the parliament was all administrative and judicial authority. Warden decided matters of temper and small civilian criminal cases, the punishment of which does not exceed 100 beats (mostly punishment in Zheltuge were chosen corporal, prisons, there was not). On each occasion the leader of the punishment was to report to the president. All together elders forms the first instance court. All other serious cases decided by the President, acting as the second instance. To the level of the most s
erious crimes include murder. Tribunal it done by a public gathering — that element of direct democracy, and once the referendum and the tribunal jury. The signal for a general rally was a shot of 2-guns located on Orlikov field. A shot of a gun convened a council chiefs.
Laws sformirovyvaetsya a kind of "constitution" Zheltuginskoy republic. Adherence to the laws of mandatory was for everyone living in the area of "Russian California". The Constitution was written in 5 copies and was distributed to the states, where after reading it aloud doyen of all the miners were to sign it.
Despite the fact that one of the parts of the control system were the Old Testament, especially outside of religion is not observed. Despite the fact that about 40% of the population are Orthodox, they are 3 years of the republic did not put there, and the church did not create a priest. And representatives of other religions there was one house of worship, which was run by an escaped convict Solomon Molokan. Above the entrance to a house of worship was put the words "Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and Az will give you rest." Molokans, Lutherans, Old Believers, Catholics, etc. pray here at a time, "priest" played one of their environment, it is best knew the Scriptures. One of the first decrees of the President Karl Karlovich abolished the sacraments wedding, funeral, baptism, as of mandatory (it was a rule in the Russian Empire). In practice, this was in Russia the first case of separation of church and state.
Well, the first decree of the President was the cancellation of the previous rule prohibiting a Zheltugu ladies. Fosse led an angry fight against homosexuality that hit the local community. For sodomy was supposed to 500 lashes — it was almost equivalent of the death penalty. In the middle of other similar penalties were — 200 strokes of the cane for night-time noise, for the open drunkenness — 100 rods. Each punished expelled from the village without the right of return, and the border of the colony received another 100 extra strokes. In the executioners, by the way, were taken from the local natives, Siberian and Far East, nations — Buryats, Orochi, etc. — That they had no attachment to any community. Police functions performed by the settlers — "decent people", chosen at a gathering in each state.
In the first month of his tenure as president Fosse ordered that a clinic. It had 15 beds with Myagenko felted cushions with spotless white sheets, a pillow stuffed with grass, with a blanket. In the second chamber housed the pharmacy. In the third — the outpatient department for incoming patients. In the fourth hospital ward housed servants, there was a kitchen. Unhealthy received in the clinic, were treated at public expense, and were fully provided for — morning and afternoon tea, lunch, and dinner 3-course dinner. The content of the ailing break the 3-5 rubles a day, a lot of money in those days. During the month accumulates 1.5-2 thousand And yet it was necessary to keep the circus (where the rate of work on the athletes, magicians and warriors), the fire station, develop the city, etc. The president himself was set salary of 400 rubles per month (as a general in the Russian Empire), mayors, deputies — 200 rubles per month, a lot of money. Where is the republic took the money?
Parliament has established a tax system. Each trader has been entered into the coffers of 10% of the price of their own products. Those who did business with vodka and other alcoholic beverages, to pay 25%. Landlords restaurants and places of entertainment passed 20% of monthly income. Owners of the casino (there were two rooms with a tape measure) — 80% of revenue. Personal income artel-miners are not taxed (income tax system while in general almost never used in the world).
By the end of 1885, crime in the colony was almost defeated (or at least serious ones), homosexuality came to nothing (for year arrived here about one thousand women, half of them — the Chinese woman, they, the Chinese woman, working women were the main public buildings) and put in place post and trade relations with the factors on the Russian countryside.
Obviously, such a republic could not go unnoticed — neither in Russia, nor in China. Information about it was the reach of ordinary people (for example, there were several reports in the press of Irkutsk). And this is a serious smelt sedition, and could undermine the foundation of both despotism. Early spring of 1886, arrived here Russian and Chinese troops. The Chinese own people were executed, the Russians — just broke up, for identifying previously escaped convicts.
Karl Karlovich Fosse, by the way, goes to California. There are traces of it were lost (perhaps once again he just changed the name). Part of the "Russian Californians' moved to the gold mines on the river Gilyuy, but here, in the Amur region. There they made a similar Zheltuginskoy republic — Gilyuyskuyu that, intermittently, was right up to 1922 — though without much scope (with a claim to statehood).
"There can not hit the fact that this multi-million dollar settlement, united by greed and formed from a very unreliable mingled social parts, could be concluded that the formation of a strong central government based that catchy, but on the principles of Russian municipal building and in the spirit of Russian traditions. Zheltuga — a wonderful example of folk samoustroystva, to develop legislation based on their practice "- writes about this country one of modern historians.
However, he forgets to point out that the tradition may be, and have been Russian (in the spirit of Novgorod and Pskov Republics), but the state is beginning to take shape only under the rule of German and "Russian Protestants" — various sects with their tradition of honest work and rassredotachivanii responsibility.
Zheltuginskaya Republic — this is a lesson for those Russians who in the future will be engaged in the municipal building in newness of. And a good example for the skeptics, confident that Russia is not capable of self-organization. Capable — but under the supervision of the elite with the Protestant spirit.