Destiny's first post-Soviet states minions have developed differently. Below — three examples from randomly selected states. If out of them, and you can extract some general lessons, it is trivial: the revolution devours its own children. With all of this criminal may behave noble scientist and farmer.
Election of the presidents of the new independent states of Central Asia were accompanied by fierce resistance of the losing candidates. They deduced supporters to rallies usually end mass slaughter.
And if Islam Karimov in Uzbekistan have the strength to cope (against his election was the only one election loser poet Muhammad Salih), then won the elections in Tajikistan Cahora Mahkamov, who supported the coup. Specifically it to him and put the blame so called "democratic opposition."
If in Russia alteration made to the surface and pushed into the power of the former dissidents who openly hated the Soviets, in Tajikistan the same processes have led to the emergence of religious Islamic Renaissance Party (IRP). IRP and the Democratic Party of Tajikistan (DPT) formed the backbone of the opposition forces have placed his supporters in the square in the center of Dushanbe Shakhidon — right in front of the presidential palace. In those days it was possible to behold not only the Tajik opposition, and the Russian democrats — Sobchak Stankevich Starovoitova, Kovalev, obymalis with his bearded "employee" Said Abdullah Nuri, a favorite of religious Tajik Opposition. The audience furiously denounced the dictator Mahkamova, spoke in support of the democratic process, sought to ban the Communist Party and the Party of Islamic legalize.
Continuously stand Makhamovu was not fate — he had been president only seven months. After the failed coup August 31, 1991 at an extraordinary session of the Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR MPs expressed their disbelief and he resigned.
"Democratic" religious opposition was jubilant. April 21, 1992, then-President Rahmon Nabiyev was already, the opposition took hostage 20 people, brought them to the area Shakhidon and promised to shoot if the management of the country will not go to meet them. In the middle of the hostages were 16 members of the Supreme Council and two deputy prime minister.
Tajikistan began to slowly sink into the abyss of civilian war. The absence of any central authority was issued to the people's favorite variety of people. In Kurgan-Tube in southern Tajikistan, one of the favorites of these was Sangak Safarov — a kingpin, known as "Bobo Sangak. "His role in the modern history of Tajikistan can not be overemphasized — and it was he who was the man with the help of which the past 17 years, the President of Tajikistan stands last director of the Lenin State Farm Dangarinskiy district of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon.
Bobo Sangak was not just a thief — the man with the charisma of strongest led the fight against Islamic separatists pushing the country to the Middle Ages. Arming their criminal squad, he planted it on the jeep and announced that "the bearded men in my area will not, and I'll fight a war for the Russian alliance." So that it became clear that he has in mind, on all machines reddish waving flags, and windshields were portraits of Stalin.
Grandfather Sangak after spending more than a third of his own life in the slammer, used to live by the rules and live under sharia not lusted. Arguments that he led, were ordinary and devastatingly convincing: "I understand that Islam — the religion of peace, and you are naming Allah cut people's heads off. What brought you here, not counting the destruction and killings? Here is the Union — education has been, and Now it is not, clinic work, and now do not work. Earlier ordinary man could send his own son to study in Moscow or Kiev. And at this point be? And what is the usefulness of you? ".
Since Sangak headquarters was in Dangar — just where and ruled State Farm Rakhmonov — not once future Tajik president with a smirk on his face brought a Sangaku pilaf and pouring tea. Instead, his farm has been protected against attacks by "democratically-minded majority." Perhaps then Sangak and decided to make Rakhmonov his protege.
By October 1992 the total number of civilian deaths in the war was estimated at 20 million people, hundreds of thousands of refugees. From the south, left virtually all migrants from Uzbekistan and northern Tajikistan. A general flight of Russian inhabitants, left about 90 thousand man. The industry was paralyzed, agriculture destroyed.
In September 1992, president Nabiev completely lost control not only over the state, but even over adjacent to the presidential palace quarters. He tried to fly from Dushanbe to Leninabad (now Khujand), but at the airport, at gunpoint, forced him to sign a letter of resignation.
From 16 November to 2 December 1992, also in Khujand, was "apologetic" the session of the Supreme Council, which assumed the role of virtually all favorites of warring factions, among which is not the most light weight and credibility had Bobo Sangak. With his active support Rakhmonov was elected chairman of the parliament. A Sangak Safarov became a favorite of the "Popular Front" opposes "Vova".
In the night from 29 to 30 March 1993 in Khatlon oblast in a special forces brigade commander Faizali Saidov under mysterious circumstances Sangak Safarov was killed. Died and Said. According to the Interior Ministry, Sangak Faizali killed, and he himself was shot to run up the watchmen, whose corpses were found in the afternoon.
This version of Tajikistan nobody believes. People who knew Safarov, they say that it "ordered" the Islamists. But many believe that this death was profitable protege Sangak of State, who enjoyed the fruits of patrons to usurp all the power.
Sangak Safarova buried 29 March 1993 in a Muslim cemetery in Bohtar district of Khatlon region. At the funeral of authority flocked known criminals from all over the former Soviet Union, Russian representatives of the command 201 Infantry Division, senior Tajik bureaucrats. Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan Emomali Rakhmonov read from notes eulogy. In 2002, he was dubbed the naming of Military Institute of the Ministry of Defense of Tajikistan.
In-law of the Kyrgyz people
October 27, 1990 at an extraordinary session of parliament, then still called the Supreme Council, the President of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Akayev was elected. It was a compromise figure — a scientist who was educated in Russia, did not go into the details of inter-clan relations. Powerful factions in parliament believed that behind him to be comfortable to solve the real issues of governance. But they have miscalculated: in '94, when the deputies became interested Akayev cases related to the sale of gold from the Kumtor mine, the president dissolved parliament. After the dissolution of the deputies took away a huge part of the features.
Yet Akayev has kept the reputation of "the most democratic president in the region." On it there are at least two prerequisites. In 1991, he was the only president condemned the coup. And later, with his active support in Kyrgyzstan was created Homeric number of NGOs, including those financed directly from the budget of the United States. By early 2000, there were more than five thousand, and these organizations are engaged in all in a row: from freedom of expression and the rights of amnesties to schoolchildren and the elderly. More than half the office space in the capital of Kyrgyzstan were busy offices of these organizations. Almost all thanks to Kyrgyzstan received the proud title o
f the "island of democracy" in the region. And specifically NGOs Akayev could give thanks for awkward ending his career: his overthrow, they played an important role.
Surrounded by Akayev had many charismatics. One of them — former Minister of Internal Affairs and National Security, the last mayor of Bishkek, and now — the deputy and the head of his party "Ar Namys" Kulov. In 2000, he also desired to become Kyrgyz President — but here was arrested on charges of a dozen terrible crimes, none of them has been confirmed in court. Maybe even Kulov lucky — not Hit it on the bench, where he was released after 5 years overthrew Akayev mass, it would be now a political refugee.
In 1997, the family of Presidents Nazarbayev and Akayev intermarried. Local "Komsomolskaya Pravda" responded to this event an excellent headline: "Give me Kirghizia at the whim of his father, in the practical calculation, geo-political." Marriage Aidar Akayev and Alia Nazarbayeva noted the glory — there were artillery salute, and nation-wide festivities. However, the external debt of Kyrgyzstan to the point was already $ 1.6 billion, and the wages of a local doctor — $ 09.12.
The marriage was short-lived, and, apparently, the dissimilarity of manners was not the only prerequisite for divorce, "their Majesties." All the more often and more often to the surface facts of discontent surfaced Kazakh side that was going on in Kyrgyzstan. Severe irritation in Astana Kazakh caused another son-in-Akayev, Adil Toygonbayev. Having married the eldest daughter of Akayev — Bermet Adil swiftly took his control almost the entire economy of Kyrgyzstan and share their action with no one lusted.
This state of "in-law of the Kyrgyz people" does not delight anyone. Normal people openly envied Kazakh prince and accumulated anger. In March 2005, she splashed out on the streets of Bishkek, Akayev demolished, his family and a huge part of the entourage. Thus ended a long 15-year reign of the first president of independent Kyrgyzstan.
At the moment, Akayev lives in Moscow, Moscow State University and teaches at the time gives an interview where, usually, praises himself and berates his own successors.
Behold Georgia and die
The national liberation movement as a revolution eats its own babies, and Georgia is not an exception to this rule: virtually all of its prominent members have died under mysterious circumstances or have been killed.
Georgia seceded from the Soviet Union before its formal dissolution, and this is not unusual: the republic, in its essence and mentality has always been psevdosovetskoy and dissident ideas were not alien to most of the local intelligentsia. Back in 1954 scion of a classic Georgian literature Constantine Gamsakhurdia — Zviad and musician and poet Merab Kostava made clandestine youth group "Gorgasliani." KGB reacted swiftly — they were arrested for anti-Soviet activities.
She had an active extension for 1973 year, when friends formed the activities of the group for the protection of human rights, and then the Georgian Helsinki alliance that supported cramped due to the Russian dissident movement. It turned into a new arrest both. Soon Gamsakhurdia publicly repented for what he did, and Kostava was exiled to Siberia. The closing date was extended to him twice.
At the will of the national-liberation activities Kostava and Gamsakhurdia was resumed. But soon Kostava died in a car crash under mysterious circumstances. Accident and ended disastrously for being with him in the car of the 1st of the prominent favorite of the national liberation movement of Zurab Chavchavadze — he died in a clinic. Third passenger — the ally of both Tamar Chkheidze — survive and prosper.
Kostava buried in the pantheon of public figures on Mtatsminda (Holy Mountain) in Tbilisi. Many in Georgia believe that the accident was a setup, but by whom and why — is unclear. A Gamsakhurdia became the first president of independent Georgia, but was soon overthrown as a result of the 15-day armed confrontation with the opposition. During a rather short Tbilisi war claimed some 10 s man on Rustaveli Avenue and its districts were destroyed huge number of houses. Hundreds of people were left homeless.
A December 31, 1993 Gamsakhurdia died under mysterious circumstances in the village Jikhaishi in the West Georgia, where he was buried. Later, the remains of the first Georgian president were reburied in severity, and then — on Mount Mtatsminda, the same place where lies Kostava. Rumors that Gamsakhurdia was killed and did not shoot himself, recently confirmed the parliamentary commission under the eldest son of the first president.
And another prominent figure of the liberation movement — a favorite of the National Democratic Party Giorgi Chanturia — was eliminated at precisely the time when he was destined for great political future: he was shot in a car in Tbilisi in 1994. His wife and comrade-il Sarishvili was injured. In politics it is not a huge beat out: get lost in the wilds of politicized by nailing it to one party or the other and nowhere for a long time without stopping.
Perhaps only one active member of the national liberation movement of Georgia — Irakli Tsereteli — fell victim to the idea of independence. But like Sarishvili, politically he wilted.