Hitlers Beer Hall Putsch

In 1923, Germany was in economic distress. All the more often and more often inside the municipal policies in the life of the Social Democrats, led by President Friedrich Ebert, was criticized by both the Communists and by right-wing forces. First, such a situation has developed because of the occupation of France industrial area of Germany — Ruhr land, because of the reluctance of German government to pay reparations. Despite the fact that the government urged residents to cooperate fully with the French Resistance, in the end, they agreed to put forward their demands. Also, the German government, formed of representatives of the Social Democratic Party, could not cope with the increasing rate of inflation. This was the reason for the upcoming countless strikes and demonstrations, and municipal coup attempt, entered world history as «Beer Hall Putsch». In Russia, use the term "Beer Hall Putsch", although rather be "beer hall putsch". In some sources, the actions that took place in Munich in November 1923, received the title of the Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch (coup Hitler-Ludendorff). Specifically, now the National Socialist party, led by Adolf Hitler, start your own path to political supremacy in Germany.

Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch

Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff General of the German army colonel, who developed the theory of "total war" (the concept of mobilizing all the resources of civilization to win). He became famous after winning at Tannenberg ("Operation Hindenburg"). From mid-1916 until the end of the war almost the entire command of the German army.

In 1923, dissatisfied with the real state of things National-Socialists joined forces with the government of Bavaria, which were submitted to the limited separatists. The aim of such alliance was to overthrow the regime, which established the Social Democrats in Germany. At the time, Hitler was almost inspired by events in Italy when the fascists led by Mussolini in 1922 managed to capture almost power as a result of the March on Rome.

The March on Rome was held from 27 to 30 October 1922 in the Kingdom of Italy. In its course, there was a change of government by force, making conditions for the seizure of power in 1924, the State of the Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini.

But the two political forces put in front of him completely different goals. Conservatives separatists sought declaration of Bavaria, as the independent state, in what was planned to return to the monarchical rule of Wittelsbach. Hitler, on the contrary, after the overthrow of the opponents sought to make a strong unified government with a massive core of the central government. Commissioner Bavarian Gustav von Kahr — a favorite of the limited separatists, having virtually unlimited authority in their own country, did not make the requirements of Berlin, who called to arrest the favorites of the National Socialist movement and close the print edition Volkischer Beobachter («People columnist"), with 1921 being the martial authority of the National Socialist German Workers' Party. The authorities of the Weimar Republic have decided to kill off all the samples of the National Socialist Party to seize power in Germany, eliminating once and management, and the horn is armed at the time the Nazis. But after refusing to comply with von Kahr authorities, the General Staff of Germany, and that is the commander of the Army Reichswehr, and in fact in-chief, Hans von Seeckt had shown its firm stand against the oppression of the rebellion by the army of the Republic, if the Bavarian government is unable to do so without the help of others. After such a specific statement of political control of Bavaria said Hitler that has so far neither the ability nor the desire to openly speak out against the Republican government. But Adolf Hitler was not going to renounce their plans, he decided to force the top of the Bavarian prinevolit oppose the Social Democrats in Berlin.

Gustav von Kahr controlled by the government of Bavaria from 1917 to 1924. Later, he was chairman of the Bavarian Supreme Court. Being specific monarchist, advocated the autonomy of Bavaria and the decentralization of power. Led a number of monarchist groups.

Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch

Evening Nov. 8, 1923 in Munich beer hall Burgerbraukeller were about 3 thousand people, in order to listen to a speech Commissioner Bavaria Gustav von Kahr. Together with him in the room were other officials: General Otto von loss — the commander of the armed forces and the Bavarian Colonel Hans von Zaysser — the chief of police of Bavaria. During the speeches of the representatives of the local government storm troopers of the National Socialists in the amount of 600 people surrounded the building unnoticed that von Kahr has chosen for his own appeal to the people. The street machine guns were placed, imposed on the ins and outs of the beer hall. At the door of the structure at the time was Adolf Hitler, which holding a mug of beer in his raised hand. At about nine o'clock the next Hitler broke the mug on the floor and at the head of the armed companions rushed between the seats in the center of the room, where, leaping onto a table, fired his pistol into the ceiling and ordered the crowd: "The national revolution has begun!". After that Hitler told the audience about the residents of Munich that the Government of the Republic of Bavaria and from now listed deposed, the barracks of the armed forces and the police seized earth, and the soldiers of the Reichswehr and the police have already marching under the banner of National Socialist swastika. Also, Hitler did not forgot to mention that the hall is surrounded by six acres of militants who are armed up to the teeth. No one has the right to leave Burgerbraukeller, and if not assembled die down, then the gallery will install a machine gun.

The police chief and the commander in chief with von Kar were locked up in the house where Hitler was under threat of physical execution tried to force them to come to Berlin. At this time in a beer hall became Colonel-General Eric Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff, the hero of the First World War, accompanied by the 1st of the founders of the National Socialist German Workers' Party Scheubner-Richter. Until recently, the Ludendorff was nothing clear about the plans of Adolf Hitler, which he expressed at all with the deepest astonishment. But Hitler, which was at the time in the room, not sent any attention to the words of the military and re-turned to the sit-in hall Bavarians. It was announced that a new government will be formed in Munich, Colonel General Eric Ludendorff was appointed commander in chief here, and Hitler himself gingerly appointed himself Reich Chancellor. Increasingly sprayed favorite National Socialists claimed to recognize the swastika now, in the case of an unpleasant death, he promised the next day sit-in hall.

At this time Zaysser background, background and background Kar Lossow confirmed their role in the action against the Social Democratic government in Berlin. Around 22:00 Hitler went outside
to try to resolve the conflict, which appeared between styanuvshimisya government units of the army and police units with Hitler. At this time the storm troopers under the command of Rem seized the headquarters of the army, but were surrounded by subdivisions of a standing army, which remained loyal to the Government of Germany. At this point, Otto von Ludendorff Lossow said that he needed to absent himself in order to make proper headquarters, with all this pressure, "the word Wehrmacht officer." Under various pretexts, managed to leave Burgerbraukeller and Gustav von Kara, and Hans von Zaysseru. After that, the Commissioner of Bavaria immediately gave the order to transfer the government to Regensburg, and the National Socialist German Workers' Party and Hitler's storm troopers (CA) to dissolve and be considered illegal. Himself Gustav von Kahr refused to own statements, made in a beer hall in Munich, and declared them bullied, stretched at gunpoint.

Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch
Odeonsplatz (Feldherrnhalle) 09/11/1923

Hitler was well understood that the attempt to seize power, which was left without any support of the Bavarian government, was a fiasco. Missed commander Ludendorff in such a situation suggested favorite National Socialists seize the center of Munich. The hero of the First World War, his hopes that under the influence of his well-deserved prestige of the army and the police still go over to the rebels. And for the next day on November 9 at 11:00 pillar of the National Socialists under the banner of a swastika moved off to the area of Mary (Marienplatz). Publisher antisemitic newspaper "Der Stuemer" Julius Streicher came from Nuremberg, when vyznat about the performance of the National Socialist German Workers' Party and joined the march is specifically on the area of Mary. He further wrote that the first procession of police patrols do not impede the movement of the columns. But when people under the banner of Hitler's party came close to the headquarters of the army, they want to discourage the government, they blocked the road armed police detachment of about 100 people. Adolf Hitler tried to force the police to lay down weapon in response received only rejection. Moments later shots rang out. For sure it is not clear who fired first — or ground attack, or police. Started a hassle to what group of militants of Adolf Hitler, numbering up to 6 times more than a handful of police officers was one hundred percent crushed. Sixteen National-Socialists were killed, including one of the closest associates of the former corporal Scheubner-Richter. Goering was shot in the thigh. On the back of the loss amounted to only three people. Many of the officers in that skirmish were injured.

Eye-witnesses of the events say that when the shots were heard, Ludendorff and Hitler got experience in the battles of World War II, fell to the ground to escape the bullets. In the coming favorite of the Nazi Party tried to escape, supporters pushed him into the car and drove away. Ludendorff also moved to the ranks of the police officers who made way into a symbol of the deepest reverence for the illustrious general. Remembering these actions much later, Eric Ludendorff called Hitler a coward.

Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch
Fighters of Remus, who had seized the building of the War Ministry. Flag bearer — Himmler

Over time, many participants coup have been arrested and have different terms of imprisonment. But punishment for the conspirators was very Myagenko. For instance, Hitler, as the organizer of an armed rebellion and trying to seize power in the Weimar Republic, was only 5 years old bullpen. Hess and Goering fled to neighboring Austria. Hess later returned to Germany, he was arrested and convicted. In the bullpen to prisoners sentenced in the case of rebellion, had a very loyal: allowed to gather at the table and open a discussion political issues. Hitler during his stay in prison in Landsberg managed to write a great part of their work Mein Kampf, in which laid out the basic principles and ideas of the National Socialist movement.

One of the banners under which trod ground attack, then it was sacred to the Nazis, because according to legend, it got the blood of killed Nov. 9, 1923 members of the National Socialist German Workers' Party. Later, during the rite of consecration of banners bloody flag was used by Hitler for ideological propaganda. A homage to fallen comrades and the celebration of day or "Beer Hall Putsch" were held in Germany every year, From the moment of arrival of his party to power in 1945 and ending with the year.

Ludendorff was also arrested, but the tribunal acquitted him. Colonel-General became a member of the German Parliament, representing the National Socialist Party. He also participated in the presidential elections in Germany, but lost, gaining only only one percent of the vote. Later, quite disappointed in the ideology of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, including Adolf Hitler, left the religion, leaving politics. Hitler also did not forget his own teammate, and even invited to take the post of Field Marshal of the armed forces of the Third Reich, but was refused with the words: "field marshals, not made they are born." After the death of the commander of all pochetaemogo buried with due honors. Gustav von Kahr was killed during the "Night of Knives longish" ("Operation" Hummingbird ") on the personal orders of Adolf Hitler.

In the process of the "Beer Hall Putsch" no goals were achieved. Although some political dividends nationalists still got it. On the party and their movement, about which virtually no one has heard before in Germany in November 1923, found everywhere. And the number of followers of Adolf Hitler's thoughts began to grow rapidly. In addition, the future Fuhrer drew conclusions that power by force or armed rebellion did not get it. To begin to capture broad support from the community, and at first the people who own large capital …

Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch
Bürgerbräukeller in 1923

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