Once people have conquered the moon, has spoken lots of historical phrases, and astronaut Alan Shepard played golf in the moonlight, the next challenge was to mankind Mars. While the space-faring nations are competing for the right to hoist their flag first on the surface of the Red Planet, real people are getting ready for the flight.
What are the stressful situations they face? Or maybe go mad? And whether there will be people in the full sense of the word?
WAITING FOR ASTRONAUTS symbolic death
But why do people suddenly need to go to Mars? If the Moon race between the U.S. and the USSR, with all due respect to scientific experimentation was of more political in nature, the taming of the God of War can be quite practical purpose. Scientists who study the fourth planet, come to the conclusion that it was once in the same atmosphere, as on Earth. Mars had rivers, seas, lakes, vegetation, but it disappeared without trace. Maybe Mars — Earth's future? Revolutionary series of experiments that can be performed only on this planet has to answer this question.
And scientists look to Mars, for fear of asteroids that threaten Earth. Who knows, maybe someday fear will cause the ice in the red dust of apple blossom?
The well-known St.-Petersburg analyst Dmitry Olshansky, the colonization of Mars poses a number of intractable human psychological problems. "If the ultimate goal of the project is the colonization of the Red Planet, the travel will be like a one-way trip. That is, the first settlers would have to say goodbye forever, not only with your family and loved ones, but also with the Earth and with the way of life that lead her people.
It is a kind of "symbolic death", which will have to go through the astronauts. With all the communications and mechanical simulations, they would never see earthlings and not be able to feel the earth's life. On the one hand, they cease to be a part of humanity, on the other hand, they carry the human form of life on another planet, "- said Dmitry Olshansky.
With the advent of private capital in the exploration of outer space manned mission to Mars in the foreseeable future is becoming more realistic. American billionaire, and the first space tourist Dennis Tito is committed to sponsor an expedition to Mars. It is planned that the flight will be held January 5, 2018-year. The spacecraft will reach Mars on August 20 of that year. The very same experiment will end May 21, 2019-year.
According to preliminary data of the cost of the mission will be five hundred million dollars. And the epitome become expendable booster family "RN Falcon" of the company SpaceX. The first manned flight to Mars does not involve exploring the planet's surface. The crew only fly around the Red Planet and will be watching it from a distance of a hundred miles.
At this stage of development of mankind has all the scientific, technical, and financial capacity to carry out an expedition to Ares. All of those issues that is associated Martian Voyage: breaking technology, ionizing radiation, one way or another will be resolved, but the time — a player who is not on the side of the people.
500 and 1 day MICROGRAVITY
Rushing to the flight to Mars is quite justified. It is associated not only with the desire as quickly as possible to deliver the person to the Red Planet. The fact is that for 2018 the year have so-called Great confrontation. It was during this time, Mars will be very close to the Earth. The next time to "resist" to us this world would be a militant in 2031, the year.
Flight to Mars and back will take 501 days. The previous record of the longest space flight owned by Russian cosmonaut Valery Polyakov, 437 days. However, prolonged isolation, plus a half-hour delay due to the Earth are able to put pressure on the psyche of even the toughest of space "nuts."
Social psychologist Eugene Yakushev believes that psychological problems are bound to stand up to the members of the crew. The bottom line is that the astronauts learned how to effectively resolve them within the ship. "Psychological problems can occur for many different reasons, but the main one is the internal disorder, for example, when one of the members of the crew suddenly raise their personal desires above the group. It is therefore very important that these things are immediately resolved — is a complete mutual return and complement each other on the mental and physical properties, "- said the expert.
Dmitry Olshansky is convinced that problems with communication among crew members should arise: "With the challenges of marginalized groups, psychologists have worked for a long time, including in the various expeditions, and in prison, and a special psychological projects for astronauts, which since 1967 of the year in our country was carried more than twelve.
Phenomena such as psychological overload, learning new information and rules of conduct, internal dynamics, aggression, conflict, struggle for leadership and so on — have long been studied, predictable and solved as far as they can be solved remotely. "
Psychoanalyst believes that the main difficulty of the Mars mission fraught with problems that are here — on Earth — even impossible to foresee. So it is unclear to what, in fact, make the "Columbus of the cosmos."
Another expert, Eugene Yakushev sure — the quality of the selection of the crew depends largely on the success of the mission: "The most difficult and yet important task is to pick up the crew so that they were sranzhirovany as organs in a single body. Where every single member of the crew would perform its function purely, not only as a specialist, but also had a congenital mental properties, which would be complementary to the other members of the crew, or rather, their properties psyche.
Because it is such a complex and lengthy expedition as a mission to Mars will require the full commitment of all participants. The ship — it is literally a living organism with its cells, organs, sub-systems and the general body. Therefore, the selection of team members should be very careful. "
Martian SIBLINGS — NEW RACE?
The most realistic contenders for the Mars mission called a married couple from SShATeybera McCallum and Jane Poynter. The couple already have the experience of a long stay in a confined space, when in 1991-1993-th years. They took part in the experiment "Biosphere 2".
Plus or minus is for the Mars mission, psychologists do not undertake to judge clearly. On the one hand, people who are long enough to know each other, have learned to co-exist together. The other side of the coin can be a problem common to all married couples. According to Jakusheva one love here is not enough. Important psychological compatibility of partners.
"Couple must also be in its sranzhirovany congenital mental properties to be complementary to each other, and not merely a married couple. Simply put, the eye should see your feet — walking, ears, hear. Then no one will annoy each other, "- says social psychologist.
Dmitry Olshansky, in turn, I'm sure that all depends on the purpose of the expedition. In a manned mission, scheduled for 2018, the year there is no fundamental difference whether the crew members or their spouses do not. If in the future, humanity decides to populate Mars, the pair started on Earth will be able to find common ground and on the Red Planet. "I think that if the goal is to give rise to a new population, then of course it is better if the trip will go to the already established couples," — said the analyst.
By the way, if scientific progress would step so far as to actually be colonized Mars, children born on the Red Planet will be absolutely not the same as on Earth. "The interest of anthropologists will be linked to subsequent generations of immigrants. Born on Mars kids will not like earthlings not physiologically or psychologically, as it puts not only the number of questions of psychology, but also anthropology, philosophy and bioethics. How appropriate modifications and humanely put body and soul, and what will be the actions against human nature? And what is considered a "human"
form of existence, and if the body and senses, and language undergo such transformation? Will the Martians a new human race, or new biological species, along with Homo sapiens? "- Asks the question, Dmitry Olshansky.
So there will be life on Mars or not — is, as they say, science does not know. The debate on this will cease only when another Neil Armstrong made his "giant step for mankind", but on the Martian dust. But sooner or later — it will happen. And who knows, maybe the fourth planet from the Sun will be the second refuge for everyone on earth?
NAKED SCIENCE April 2013