Measles

Measles.  Photo from www.lib.uiowa.edu

Measles— An infectious disease that is caused by the measles virus. The probability of infection neperebolevshego measles through contact with the patient is close to 100%. Most often affects children of pre-school and school age.

The source of infection is a sick man. The patient is contagious for4-6 days before the rash appears during the first 4 days of rash. The infection is transmitted airborne way — by coughing, sneezing, talking and even breathing. It is also possible vertical transmission of measles — a pregnant woman's fetus.

What's going on?

The incubation period lasts an average of about1-2 weeks.

The virus then enters the blood from the mucous membranes of the mouth and pharynx, and extends to almost all organs and tissues.

Begins measles with:

  • lethargy;
  • headache, loss of appetite;
  • coryza with copious mucous (white) or muco-purulent (Yellow-green) secretions;
  • dry, "barking" cough;
  • hoarseness of voice;
  • conjunctivitis (red eyes and watery). The patient complains of pain in the eyes, his annoying glare;
  • raising the temperature to 390C and above.

On 3-5 feeling sick day is somewhat improved, decreasing the temperature. However, after day the temperature rises again. On the inside of the cheeks are formed characteristic spots resembling the accumulation of grains of semolina.

Two days later developed a typical manifestation of measles — a rash. The rash consists of small papules (blisters), surrounded by a patch, it is shallow and abundant, bright, able to merge to cover the entire surface of the body, in severe cases, the skin formed small hemorrhages.

For a typical measles rash Stages of rash:

  • On the first day they appear behind the ears, on the scalp, face, and neck;
  • On the second day — on the trunk and upper arms;
  • On the third day — the legs and lower arms. At the same time the rash is on the face grow pale.
  • On the fourth day of the rash continues to fade in the same order that they appeared, leaving a peeling and skin darkening (pigmentation).

Complications of measles: Laryngitis (inflammation larynx), cereals (stenosis of the larynx), bronchitis, otitis media (ear infections), the primary measles (viral) pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth), measles encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) hepatitis, lymphadenitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis.

The most frequent complication measles — pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs).

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis is based on medical examination and contact details, a child with measles.

In mild cases, treatment is carried out measles at home. Provide comfort to the patient, ambient lighting (conjunctivitis bright light causes severe pain). We recommend drinking plenty of fluids, antihistamines (anti-allergic) drugs, rinsing the mouth with a solution of baking soda. To prevent complications in the eye instilled anti-inflammatory drops (sulfatsil interferon).

With the development of complications of a child is hospitalized. Weather in most cases favorable. In rare cases, complicated measles can lead to permanent disability due to brain damage, blindness and deafness.

After the disease lifelong immunity.

Prophylaxis

Russia has a national program for measles, whose task is the complete destruction of the disease in the territory of the Russian Federation. Measles vaccination is included in the calendar of mandatory vaccinations. It is carried out without a history of measles for children 12-15 months. The second vaccination is carried out at the age of 6 years (before school). Perhaps the introduction of a monovalent vaccine (measles only) and the triple vaccine (measles, mumps and rubella).

 

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