Israel began to develop anti-ship missiles just after 6 after the country's independence. In 1954, the year of Raphael (at that time it was called the Institute 3) engaged in the development protivokarabelnoy missiles under the name G-25, created to spoof the coastal cannon artillery. Later adapted for launching a rocket from the board of Dakota transport aircraft, with the operator, the guided missile with a joystick, located side by side with the pilot. Range of acts of this missile was limited to line of sight of the operator, and was less than 20-km distance. Noteworthy that the missile and offered ground troops, but the command has not expressed intrigued, referring to the fact that a small range 6km very much for the Army, as well as the largest range "Exceeds the requirements of the Army."
Navy accepted with pleasure the missile into service, giving it the name "Luz". Another remarkable thing: the missile for the first time was tested on May 18, 1959, on board the destroyer, the Eilat, then the victim of Russian-made anti-ship missiles. The testing revealed the main shortcoming rocket. Relatively thick smoke rocket motor propulsion and gas control devices significantly hampered by the operator optical guidance missile to the target. In the main it affected the pointing accuracy of the adjustment, so from time to time, the rocket did not reach the target, or passed over it. In the Navy has been specially created group involved in the creation of electronic control devices.
In August 1962, Egypt had tests missiles, surface-to-earth made by German scientists have received shelter in the land of the pyramids. The fact that the test is not to joke alarmed the control of Israel, charging Rafael urgently undertake the development of missiles, surface-to-earth. Raphael threw all their forces to the project postponing the subsequent development of RCC "Luz". As a result, the development of anti-ship missiles, "Luz" ran across the concern of Israel Aircraft Industry (Israel Aircraft Industry, IAI). IAI had to do with the creation of RCC "Luz", but eventually got a crude rocket. To the end of missile development in IAI was created by a group of engineers led by those who joined for the purposes of Rafael engineer Uri Evan Tov (?????). He changed the concept of missile guidance system dividing into two components, one consists of a radar altimeter, and the other semi-active radar homing head. First rocket allowed to approach the target at low altitude, the second highest secrecy ensured implementation (GOS exuded nothing), which fully justified itself in battles with Egypt and Syria. On the other hand, the guidance system limits the range and not create a fire-horizon.
Because the IAI has been approached by more than the Ministry of Defence, that, despite the delay in the project, its financing problems did not appear. Developing successfully ended in 1969, the year when carried on board the missile boat Haifa PKR Gabriel successfully hit the target, simulating an enemy missile boat. Immediately after these tests Israeli navy took Gabriel anti-ship missiles into service.
By the war Judgment day or RCC Gabriel was in service with the majority of missile boats BMS Israel. In the course of the war were fired about 50 missiles, half of which hit their target (more info here).
So Makar, range anti-ship missiles Gabriel Mk1 was about 20 km (according to some sources, 25 km). She was armed with a semi-active homing (GOS), significantly limiting the ability of military boats, radar because his boat was supposed to be in active mode and illuminate the target until its destruction. On the other hand, it has spurred the creation of Israel and the active use of advanced electronic warfare and develop a strategy for the introduction of RCC. So, they launched only after all the running enemy anti-ship missiles disoriented and was taken away by a military course of clutter.
By 1972, the ninth year of RCC was developed by Gabriel Mk2 over-range offense is 36 km, which was achieved by increasing the size and increase the properties of the solid propulsion motor. Missile guidance system configuration has endured and also limited the ability of military boats. The missile entered service in 1976, the year. In Taiwan, the RCC Gabriel Mk2 performed under the title Hsiung Feng 1, and in South Africa under the title Skerpioen (scorpion).
In 1978, the year has been a model of RCC Gabriel MK3 A / S. She endured significant changes and could also apply to the F-4 "Fantom", A-4 "Sky Hawk", C2 "Kfir", "Sea Scan". It has a firing range of 60 (other sources say 80) km, and active radar homing allows its use in the "fire and forget".
The missile has a normal aerodynamic scheme. The housing consists of 3 main sections. The first is system guidance, including an inertial navigation system and a seeker, in the 2nd power supply in the 3rd polubroneboynaya warhead designed to hit targets of different classes and curb contact fuse slow action. In the middle of the fuselage has a cross-shaped wing 4 and 5 propulsion system, the stern — cruciform control surfaces actuators 7 and 8. Rocket has a small effective surface cross section (RCS).
Active radar homing noise-protected X-band frequency hopping frisky able to operate in a mode of homing in on the ship's Jammer, so makarom significantly reducing the effectiveness of missile defense attacked the ship.
Running ASM Gabriel MKZ A / S aircraft carrier is in the range of heights of 90-9000 meters, at speeds of 400-650 km / h at low altitudes of 650-750 km / h on huge.
Targeting can be done in 2-modes: standalone and with the adjustment of an inertial navigation system midcourse line movement. First used when starting from ground attack missiles (fighter-bombers), and the second with the basal planes patrol aircraft filled with radar that can accompany several goals at once (the plane "Sea Skan").
When shooting in the first mode, the bearing and distance to the target 5, determined by radar or taken from other aircraft are introduced into the onboard computer rockets at once with current information about the speed and the spatial position of the carrier at the time of launch. After launch the missile falls in area 2 to a height of 20 m, then makes a horizontal flight under the control of the radio altimeter. To ensure a gentle descent angle of pitch is controlled by programmke in advance in the memory of the calculator.
Homing missiles in the horizontal plane of the midcourse 3 provides an inertial navigation system and onboard computer. After the release of the search area 4 in advance of the programmed point cut one active seeker, is the discovery and seizure of seven goals. On the site of homing 8 altitude, regardless of the sea state, is 1.5, 2.5 or 4.0 meters. In the inertial frame of the current GOS without annoying entered the bearing and distance to the target, adjusting the trajectory of flight control is done over the rudders.
The main mode of control of RCC Gabriel MKZ A / S is offline. Cueing with all this done by 3 methods.
The first method is the automatic insertion of data from the airborne radar. At the entrance to the aircraft carrier in the area range missiles acts targeting data entry and stops flashing LED informs the pilot's ability to launch anti-ship missiles.
Second method provides for receiving data from the external intelligence tools, such as other aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicle.
The third method is more common, the calculated values of the bearing and distance to the destination entered into the digital computer manually via rocket fire control panel. In addition, for the timely inclusion of GSN pilot establishes one of the calculated ranges of the flight range missiles: short-range (up to 20 km), medium (20-40 km) and far (over 40 km).
To reduce the search area (ie, the growth of time spent in secret homing mode) when you hover rockets Gabriel Mk 3 is free adjustment inertial midcourse line movement. In this case, the aircraft carrier continues to accompany the goal after a rocket launch and adjusts the line of movement of its flight by radio command strip. Correcting mistakes 6 inertial system reduces the possibility of evasion purposes, in addition, there is a massive opportunity for countering include an active seeker in a particular vicinity of the attacked ship.
Mast rocket Gabriel MKZ also can also be used in the radio command guidance mode, the radar illumination purposes, like a missile of early versions.
Rocket Gabriel MkZ is in service with the Israeli Navy in 1982 (some sources say that it has not been put into service.)
The story of the RCC Gabriel Mk4 covered lurking, but according to some reports it is armed with a turbojet engine and has a range of 200 km in the act. The number of rockets made and adopted also not reported.
The forthcoming development of RCC RCC is Gabriel Gabriel Mk5, developed at the present time concern IAI. This last line of RCC Gabriel aims to become the main antiship weapons Israeli navy ships. In size it would fit the type of Exocet anti-ship missiles and Harpoon. The implication is that Gabriel Mk5 will own more than the highest performance than most of the modern anti-ship missiles, especially when used in coastal waters and in overcoming advanced missile defense (soft-kill and hard-kill) the enemy.
Perhaps the new version will be based on a version of early, replacing the Navy Gabriel Mk2. The existence of such missiles (question about Gabriel Mk4) has never been officially confirmed, but indirect evidence for its existence is the fact that, unlike the majority of other users of Israel has not updated their anti-ship missiles Harpoon (RGM-84D) to the Configuration Block II (RGM- 84L).
Hints at the possibility of the existence Gabriel Mk4 first appeared 2000s, when IAI took part in an international tender for equipping the new frigates of Singapore Navy. In the end, Singapore has suspended its own choice on the missiles Harpoon.
Gabriel Mk5 will use an advanced active seeker supported by a modern control system, created to optimize the overall combat effectiveness of the RCC. At the rocket will be significantly improved the ability to distinguish and target selection, especially in the coastal waters are usually congested sea transport, as in the creation of broad criteria and complex signals wrong purposes. Like most advanced anti-ship missiles, Gabriel Mk5 will be able to overcome the enemy's defense, whether the means of multi-output system, or fire weapons. It is developed to meet modern action for breach of enemy electronic warfare, the use of advanced decoys and jamming.
Expected Gabriel Mk5 will become an integral part of a new set of offensive and defensive systems under development at the present time concern IAI. This is a brand new weapons system will also include SAM distant radius acts Barak-8, multi-mode integrated system of command and control and multi-functional ship's radar Elta (IAI) EL/M-2248 MF-STAR, which argues Elta is superior to the performance indicators Radar SPY-1 AEGIS .
According to statements made by IAI, RCC Gabriel Mk5 will be able to overcome the limitations of existing missiles:
overcome the problems of selectivity (discrimination and selection of targets) in busy coastal waters;
cope with the rapidly changing tactical situation;
cope with a number of coastal targets;
overcome similar chaff, false targets and active interference;
overcome means destruction by fire (hard-kill defense).
PKR Gabriel exported to dozens of third world countries. On the experience of the introduction of martial indicated above.
The performance properties of RCC Gabriel