Work on the complex began in 1967. Tests on the first standards came seven years later. Along with the fire part was being developed radio, namely, radar detection and targeting PS-70 / R. RBS-70 MANPADS in 1977 adopted it. The complex occupied a niche between the L70-caliber artillery systems and 40 mm anti-aircraft missile system of medium-range "Hawk". RBS-70 in SW Sweden was intended to ensure the protection of unit-level "battalion-company."
In 1981 he developed the first mobile version of the complex based on "Land Rover" — the highest terrain vehicle. In the upcoming set of RBS-70 mounted on various tracked and wheeled armored vehicles.
Work on the modernization of the RBS-70 actually started since the creation of the complex. In 1990 he carried out the modernization Rb-70 missiles, which ultimately received the designation Mk1. Subsequent modification of the anti-aircraft guided missiles — Mk2 — entered service in 1993. First, in 2001 announced the completion of the development of missiles under the symbol Bolide.
With 1998 being upgraded all parts of MANPADS to the introduction of a new transmission standard disk imaging for creating a single information space defense system.
During the existence of MANPADS were released about 1.5 million launchers and more than 15 thousand missiles of all modifications. Now portable anti-aircraft missile system RBS-70 is in service with the armies of Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Norway, the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, Singapore, Thailand, Tunisia, Sweden and some other countries. Is used both in the Army and in the Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps.
According to the company "Saab Bofors Dynamic's", at the end of 2000 the total number of rockets was 1468, more than 90% of the hit targets.
On the English international arms fair DSEi-2011 was demonstrated upgraded MANPADS, designated RBS-70NG. The new multi-purpose complex with a rocket Bolide last generation, can withstand a wide range of ground and air threats, including helicopters, planes, cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles and armored cars. Sight Night Vision and built the imager can hit enemy targets NIGHT MODE and days are in difficult weather and weather conditions. Automatic target detection and target designation three-axis lower reaction time, and auto-tracking system makes it easy takeover target by the operator and increases the possibility of defeat in all ranges of missiles flying.
The composition of RBS-70 MANPADS
When you start rocket Rb-70 ejected from the container at a speed of 50 meters per second. Then cut one solid rocket boosters engine running for 6 seconds and accelerates the missile to supersonic speed (M = 1.6). At this time, the operator should delay the goal in sight stabilized sight. The emitted laser beam aiming unit forms a "corridor", the center of which moves the missile. Low power applied complex, and the lack of radiation to the missile launch detection difficult RBS-70 MANPADS. Command prompting the operator increases noise immunity and allows the missile strike vigorously maneuvering targets.
Although any PU can be used independently, especially use case is the use of MANPADS RBS-70 pulse-Doppler radar PS-70 "Giraffe", which operates in the 5.4-5.9 GHz spectrum and supports a range of detection of air targets up to 40 thousand m., range escort — 20 thousand meters of the radar antenna on the mast rises to a height of 12 meters. Radar PS-70 "Giraffe" can be installed on different chassis, including all-wheel drive axle motor vehicle Tgb-40 crawler transporter Bv-206, etc. Time deploy a radar station — less than 5 minutes. The calculation of the station consists of 5 members, providing a manual tracking of the three objectives of serving with all this firepower to 9 calculations.
Data to arrive at the remote command and control, where are directed to specific launchers. With all of this operator missile system receives information about the purpose of an audio signal to the headphones. Key signal is dependent on the position of the target relative to the installation. The response time of MANPADS — 4-5 seconds.
A typical training course with the introduction of the simulator operator takes 15 to 20 hours, distributed over 10-13 days.
Anti-aircraft guided missile produced by conventional aerodynamic design and is equipped with a two-stage solid-propellant sustainer engine, which is located in the middle of it. In the forward compartment is located warhead, undermining the impact of which can be performed either by laser proximity fuse. The goal is affected by cumulative charge (armor — up to 200 mm) and a ready-spherical elements, are made of tungsten. Laser receiver placed in the tail section of the incoming missile.
Final production version of the anti-aircraft guided missiles — Rb-70 Mk2. The field of view of the laser radiation receiver increased to 70 degrees gave the opportunity to expand the capture area by 30-40 percent. Despite the fact that the missile was equipped with a large-sized sustainer engine is also more effective warhead (the tungsten bulbs increased from 2 to 3 thousand, increased explosive mass) due to the miniaturization of the electrical parts of the mass and size of the incoming missile remained the same. Range engage aerial targets — to 7 thousand meters, average and maximum flight speed of missiles increased. The possibility of defeat missile Rb-70 Mk2 subsonic targets on a collision course ranges from 0.7 to 0.9 on the Dogon courses — 0.4-0.5.
For 2002, the planned creation of the latest batch Bolide missiles for portable anti-aircraft complex RBS-70. Bolide — profound modification of the Rb-70 missiles Mk0, Mk1 and Mk2. The missile is designed for use with existing installations. The purpose of the creation of the missile was to increase the possibility of missile system to fight vigorously maneuvering and hardly visible targets, such as the CD. A rocket install
ed new components: the fiber optic gyroscope, reprogrammable electronics, advanced solid-propellant rocket engine. Improved remote detonator (introduced two modes — for small and large targets) and BSc. The shelf life of anti-aircraft guided missiles in transport-launch container is seeking 15 years. The new power supply fuse is asking for and meets the standard MIL-STD-1316E.
The scheme Bolide missiles
a laser receiver;
electronics and gyroscope;
battery and power electronics.
The structure of the launcher RBS-70 include:
— anti-aircraft guided missile in the transport and launch container (total weight 24kg);
— guidance assembly (weight 35 kg), consists of an optical sight (with 9 degrees field of view and a 7-fold increase) and the laser beam forming device (adjustable had MF);
— equipment identification "friend or foe" (weight 11 kg)
— power supply and tripod (weight 24kg).
It is possible to connect the thermal Clip-on Night Device (COND), which is attached to the PU, ensuring the application of rocket system without lowering the devil in black clock. Wavelength spectrum imager — 8-12 microns. Imager is equipped with a closed-cycle cooling system.
Elements of RBS-70 are located on a tripod. Its upper part is a container with a guided missile and a fastening element unit guidance, and at the bottom — sitting arrow operator. To deploy the launcher takes 10 minutes recharge time — 30 seconds. Carrying RBS-70 MANPADS quite 3 people.
Self-propelled variants RBS-70 MANPADS
In almost all cases, to increase the mobility of the complex RBS-70, it installed on tracked or wheeled chassis. So, for example, in Iran as the used car chassis highest patency "Land Rover" in Singapore — wheeled armored vehicle "Commando" V-200 in Pakistan — tracked armored personnel carrier M113A2. Mounted on the chassis or other complex RBS-70 for kutsee time shooting for use as a portable anti-aircraft missile system.
In the armed forces of Sweden used self-propelled version of the RBS-70 — Lvrbv 701 (Type 701). Elements of the complex are mounted on tracked armored chassis Pbv302. Transfer time from marching to the combat situation — less than 1 minute. Complexes RBS-70 is also used as a means of naval defense. In the Swedish Navy, for example, RBS-70 are part of the weapons patrol boats like "Steer" and minesweepers type M-80. Launcher is the same tripod as for the ground-based version.
Advantages and shortcomings of RBS-70
In comparison with modern man-portable air defense systems with ultraviolet and infrared homing ("Mistral", "needle", "Stinger"), RBS-70 complex benefits significantly on the firing range, especially on a collision course. The ability to hit targets outside the 4-5 km enables RBS-70 to provide air defense in cases where it can not perform other MANPADS. The main drawback of the complex is a large mass (launcher and two anti-aircraft missiles in transport-launch containers "pull" of 120 kg). To deliver such "portable" set to the desired point to use the vehicle, or mount it on the chassis. RBS-70 is unrealistic to use the shoulder, use or transfer criteria for the forces in the field of 1 person, that is not always acceptable (one of the reasons for which this MANPADS lost the tender in South Africa).
Command method guided anti-aircraft guided missiles RBS-70 assigns the appropriate features in the set are the ability to fight well with the goals of flying at low altitudes, the best noise immunity, but all of this vulnerability calculation, as the highest requirements for the preparation of calculation. The operator must quickly judge the distance to the target, the height, direction and speed, for the decision to launch the missiles. Tracking of the target to take 10 to 15 seconds, requiring clear and fast-paced action in the criteria of significant mental stress.
The advantages of the complex as are its comparable low price — about half the price of portable anti-aircraft missile system "Stinger".
Tests and operations
RBS-70 in actual combat was used only in the Iran-Iraq military conflict in 1980-1988. In the Iranian military complex occupied a niche between the Chinese copy of the Russian MANPADS "Strela-2" and the anti-aircraft missile system of medium-range "Hawk" South American production. RBS-70 in the fields of labor appeared in the January-February 1987. The highest mobility of these systems is permitted to organize an ambush on possible routes Iraqi Air Force combat aircraft. It is believed that the specific RBS-70 MANPADS destroyed a large part of the 42 (other sources — 45) aircraft lost Iraq.
The performance properties of the RBS-70 MANPADS:
Type of anti-aircraft guided missiles — Rb-70Mk0/Rb-70 Mk1/Rb-70Mk2 / "Bolide";
Year of adopting — 1977/1990/1993/2001;
Most range — 5000 m/5000 m/7000 m/8000 m;
Short range — 200 m/200 m/200 m/250 m;
Ceiling — 3000 m/3000 m/4000 m/5000 m;
Maximum speed — 525 m / s / 550 m / s / 580 m / s / 680 m / s;
The length of the incoming missile — 1.32 m (all types);
The diameter of the guided missile — 105 mm (all types);
Weight guided missile — 15 kg / 17 kg / 17 kg / -;
Weight (type) of the warhead — 1 kg (O) / — / 1.1 kg (CO) / 1.1 kg (CO)