In the late 70's in Sweden for the first time was offered a climbing plant the gun, which provided a good overview of the tank commander "from the top point", while Cannon was rising and aims to open fire. This main battle tank is a very small target in the conduct of fire due to asylum, and that the right to be fired. This will not have to move the car to achieve a horizontal exit from enemy observation. If certain permissible limit shock targets located on the flanks, in this case it is possible to resort to specific automatic loading of the aft housing. For such machines rather have only 2 crew members. But you may need the third member of the crew to ensure a long continuous actions.
The success of the development of the assembly reckless tank will depend on the solution to the problem of integration mechanism traverse and gun hoist gun, vertical guidance (rise and decline), anti-recoil devices and targeting and monitoring in one combined set of small dimensions, which could, installed and removed from the body as a whole. This combination unit, at one point made, will be able to acquire a significant export potential because it can be installed on a common chassis, developed and manufactured by other countries.
Fig. 1. Experimental benchmark KLKE (Elevated Kinetic Energy), armed with 75-mm cannon Ares, mounted on the chassis M551. Maybe it's more complicated variant of the mechanical system of the elevator installation guns subjected to painstaking tests. Despite the enormous advantages comparable, this configuration was more applicable for light tank destroyers than for full-size main tank
The purpose of the tower is, of course, ensuring gun laying horizontally to shoot in any direction without having to turn the machine body. The tower also enables radial observation commander to the uppermost point of the machine, providing a groove review and detection of targets in either direction. Reinforced Tower protects the breech and recoil device from direct enemy fire and splinter. Crew, located in the tower, not only can manually charge the gun, but also eliminate the malfunction, having access to the breech.
Fig. 2. Armored weapons system ACS (company Teledyne) with 105-mm gun M-88, installed in the mini-tower of SNA Peledyne, was initially developed by programmke X-M4 U.S. Army, in real time, not developed
No doubt the turret has a reserve for the upcoming improvement, fundamentally it refers to the introduction of automatic loading mechanism and placement of 2-crew tower on different sides of the gun. The design applied in the French rocker tower, which was developed in the 50's / 1 /, was used for the tanks 60s / 2 / and will be used mainly on the new French AMX "Leclerc" / 3 /.
Fig. 3. Thought rendered guns for the first time has been implemented in the UK pilot swatch COMRES with 75-mm cannon at the base of the tank COMET. Of course, existed at the time the development of automatic loading and monitoring systems has been on a low level so that on the whole did not meet the requirements for an armored fighting vehicle.
In the first stage of Russian ammunition are in the pipeline carousel at the bottom of the crew compartment, where they provided almost complete invulnerability from enemy fire, but if there will be a break through armor, it could lead to a fire and the total destruction of the machine. Basically tank "Leclerc", as well as in the South American tanks "Abrams" and the German "Leopard 2" ammunition of the first stage will be placed in a niche of the tower, ie above and that will be more vulnerable, but they can be isolated from the crew compartment by an armored partition so Makarov, that the powder gases skyward explosion set aside or reversed if the armor will break.
The use of the automatic loader and change the crew accommodation stipulate the possibility of obtaining the lowest projection of the tower and that the smallest target, hit the enemy — priemuschestvenno ahead when the tank is due to fire shelter. In this case, the tower will be quite free volume for each crew member to place the survey monitors (VDV) and control instruments tower, and every member of the crew will have its own set of surveillance devices and output hatch. Two jobs in the tower will be almost duplicate one another, because any member of the crew can do radial review or destroy targets, and work together on arms control tower and distribute tasks among themselves, depending on the configuration of the tactical situation / 4 /.
Both jobs were in the tower can even be equipped with machine controls, such makarom that control movement of the machine may be out of the tower, priemuschestvenno when the machine is not fire and the gun is on the stopper in its stowed position.
Fig. 4. A sketch of an imaginary probable variant proposed in the U.S. car coming close combat FCCV (Future Close Combat Vehicle) — a family of modular military vehicles with remote weapons. The car will have a crew of three seats in a row, the commander and gunner are placed in front of their monitor screens depicting the surrounding area in an enlarged format (on the outline pins gun show two optronic sensor)
In the end, the two-man turret with automatic loader can be installed on a normal body aft of the engine and a new type of housing with a front engine layout and aft hatches, as it is sold at an Israeli tank 'Merkava' / 5 /. The experimental model with the latest configuration was built in Germany under the symbol VTE, Americans are also planning to apply front-engine in the program of creation of integrated chassis and promising family of armored vehicles. In this case, the ammunition can be arranged for an armored bulkhead at the very back of the building, where they will be better protected and where the best opportunity to replenish them.
Although the tower continues to benefit from customer demand as a means to achieve a combination of advantages such as the radial movement of the arms, the possibility of radial angle from the top point, the protection and availability of guns for her to perform the required work, and despite the fact that it can be improved by installing autoloader configuration and placement of the crew members, a world of professionals not in favor of it because of the size and weight, and priemuschestvenno because it is a huge target, which will hit the enemy in the conduct of fire because of the asylum. Alignment professionals is compelling that in real time requires significant smallest machine crew may be the smallest, so that it was possible to increase armor protection, significantly increment tank survivability. Such a machine will allow the crew placed in a sitting position in the housing, where it will be better protected; projection, which will be visible when shooting because of seekers will be reduced. These eyes were first expressed in the journal International Defense Revieww № 2/1982 editorial staff in his article: "The design of battle tanks — some thoughts about the future," which examines the eyes, the representations of international tank professionals who defend the idea of a compact car with a remotely operated weapon of an autoloader, the small-sized crew accommodation and the creation of most smaller target for enemy fire.
Around the same time, the federal government supplies of special equipment (Germany) Rolf Hilmes wrote a series of articles in the journal Soldat und Technik under the title "The thirtieth (1950 -1980 years) development of tanks" — the results of these publications have been placed in issue number 5/1983 in Review: What can be done to rework tanks. He suggested on essentially the same as Dzhenkiz, as discussed above, — pointing to the smallest car considerably with remotely operated weapon. Most recently certified engineer Hilmes again put forward the idea in the article "Development Prospects of the main tank", located in the magazine NATO's sixteen Nations, Issue 2/1987.
Contribute to forthcoming base was made the problem of the discussed later in books Richard Simpkin and especially in series a single journal (Release 11/82, 5/83, 5/85, 1/86, 4/86 and 11/86). In the 2-publications in 1986 stated that the specific shall be removed from the tank turret. The first was received in October from London director of the research center's office, "Vickers", the second in November from Dr. Philip Lett, vice-president's office LSD («General Dynamics") at the Symposium on the development of technology of tanks and armored vehicles in China (Beijing). Both publications have emphasized the significant reduction in machine and assembly of the crew accommodation in the housing.
Fig. 5. The experimental layout for research SRV. used in the U.S. to test different versions of the basic layout of the tank with the crew placed in the machine. Elected such makarom option should be assessed by an experimental tank installation TTV, representing a modernized M-1, filled autoloader and remotely operated weapon
At the base is the position of professional zeal eliminate defects inherent in the turret as the presence of a manual loading and during loading machines — it priemuschestvenno target size they are and will be represented. Specialists began to turn away from the tank turrets even in existing developments involving the installation of automatic loader / 6 /. They are "out of play" and is exploring options for reckless tank.
Another assembly installation gun turret instead of a manual or automatic loading is usually based either on the Swedish version of the tank «s», or on one of the options rendered weapons. In both cases, the existence of the finished tank, consisting of 2-parts — the body and the tower will be replaced by a single block object, perhaps, the usual form, which is easier to manufacture, more than just a run on rough terrain and abilities bolshennymi gain passive and active protection.
Fixed in the body of the tank cannon «s» provides the commander actually desired upper radial view, armor protects the breech of the gun and provides access to it in case of serviceability. To increase the invulnerability likely build on the front engine layout, stacking ammunition in the isolated compartment and having an output feed hatch in the hull.
But when the tank assembly scheme «s» for aiming the gun at the target is required to resort to the rotation of the whole machine, it is possible becomes difficult to groundwater criteria languid and even unworkable in finding the middle of the tank obstacles. For tank-type «s» will be difficult to maintain fire on targets move around and conduct fire on the move, with the exception of shooting straight ahead, will be impossible. Reduce some of these shortcomings could be giving the gun a little horizontal rotation angle relative to the body, but it will certainly entail a complication of the whole installation weapons. So Makar, the main problem of the tank «s» is the method of pointing a gun on the horizon, especially in the vast corners that are achievable simply by setting the gun in an ordinary tower.
The complete opposite of the tank type «s» is a tank of remotely operated weapon, its main drawback is the lack of radial angle with the "highest point" because the tank can be fired at the enemy before he could take a position comfortable for observation and shooting. Install the rotating head with remote monitoring devices overview on arms, of course, will allow the tank commander to monitor from the cabinet with a highest point of the machine, but it is likely only a small sector of the borders in real time, so do not rule out the possibility of target detection, ready to open fire. To ensure wider viewing angles will need to develop more advanced electro-optical systems in order to enable the crew located in the housing sec
tor have the required surveillance, while the scarcity of development and customer acceptance of surveillance systems will turn away from making weapons.
Still less pronounced by the arms can be achieved by rotation of the radial mounting it on a rotating pursuit as the pilot holds the South American swatch SDTV / 7 / or mounting it on a rotating carriage (cabinet) as made on the dock tank UDES-19 / 8 /. When placing weapons on the pursuit of the tank will not be protected by armor / 9 / or will be mounted in an armored mini-tower, but a reservation is required vseobyatnoe significant size, approaching the size of an ordinary tower. "
Fig. 6. For many years, rollicking Swedish tank «s» existed as the sole representative of such an assembly. But most experts agree that many of the restrictions imposed by the Casemates assembly, make it absolutely unacceptable to the main tank to the specific natural conditions in Sweden.
When mounting weapons on the gun cabinet booking may be the least massive and represent the smallest target for the enemy by firing from asylum / 10 /, but the separation from the body of the gun will cause enormous difficulties to protect it.
The particular access to the breech is likely in the case of the introduction of the installation on a rotating pursuit — although, apparently, has not been developed on an experimental swatch TTV — but will not be realized at the carriage-tumbovoy construction, since the cannon will be placed on the outside and it will be available on the breech significant distance from the jobs of the crew.
Fig. 7. The rejection of the Swedish articulated UDES-20 tank, which offers solutions to the difficulties panoramic view of the method of implementation of the lift cabin vehicle commander.
Prepyadstviya and solutions
The problem now is the urgent replacement of a conventional tower tank the other main tank, the assembly of which provide a combination of one military vehicle as the radial rotation of arms and survey crew with the "highest point". These two features are relevant and will be a requirement of customers, they must be implemented together on the new main tank to ensure the effectiveness of the criteria maneuverable fighting and at one point appearing purposes.
One solution to this problem is the use of remotely operated weapon mounted on a pedestal-carriage, as well as providing the commander the ability to "follow the top point" method of raising it in lightly armored cab for a review of the top.
Such a system was indeed implemented and tested in Sweden on an anti-car UDES-XX-20, but then development has been interrupted due to the refusal of this option, the machine / 11 /.
Another different method approach to solving the puzzles can be the basis for the adoption of the assembly according to the type of tank «s» with its inherent system of surveillance devices (at the highest point), and the rejection of motionless gun mount that does not meet the requirements of guidance, using the horizontal guidance, that is, nature of the case to make a new main tank, which will be applicable for the customer.
In such a machine, the assembly made on the base of the tank «s», the two main jobs crew members may be disposed in the housing, one on each side of the gun and does not need to rotate in a horizontal plane, respectively at least to which of the methods used rotating turret. The two crew members can provide driving a car — as they do on the tank «s», — as they are placed in front of the machine body and would not change his own location. In reality, they will be completely placed to act as a car with a crew of 2 persons, with specific review of the top point not only forward but also backwards, thus providing the possibility of going backwards. The third member of the crew can then be added as a tank made «s», although it will increase the volume of the machine and in order to decrease "invulnerability." Its main function will not operate the machine, although such a possibility he has, and to substitute other priemuschestvenno 2-crew members in order to increment the time and sustained action machine.
Limited angle of the horizontal guidance, of course, can be implemented on a reckless car with 2 crew members are not necessarily a gun barrel protruding forward from the car, how it's performed on the German tank destroyer Jagdpanzer Kanone / 12 / as well as the placement of pins between the gun with 2 fixed jobs for crew members in the middle of the machine. This placement will have a certain finite limit horizontal guidance, depending on the design of the installation of weapons, located between the fixed seats, though at least this will be taken into account the need to ensure a clear sight and the possibility for tracking of moving targets. The breech of the gun will then depart back beyond the rear of the vehicle for loading an autoloader, but it will need to be protected, and so will probably removed from the workplace of the crew, it would be unfeasible to access it from the machine.
On quite another opportunity shows Hilmes against tank sensor type «s» hoist installation gun, so the tank was a very small target for enemy fire while shooting for asylum / 13 /. How should not be necessary for the machine to move forward or back behind cover to fire — as each shot will be performed in a single procedure by lifting the gun, firing a shot, and then immediately lower the same for reloading. The huge distances virtually opponent can not hit the tank because of the shortcomings of time, the need for reaction capability, as well as the time of the projectile. Another advantage of this special assembly would be that the installation of the lift arms can be armed with a mechanism for the rise and decline gun that will provide a decrease but an exception may be necessary to change the trim of the machine forward and backwards through controlled suspension. But the introduction of such weapons elevator installation can not solve the problem traversing machine gun relative to the body and thus Makarov, the chief defect of unusual tank «s» is eliminated.
As can be seen, imposed the third way to solve the problem — the creation of a combined set of weapons, which will be combined horizontal gun and a small projection of the installation provides the lifting weapon system, ie swing-lifting device for the first time realized on the Swedish car UDES -17 in 1970/14 / indicated and recommended for the first time in the article Jankins. In normal conditions gun will be in the sheltered "chute" in which it can move forward and backwards along the roof of the housing between fixed with 2 crew stations, and at the right time will be picked up and turned over units of observation and aiming in the direction of the crew found left and right ends.
Fig. 8. Three Swedish model tanks reckless construction (right to left): Casemates installation gun, "zholobnaya" tower (shown in the position of fire), the carriage-tumbovaya installation.
It would be a mistake to try to protect the weapons and armor rendered him recoil device in position for aiming and shooting, because it would have led to a huge size and weight. The best solution would be to resort to the thick-walled barrel of a tank gun, that she alone for myself was able to withstand the massive fire weapons, recoil device must be integrated across the bottom in the bearing, where they will be protected by the shell. Only existing tank gun breech must be protected by armor, so it can be used without changes for this purpose, though the least best outcome could be achieved by creating the newest design of the gun. The reliability of the breech will depend on the application of the system drive automatics, but the autoloader should be reliable, because it will be in the back of the case and the crew must be able to access it in the event of trouble.
Limitations on turning performance characteristic of ordinary machines will not be so in the coming makarom affect the gun. Once it is raised, it is able to be rotated by a significant angle, meaning that it should be returned to the initial position of the frontal (axial) after each shot to reload with machine mounted in the rear of the hull. So Makar, within the constraints of the rotation that Coy installation will not be determined by any finite (physical) constraint, but to a large extent a measure of the extension (performance) cannon, which will be applicable when the gun is turned the wrong way or the other between the gutter and the target. Such a machine will show his best side when firing forward with lifted and turned the gun just a little bit, and its effectiveness will decrease uniformly with increasing angle of rotation.
Pointing accuracy will not be affected by the lack of free running or from a strain in the linkage system, since the head with targeting and monitoring devices will be installed over concrete gun, where it is able to be tested with the help of alignment sighting lines. Remote monitoring can be used rigid optics, fiber optics, television equipment or, more probably, thermal imagers. The head of the sight must be adapted to circumstances beyond the rotation and vertical movement when the unit is raised or lowered the gun, that will allow to use it for target detection and identification of it before it is returned to a position pointing and aiming the gun.
Turns on a huge horizontal angles?
The question arises: what should be the angle of horizontal rotation of the gun, provided the design is and what to do if it is not acceptable and will be the same maneuverability of arms, which is provided by a tank turret at conducting fire many shots on both sides?
One option is to use a normal installation — Lift-and-turn "with a machine gun mounted in the housing, and a device that provides a huge turning the gun on corners. Inertial forces turn guns on its support will be only part of the inertial forces of ordinary towers, and therefore will not need such a long time to complete loading cycle — the transition from the target to the "chute". But the increase in the angle of rotation of the gun can be brought to the attention of the enemy and its fire can be focused not only on the frontal projection, but also significantly greater goal — the projection of the board.
Other options are different ammunition feed to the gun when it is in the raised and tilted toward the target position. Some offer group have finished shots along the gun, so you can use them for firing at targets unsafe and then change them using the autoloader when the gun is returned to the "chute". But in this case the ammunition to be vulnerable, if they do not enter into its proper reservation, and this will increase the projection to facilitate defeat enemy targets. Another option provides for the supply of shots on one of the rear of the hull, using a transport system that is similar to the proposed Swedish Experienced swatch UDES — 19/15 /, but this mechanism is in itself for themselves vulnerable to enemy fire, he will be raised and directed to install coaxially with the gun breech.
Fig. 9.Stremitelno change sights on the design and technical solutions. Few years have passed from the adoption of programs from the creation of the joint (U.S. and Germany), the main tank MBT-70/KPz-70, in which the entire crew was located in the tower, in the true tests are being made to go in a diametrically opposite direction
Another solution is to use other more waste system, which provides for placement of the finished gun shots inside the installation, below the roof of the body, where they will spin along with a gun and charge it in the raised position, directed toward the target, located on the flanks. Geometry loading rounds into the breech does not satisfy the requirements of machine assembly, because they have to move back first, then forward, guns with separate chambers will be charged directly into the breech, back in his back, this problem is simplified. Variant of such devices is implemented in 75-mm automatic gun ARES with its rotating breech, its use will contribute to the implementation of one hundred percent burning shells with parallel walls or even watery powders / 16 /.
The forthcoming development of structures that provide great angles and the ability of radial rotation, will be the adoption of rotation 2-crew with a gun, which is mounted on the rising installation in the form of cut (with chute) tower / 17 /. This solution was held at the military vehicle PACCAR ELKE, armed with 75-mm automatic cannon, mounted on a rotating pursuit tank chassis "Sheridan" / 18 /. But this represents a return to the direction of the tank and the tower will probably be accompanied by the need for 3rd crew member specifically for driving a car, especially when the tower is turned off. This assembly can justify himself for just armored vehicles, such as eg armored self-propelled guns, who will conduct fire because of the shelters, speaking only slightly because of them, but it is the least applicable to heavily armored main tanks, which should be ready to act in the criteria of a strong enemy fire exposure and are better adapted to equip a small-sized reckless attitudes to increase survivability.
Fig. 10. The last option of a
light tank company RDF-LT AAI for the deployment of forces frisky. Tank with a remotely operated weapon and crew accommodation in the body (as opposed to the decisions of early tank with a mini-tower). But the "sensor" on the gun is the only layout, design (design), it still does not quite worked out.
"Combination" setting gun
This new type of main tank with its "tilt-up" device is a step forward in comparison with the tower tank, but it is not just the future development of the existing classic car, it is a completely new approach to the dilemma. The main change would be to have only 2 members of the crew, machine control, and their placement on stationary workplaces juices gun that will determine the creation of the machine with the least amount and that most "survivable".
Second feature that deserves attention is quite different accommodation gun relative to the body in comparison with its location on the tower tank with feed force of the department, such for example as the Russian T-72 tank or British tank "Challenger." With the latest gun assembly will be installed so that it does not protrude niskolechko forward or back out of the case, and the muzzle of the gun will outline the smallest circle, so that there is no threat utykaniya hole in the ground motion. over obstacles on the battlefield. The introduction of the elevator installation guns will mean that it should not pin as previously placed quite high to avoid hitting the front of the gun barrel of the branches caterpillars, when she imparted declination angles. When you install the lift pins can be located below, so that only the monitoring devices crew will determine the overall dimensions of the machine height. Should be implemented some measures to control suspension system, not only in order to maintain the height of the machine is unlikely to level, but also to use it as an emergency means of guidance in the event of failure of the installation.
The third feature is itself an elevator installation gun, which will lay the opportunity to combine steering setup with a set of observation and sighting devices that detect receipt of benefits typical of ordinary tower in manual or automatic loading. The subject of subsequent elaborations should be the choice of the method of loading — it will be for the automatic loading of the ordinary on the device, providing a specific pitch shots from the rear of the hull, or it needs to be more developed system so that the gun could be recharged by being turned on board. Although ordinary tank cannons can be used in more conventional embodiments, these new gun installations may require a radical change in their design for use in more demanding applications, providing significantly large angles.
The projections of imminent revolutionary configurations in the main assembly of tanks taken as the base that result largely depends on the successful development of works on creation of a new type of combined installation of weapons, including a turn in the horizontal plane, lifting arms, giving the angles of elevation and declination, the automatic loading, recoil characteristics and aiming in one compact unit of small size. In many ways, this combination unit can be compared to a small-sized box of expensive or complicated head of the main rotor of a military helicopter.
With each improvement set of weapons, which facilitates the use of guns, more will be simplified device housing and increase its reservation. The role of the body will be to provide support for arming and transporting it. So Makar, combined installation of arms, being at one point, constructed, will become a significant export potential, the products are of the highest technical level, great value for installation in ordinary housing, which can be made separately by other countries.
Are we on the right track?
We can ask how many functions can be translated into one combined set of weapons, how can they cooperate together to get more satisfactory results. For example, does the use of stationary jobs in the housing that the angle of horizontal rotation of the arms is limited 180o? Which method should be used to raise the gun to its installation and can be omitted as a recoil device and protected so that only the gun itself was open to enemy fire?
The main tank with 2 crew members, filled the rising and rotating weapons mount, will be the smallest in size and more resilient than it does not matter what kind of tower machine. Small area of the projection and the time of its occurrence kutsee cause obvious tactical advantage when the opportunity arises to conduct fire due to asylum. Tactically, it will be a terrific machine, one of those that can be developed and used.
One can argue that we follow the right method to develop a tank turret with automatic loader, which acquired experience are eligible for use in the imposition of at least some lifting and rotating set of weapons that can be developed in the future. But it must be taken into account at the lower extent with that same confidence that we should not waste time and resources trying to find ways to improve an outdated tank turret, moreover, we must strengthen the work of the combined settings for the creation of weapons of reckless tank. 20 years have passed since that time, as the Russian started to work on towers with machine loading, and we have significantly lagged behind would be if vdogon went after them, seeking to establish an automatic loader in the turret, and they developed a rollicking tank.
Would not nekompitentnym conduct searches in the direction of the introduction of automatic loading of a tank turret and at the same time is not very prudent to focus on stand-alone machines and mechanized long to come? Is not it better to concentrate on the average solution: the development of turretless tank? Representations of professionals set out in the reports and articles will support us in this matter.
1. DHC Jenkins, Fives-Cail Dabcock introduces a new oscillating turret. — International Defense Review, 3/1985, p.411.
2. Foreign Science and Technology Center, Charlottesville 'T-72' translation of article in Znamenosets in May 1981. Armor Nov.-Dec. 1981, p.30.
3. Wolfgang Flume, 'First light on the LECLERC'. — Military Technology 4/1986, p.82.
4. Robin Fletcher, 'Crewing the Autoloaded Turret', — Defence Attache 5/1936, p.43.
5. RM Ogorkiewicz 'MERKAVA Mk.2.' — IDR 3/1986, p.311.
6. Christopher Foss, 'Autoloader contrast for Fairev Hydraulics'. -Jane's Defence Weekly — 25-TH October, 1986, p. 953.
7. Hoeltzel, Sawka and Cag, 'Tank Test Bed Vehicle'. — Army Research Development% Acquisition Magazine. Nov.-Dec., 1982, p. 19
8. DHC Jenkins, 'New Concepts in AF Vs — the Swedish Approach'. IDR December 1982, r.1720
9. Christopher Foss, 'Tank Bed Program.' — Jane's Armour and Artillery 1984-85, p.105.
10. Robin Fletcher, 'Low profile MB Ts.' — Defense Attache, 5/1985, P.23.
11. Christopher Foss, 'Swedish Tank Destroyer Developments.' — Jane's — Armour and Artillery 1984-85, P.33.
12. Paul-Werner Krapke, 'A Design Concept for Heavy Tank Destroyer.' — IDR 3/1983, p.341.
13. Rolf Hilmes, 'Kampfpanzer — Die Entwicklungen der Nachkrieggazeit.' — Published by Soldat und Technik, 1984, p.102.
14. Christopher Foss, 'New Swedish Main Battle Tank.' — Janer'Armour and Artillery 1984-85, p.55.
15. DHC Jenkins, 'Autoloading in Tanks'. — ID R, 7/1984, p.907.
16. Staff Writer, 'BRL studies liquid propellents.' — Army Research Development & Acquisition Magazine, May-June 1986, p.25.
17. Robin Fletcher, 'Trunnions on Move.' Armor Jan.-Feb. and Mar.-Apr. 1986.
18. PACCAR 'Elevated Kinetic Ener
gy Weapon Test Bed (ELKE).' — Brochure at AUSA Show, Washington, 1984.
ROBIN FLETCHER. CREATING THE TURRETLESS TANK. MILITARY TECHNOLGY, 1987, V. XI, Is.6, p. 140-146.