Without long-term programs from short-term solutions triumph over common sense
July 25, 75 years old Valentin Pashin — the supervisor of Shipbuilding Research Institute Krylov, Hero of Russia, Academician of Russian Academy of Sciences.
The other day, the anniversary of the newspaper "Military-Industrial Courier" asked the 1st of the most famous creators of Russian naval equipment to answer a series of questions.
— Valentin, the last Sunday of July, our country, as usual, a day to celebrate the Navy. How do you personally assess the current state of the Navy? In general terms.
— Of course, in relation to the period when our Navy fleet amounted to one third of the world fleet by the total tonnage, his present condition leaves much to be desired. Yet it is already possible to note a positive trend. Are increasingly rising naval flag on surrendering Navy ships. Russian ships once again come to the distant voyages. Joint exercises with ships zabugornyh fleets.
Management evaluates the role of the country's navy entirely correct geopolitical position of the Russian Federation on the world stage. Accordingly, the allocated funds for the revival of the Navy — about 5 trillion rubles — encouraging. In the current ten-year fleet should get about 100 new ships and submarines.
— In the state of the industry address these excellent puzzles?
— Puzzles really tough. There are many problems: personnel, cooperation, stability of solutions in the field of tactical and technical characteristics and types of ships, matching the pace of financing schedule of the process, etc. These are the current, but constantly be on the agenda day or questions. There are others, the solution of which relates to the level of management.
— Can you identify them?
— First, the definition of the priorities of the fleet. Not all tasks are necessary. Then the rationale and decision-long programs from shipbuilding. 30-40 years. The decision to develop such programs from more than once taken control of the country. Without it, we have a momentary triumph of common sense solutions. Hence mnogotipe, which has become a barrier efficient use of allocated funds. It is necessary to move from a large-scale development and construction of lead ships under the ROC with hard predictable price and terms of delivery to the customer to a massive construction firm-fixed price and the hard TTZ.
— This, apparently, the list of problems is not completed?
— Do not complete. You can not order vehicles with a perfect set of complex electronic equipment and instruments. Need mutual responsibility shipbuilders and the Navy. Unacceptable to change the tactical and technical requirements in the design process, and even more so during the construction. Required to make technological expertise of mandatory industry institutes ship designs, TTZ, projects, state programs from weapons and defense contracts. I have not once and carefully spoken on this subject in the media, including in the pages of the newspaper "Military-Industrial Courier."
— But at the same time on the waiting enacting several submarines, including the "Yury Dolgoruky" and "Alexander Nevsky" with the missile complex "Bulava-30."
— It is, of course, funny. Let's hope this process will not be interrupted. As the ever-sighted and systematically evaluating the situation designer, academician Sergei Kovalev Nikititch in the process of discussing issues of construction of missile submarines strategic focus, when considering the problems of a similar importance and versatility needed not only a great determination, and diligence …
A similar caution in the late 90's could change the perception of optimal design decisions PKK CH. Maybe then the Navy would not have had enough long break in receiving similar submarines.
— What about the surface shipbuilding?
— For 20 years, the Russian Navy was not built nor the 1st surface ship. Finishing work, "Peter the Great", "Admiral Chebanenko" and "Yaroslav the Wise" — ships, laid back in the Russian period. But we have a surplus of coastal type "mosquito" fleet. Why immediately after delivery of the first 3 ships of the Indian Navy did not continue the series 11356 frigates for the Russian Navy? All the technologies developed, the creation of ready to build a high-volume … The decision was taken after 10 years. But again the question is a parallel construction of frigates on a brand new project, and why you need to immediately build frigates for the two projects? Essentially this question is no answer. Explained that this is due to the need to speed up the entry of ships maritime zone is not completely impressive. This puzzle can be solved accelerated pace of construction of new frigates of the project, including a few plants. The reason probably lies in the other.
This is one example of how mnogotipe born. Scrolling can be virtually the whole range of ships and submarines. By the way, it is pointed out in the conclusions of the Krylov Institute named. Requires a profound and objective analysis of the circumstances of this phenomenon. On the other will be constructed in the main lead ships.
— What's all the same in this case we can say about the civilian shipbuilding?
— Very close to everything. First, the Russian Federation need new shipyard — purely civilian shipbuilding. Build competitive plainclothes equipment at factories military shipbuilding unrealistic. Inverse management goals of military and civilian shipbuilding. Different formulations and production personnel. Examples of construction machinery in factories civilian military shipbuilding proof. These projects, or having social support to the plant, or indirectly subsidized by the other orders.
Unfortunately, the question of the creation of a purely civilian shipyards solved unacceptably slowly. While the need for courts well and in other marine applications is quite high. They are needed for external and internal transport, production of fish and seafood, exploration of minerals on the shelf, shelf resource development, program implementation study of the ocean and for other purposes.
And more. Our homeland far behind the world leaders in terms of technology and work organization. Specific labor intensive three to five times higher, the timing of construction is two to three times more. Prerequisites that are diverse. Many of them are rooted in our past Russian.
— What to do in this situation?
— I think we do not fully understand the premise of our technological backwardness. Taking care of the dry docks and heavy-equipment — cranes, conveyors, etc., we, of course, right. This enables the construction of large vessels, the need for public yavna. But neither the timing of construction, not labor intensive at
all it is not significantly reduced. Are needed fundamentally other technological processes and organization of production. First, it is clear for the assembly on the basis of modern digital technology. Creating a digital way of describing the projected objects slowed to this gap in the levels of computer skills "we" and "them." Even more difficult situation with the coupling of design digital models of the production process at the factory or shipyard. In other words, requires adequate funds for modernization. They are designed by different federal programs when necessary. So Makar, to break the current situation requires awareness, commitment and decisive action.
— Our homeland is joining the WTO. Many consider this step for deadly Russian industry. Your worldview?
— If we start from the trivial fact that promising technologies — the good, and the market Competitive Wednesday — a powerful incentive for innovation, the accession of Russia to the WTO over the long term — just a promising backbone factor of shipbuilding. Smooth competitiveness with the leading players in the global shipbuilding market will claim the introduction of Innovative Technologies. This will entail the development of science and comprehensive modernization of the industry and a unique experimental-certification basis.
Shipbuilding in the WTO can take leading position in the development of knowledge-based marine engineering, initially created for use in the Arctic formidable criteria. It is in this area Our homeland is incomparably rich knowledge, as evidenced by the enthusiasm of many foreign firms in our experience.
Naturally, with all this have difficulties associated with the need to fulfill the criterion of the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. They can be overcome by the proper use of abilities of the grace period and competent implementation of the so-called eligible subsidies, general and specific.
— You talk about the development of science, innovation, new developments. But according to the same Ministry of Education, we are not too far in the forefront.
— Speaking of science, the creators of this evaluation are referring institutions and Sciences. No need to identify science only to give the initial knowledge base. They are very necessary, but far short of the entire Innovative chain that closes development work, certain technologies and production processes. Are engaged in industrial research universities, design offices, scientific, industrial complexes and other structures.
— Why not go innovation?
— I see three prerequisites. In 1-x, a business is not interested to invest in innovation. You can earn and without the risk of using Innovative solutions. For example, at the expense of administrative resources — because the market The competitive environment has not yet become a "driver of progress." In-2, the system of federal executive bodies aimed at individual components of Innovative chain — education, science, technology, industry overseen by different agencies. Third reason lies in the principles of non-optimal funding of science and technology. When the base science financed by definition, then the application that deals with the development of technology, live or on free breads, or on a competitive basis and besides, in the famous 94FZ.
— What do all the same, in your beliefs?
— It is necessary to recognize the need for the creation of targeted scientific and technical basis for the budget of the country, with a fair manner for all participants. Overhead than at present, will not. Especially if you remove the feeding trough of the type "horns and hooves", which enjoys a particularly referred to the federal law.
Maybe it would be advisable to return to the federal structure such as the former Ministry of Industry, Science and Technologies of the Russian Federation.
It is necessary to legitimize the concept of "innovation", which at the moment is simply to pass economical means. The concept is to fill accurate and of mandatory content: innovation — this research, experimental development, technology, capacity, customer demand in the market. Accordingly, the cash investment should be made only under the one-piece process.
In conclusion, I wish to congratulate all the sailors and shipbuilders from the days of the Navy. Wish them plenty of new ships, happy hiking near and far. A shipbuilders — new orders.
And all seven feet under the keel, as they say in the Navy!