PJ-10 "BrahMos" is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, surface ships, aircraft or land. Is a joint development of defense research and development of India (DRDO) and Russian "NPO Machine Building", which in 1998 formed the LLC "BrahMos Aerospace" (Ltd.). The most high-speed, are in service, a cruise missile in the world.
The designation "BrahMos" is derived from the name of 2-Brahmaputra rivers in India and Moscow in Russia. The missile is capable of speeds of Mach 2.8-3.0, which is 3.5 times greater than the rate of U.S. supersonic cruise missile "Harpoon". At the current time worked through the ability to install and start "BrahMos" with the aircraft and we can expect that by 2012, India will become the state with the supersonic cruise missile in all military branches. Moreover, the improved model are tested for the realization of rapid air strikes that can reach speeds of 6M. Completion is expected by 2016.
While the Indian side was waiting for the missile "BrahMos" will be built on the basis of medium-range cruise missile, P-700 "Granit", Russian experts at taking into account the rules "Regime Missile Technology Control", chose to model the short-range P-800 "Onyx" (export name "Yakhont"). It is understood that the total cost of development will amount to 13 billion. $.
History and Development
PJ-10 "BrahMos" is a joint development of defense research and development of India (DRDO) and Russian "NPO Machine Building", which in 1998 formed the LLC "BrahMos Aerospace" (Ltd.). For the role in the project "NGO Engineering" given permission to the embodiment of the military-technical cooperation with countries zabugornom for 7 years. On the creation of missile "BrahMos Aerospace" received $ 122.5 million from the Russian side, and $ 128 million from the Indian. One reason for the creation of the association was the elasticity of the law of India, which releases the company from taxes, do not pay back the loan. This has enabled much more efficient to spend money.
The creation of the airframe and powerplant engaged Russian side, with all this huge amount of technology, "BrahMos Aerospace" zopoluchilo at "Machine-Building NPO", and the other half received details from Orenburg NGO "Boom". Indian spices was put before completion task management systems and software.
The collaboration resulted in universal and most high speed, are in service, a cruise missile in the world.
June 12, 2001 at the range Chandipur in Orissa carried out the first launch. Since the end of 2004 the missile has undergone several tests at different launch platforms, including ground-based installation in the Pokhran desert, where the speed of Mach 2.8, it performed an S-shaped maneuver. In the same place for the Indian Army were shown the ability of ground attack from the sea.
In 2008, "BrahMos" municipal acquired Indian company "Keltec". In the development and integration of the components of missile systems invested about $ 15 billion. rupees ($ 333 million). This was necessary due to increased orders for missile system, both from the land of Indian Army and Navy.
The navies of India have become a major customer of missiles "BrahMos". It is expected that the PJ-10 will go into service nuclear submarines and modern destroyers. The enthusiasm shown as the Indian Air Force, who behold the latest missile in service with the Su-30MKI license and IL-38.
In fact, the entire missile "BrahMos" is a power plant, organically inscribed in the glider. Controls, antenna and radar homing warhead is located in the central cone fairing, while the rest of the volume occupied by the fuel for cruising and solid-fuel booster stage.
PJ-10 is capable of engaging surface targets at a height of 10 meters. The greatest range of motion for the combined line is 290 km with low-altitude — 120 km. Midcourse highest altitude achieves 14 km at a speed of 2.5-2.8 M. Ship missile complex have a warhead weighing 200 kg, while launched from a fighter variant ("BrahMos A") can carry a 300 kg warhead. PJ-10 is a two-stage missile, it is equipped with the power plant with a solid starting line-system booster and hypersonic ramjet engine, running on the march. Ramjet is more effective than the missile, as it increases range.
The highest speed may give the best punch properties in comparison with light hypersonic missiles, for example, "Tomogavk." Being heavier than twice and almost 4 times faster "Tomogavka", PJ-10 has 32 times great kinetic energy (although she pays for a relatively short range and with only 3/5 of the payload, indicating the different tactical paradigm for 2 kinds of missiles).
For systems of missile guidance and control systems include inertial and RGSN. Radar seeker, made Russian JSC "Concern" Granit-Electron ", similar to the GOS RCC" Onyx "(Note: The disk imaging www.granit-electron.ru/products/mil/complex/yahont_head/). It is designed for search, seizure and tracking of targets in the criteria for RAP, breeding goals for the entered data, receive and transmit target coordinates into the system autopilot onboard equipment control system (BASS). GSN captures the goal and off, for all that the rocket goes down to 10 meters, making it difficult to detect. On the final leg of the flight RGSN reactivated for targeting.
Without looking at the fact that at the beginning, "BrahMos" anti-ship missile developed as it could be used against ground-based radio-objects. Depending on the starting complex is vertical or inclined position. The configuration is identical to the missile for sea, land and air platforms. Version that runs from the air (the "BrahMos A") has a small engine starter, additional tail stabilizers and a redesigned nose cone. The complex is air-based weighs 2550 kg, 450 kg less complex ship or land-based. The implication of his introduction to the Su-30MKI (1-3 missiles on the pylons in the center of the fuselage and wings), the Tu-142 (6 missiles on the wing pods), IL-76 (6 missiles on the wing pods) and Il-38SD (4 missiles in the center of the airframe).
The figure shows the difference missile "BrahMos" (1 and 3 above) and the "BrahMos A"
October 5, 2005 PJ-10 "BrahMos" set a record for the implementation of the first supersonic steep dive.
The options are:
Ship-based, for firing at ground targets
Ground-based, for firing at ground targets
Land-based antiship (tests dekyabrya 10, 2010)
Air-based antiship (under construction, completion expected in 2012)
Airborne, for firing at ground targets (in development, completion is expected in 2012)
Submarine-based, antiship (in development, completion is expected in 2011)
Submarine-based, for firing at ground targets (under construction, completion expected in 2011)
"BrahMos" 2 ground-based (design completed, 4 variants were ready for testing in February 2011)
Our homeland and India in the next 10 years will produce 1,000 missiles "BrahMos", about 50% will be exported friendly countries. Maybe it is profitable for Russia, since India has a definite impact in Asia and can supply a ro
cket into the arms market segments, not available Russia. For its own armed forces she ordered missile "BrahMos" of $ 2 billion. $.
Indian Navy own defense systems to transport and launch container arranged obliquely or vertically, depending on the ship. Class frigates "Talwar" and "Shivalik" armed with missiles "BrahMos". Namely, "Trishul" (INS Trishul) and "Tabar" (INS Tabar) (second and third frigates built project "Talwar", respectively) with a displacement of about 4000 tons armed with 100-mm gun, and anti-submarine missiles and eight PU container with RCC "BrahMos" in the bow of the ship. In addition, each of them has two torpedo tubes 533 mm.
Frigate Project "Talwar"
The frigate "Shivalik" (INS Shivalik) has become the first-class frigate "Shivalik", armed with missiles "BrahMos". Displacement of the ship is 6,000 tons, it has two 30-millimeter guns, 24 anti-aircraft missiles "Barak SAM" and 8 PJ-10 missiles "BrahMos".
Class frigate "Shivalik". Listed SCRC
From 2009-2010, the class vessels "Talwar" and "Shivalik" missiles armed with PJ-10. The year 2007 also equipped with new missiles expected class frigates "Godavari" and "Brahmaputra". Missile destroyer "Rajput" (INS Rajput), "Ranvir" (INS Ranvir — D54) and "Ranvidzhey" (INS Ranvijay — D55), an improved version of Russian class destroyers "Kashin" class destroyers and "Divide" received modern anti-ship missiles to 2009. In 2012, the expected class destroyers armed with missiles "Kolkata".
Class destroyer "Ranvir" launches missile "BrahMos".
Class destroyer "Kolkata". Listed launchers
Rocket to launch from a submarine has been developed in 2011 must pass the tests with waterlogged shield located on a special pontoon. As for submarines tests PJ-10 "BrahMos" can act Indian class submarines "Kilo" or in Russia non-nuclear submarines of "Lada" — "Amur-950." In 2005, the layout of the submarine made CDB ME "Rubin", was shown at the panel, "BrahMos Aerospace" in Abu Dhabi exhibition IDEX 2005. According to the layout, the Rockets are 10 vertical launchers that allow you immediately start to produce on land and sea targets.
Layout submarine "Amur-950" with RCC "BrahMos".
"BrahMos" 1 Block 1 class "ground-to-ground"
Ground-based model for the Indian land army.
The rocket has successfully passed the tests in the desert of Rajasthan, located near Pokhran (December 2004 and March 2007). June 21, 2007 entered service.
"BrahMos" 1 Block 2
In January 2009, the new model unit 2 with the new software was tested in Pokhran. The missile failed to hit the target right in the middle of the group. The target advocated small building in the middle of other buildings. But in the March 4 were obtained excellent results. Recent tests conducted by March 29, 2009, have been successful. Over 2.5 Minutka missile with precision hit the target. According to official sources, the "new girl seeker is unique and ensured the defeat of the structure, which nekordinalno different in size from the other buildings."
September 5, 2010 missile launches were "BrahMos" off the coast of Orissa and set a world record. Recorded the first case, when the missile at supersonic speed makes a sharp dive. Start with the passing missile system -3 (LC-3) near Chandipur at 11:35. These tests are absolutely satisfied the requirements of India's land forces in a new software for RGSN, which provides the possibility of a missile in the middle of the definition and selection of targets, causing precision strikes.
The Indian Army has formed a regiment (No. 861) "BrahMos" Mark 1. At the moment, there are two separate shelf "BrahMos" Mark 2 (862 and 863), armed with missiles have homing able to take a small selection of targets in the middle of the city's buildings. Any of the 2-missile regiments will have a battery life of 4-6 3-4 mobile launchers mounted on all-wheel drive trucks "Tatra" Czech production.
"BrahMos" 1 Block 3
Is an improved version of the hypersonic missile tests which have successfully passed December 2, 2010 at the site ITR (Integrated Test Range), Chandipur coast of Orissa.
"BrahMos" 1 Block 3 with the new software navigation and control systems, combined with high maneuverability and the ability of a steep dive, run with IP-3.
The Indian Air Force
Missiles launched from the air, ready for testing. Committee DRDO and the Air Force or to create any modifications to the Su-30MKI fighter, because January 10, 2009 2 planes are oriented in Russia for training programs from suspension and starting systems.
In May 2010, was approved by the programm upgrade 40 fighters. Su-30MKI, except adaptation of RCC "BrahMos", will receive a new bortovik, radar and electrical system of fighting. A pair of Indian aircraft during the 2011-2012 school year will be upgraded in Russia, and since 2015, under license from the company will be engaged in this work, HAL.
At the moment, Russian and Indian engineers carry out the adaptation of the RCC. Managed to get a lightweight version of the missile length of 8.3 meters, a diameter of 0.67 meters and a weight of 2550 kg.
In service with the Russian Federation
Because the "BrahMos" missile structurally identical to the P-800 "Onyx", it can change them in the missile complex, namely, on frigates of Project 22350. The Navy did not.
At present, the export of missiles is not carried out, without looking at the fact that the enthusiasm shown South Africa, Egypt, Oman, Brunei. In February 2010 it was reported that India is negotiating the sale of missiles in Chile, Brazil, South Africa and Indonesia. Malaysia to equip their own class ships 'Kedah' is also interested in RCC.
At a press conference under the title "BrahMos", held August 19, 2008 in Moscow, the head of the Russian-Indian joint venture "BrahMos Aerospace", Sivathanu Pillai, proposed on the basis of the existing missiles to hypersonic anti-ship missiles, which would develop the speed of 6M.
Active offer of the Indian side in the skeptical gaze Russian partners was reinforced by a presentation entitled "The combustion chamber is tested for a hypersonic scramjet rocket." The slides were shown model engines 2-types — kerosene and hydrogen fuel. Standards of scramjet had a cross-sectional size 85h40 mm. According to the acquired data in the sup
ersonic combustion COP at about 2.2 M, in the modes corresponding flight conditions with about 6.5 Mach at altitudes up to 30-35 km. The data were similar to those reported for promising programs from "Tool for the demonstration of the hypersonic technology" or HSTDV ["Rise", № 11-2008, "hypersound over the Ganges."] It should be noted that India has long been interested in the development of hypersonic cruise missiles of speeds up to M = 6.5 at an altitude of 32.5 km, what makes the development of equipment for ground and flight testing.
At the current time is the design of RCC "BrahMos", 2 of which will be declared speed of 5.26 M. The four newest project ready to launch, and the final version will be approved in October 2011, and in 2012-2013, will be held start-ups. RCC will go into service destroyers 15B project in India. Russian fleet may receive a "BrahMos" 2 destroyers for project 21956.
Tactical and technical characteristics:
Developer: BrahMos Aerospace
Identification: PJ-10 "BrahMos"
First start: June 12, 2001
Length, m: 8
Wing span, m: 1.7
Diameter, m: 0.7
Starting weight, kg: 3000
Sustainer engine: SPVRD
Thrust, kgf (kN) 4000
Starting-and-acceleration stages: solid-
Speed, m / s (M =) to the occasion: 750 (2.5-2.8)
Speed, m / s (M =) in the ground: (2)
Distance run, km
-on the combined line of motion: 300
-along a low line of motion: 120
-on the low-altitude line of motion: 10-15
-the target: 5-15
Control system: autonomous with an inertial navigation system and RGSN
Type of warhead: Permeation
Warhead weight, kg: 300
The slope of the launcher, grad.: 0-90