Rubella during pregnancy

Rubella during pregnancy

Rubella is considered mild disease. However, this definition is valid for the flow of the infection in children. Rubella disease is pregnant with serious consequences for the future of the child.

Cause

Rubella is caused by a virus, which is transmitted airborne way. The source of the virus are more often children, so the probability of catching rubella pregnant women who already have one child increases. Especially if the child goes to kindergarten, sports or school.

What's going on?

When infected women in the first week of pregnancy, fetal loss occurs in 80% of cases, on the2-4th week — 60%, and5-8th week — 30% and9-12 minutes week — 10%. When infected at later stages of the risk of birth defects is reduced, but even at 5 months there is still a danger to 1 in 10 children.

The danger of rubella virus in the fact that it is almost always transmitted from the mother to the fetus and damage it. Congenital rubella can damage any organ of the child, but the most common triad — cataracts, deafness and heart disease. It is also possible consequences in the form of blood disorders (hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia), pneumonia, low weight and small stature at birth.

Adverse effects on the fetus rubella is also seen spontaneous abortions (30%), stillbirth (20%), death in the neonatal period (20%). Stillbirth rates of around 10% of women with the disease in the first trimester, 5% — with the disease in the second and 2% — in the third trimester. Congenital rubella is a cause of death in 20% of cases, the number of deaths due to intrauterine infections, it also often leads to the need to choose between abortion and keeping infections at infection of the mother during pregnancy.

How to recognize?

The woman, who had been ill with rubella during childhood or immunized against rubella may not have to worry that her child gets infected because she has immunity. If a pregnant woman does not know she was sick or not rubella, and vaccination does not, then she needs to take a blood test for antibodies to rubella.

The presence of antibodies of the Ig G indicates a past infection with rubella virus. Height titer of antibodies to rubella virus IgG class does not matter, the main thing that they have. This means that immunity to rubella is present in the body, and the fruit will be protected from exposure to the rubella virus during pregnancy. The exception is the IgG antibody titer in the form specified below the reference value (a measure of normal), which means that no immunity to rubella. In this case, vaccination against rubella before a planned pregnancy — mandatory event. Vaccination immunity produced by the weakened but still a primary infection, so within 3 months after vaccination to protect themselves (to the disappearance of IgM).

The reference values for the titer of IgM antibodies  should also be indicated on the form of the laboratory in which the research is performed. The titer of IgM antibodies  below the threshold value (negative) in combination with low titers of IgG antibodies means no immunity to rubella. In this case it is necessary to vaccinate against rubella before a planned pregnancy. If the titer of IgM antibodies  of allowable limits — it is said that the disease is in the early (acute) stage, and the need to find out in which trimester of pregnancy, there was an infection. It is most dangerous for pregnant option, as in this case, the virus can cross the placenta and affect the health of the child.

 

Significance of Results

IgM

IgG

Immunity to rubella virus is absent.

Should be vaccinated.

Developed immunity to rubella. Currently, vaccination is not necessary.

+

Acute rubella earlier period.

+

Acute rubella.

+

+


What to do?

If a pregnant woman, who was not sick and did not make a rubella vaccination had contact with "rubella" sick, then it is necessary to turn toinfectious disease. He will give direction to the blood test for rubella antibodies in dynamics. Gynecologist give direction to a detailed ultrasound and recommend to make a "triple test". If these tests will indicatesome trouble in a child's development, may appoint an amniocentesis procedure. Further, the results of all examinations will decide on a birth defects and abortion.

Prophylaxis

As a precaution, rubella, several months prior to conception (not later) is recommended to be vaccinated. After the graft is desirable to pass a blood test for rubella antibodies, and to make sure that the immunity developed a.

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