Rubella

Rubella.  Photo from http://z.about.com

Rubella — vysokozaraznoe an acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus.

Most often sick unvaccinated children 2-9 years. It is especially dangerous rubella in the first 3 months of pregnancy — while often develop severe congenital malformations of the child, possible intrauterine fetal death. In general, in adults rubella more severe than in children.

The source of infection is a person with symptomatic or erased form rubella. Modes of transmission — airborne (In conversation with the patient, kissing) and vertical (mother to fetus). It is also possible route of infection pin — through children's toys. The patient is contagious for 1 week before the rash appears and continues to excrete the virus for 5-7 days after rash onset. A child with congenital rubella agent allocates a longer time (up to21-20months).

What's going on?

The incubation period of the disease lasts from 11 to 24 days (most 16-20).

Rubella virus enters the body through the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and is carried by the blood throughout the body, causing swelling of the lymph nodes, particularly those that are located on the back of the head and neck. Sometimes there is a slight runny nose, dry cough, sore throat, watery eyes. The most difficult rubella occurs in adults: characterized by an increase in body temperature (up to38-39° C), headache, muscle pain, loss of appetite.

In the first daydisease in75-90% Of patients there is a characteristic rash on the skin, and rashes are more common in children. Elements of the rash are circular or oval pink-redsmall spots. The most common rash first appears on the face and neck, behind the ears and on the scalp, and then during the day it appears on the trunk and extremities. Especially typical location rash on the back, buttocks, outer surface of the hands and the front of the legs. On the soles and palms no rash. Sometimes at the same time small edinychnye rash appears on the mucous membrane of the mouth. The rash lasts two or three day.

Children rubella usually proceeds easily.

Complications of measles are extremely rare and occur in children with immunodeficiency. These include pneumonia, ear infections, arthritis, angina, thrombocytopenic purpura. Very rarely (mainly in adults) occur brain damage — encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. Rubella in pregnant women is not a serious danger to the mother, but significantly increases the risk of fetal malformations.

Diagnosis and treatment

The diagnosis of rubella, usually if the child has been exposed to rubella patients, it is not vaccinated, there is a characteristic skin rash, swollen lymph nodes and other symptoms.

The diagnosis is confirmed by a blood test from a vein in antiviral antibodies, which is held on1-3rd day of the disease and later 7-10 days. About rubella antibodies indicates an increase of 4 times or more.

Treatment is usually carried out at home. During the eruption child needs bed rest. Specific treatment is not administered, sometimes used symptomatic agents (drugs that eliminate the symptoms of the disease).

When the complications require emergency hospitalization.

Prognosis in most cases favorable. Reinfection rubella impossible.

Prophylaxis

To prevent the spread of infection with rubella isolates within 5 days after the rash appears. In respect of persons to communicate with them any restrictive measures not provided, quarantine of child care does not impose. It is important to avoid contact with sick child pregnant women.

Vaccination against rubella is included in the immunization schedule. In Russia, the most frequently used triple vaccine measles-mumps-rubella. The vaccine is administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly at 12 -15 months and again at 6 years. Specific immunity develops through 15-20 days, almost 100% of vaccinated and persists for more than 20 years.

 

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