After the defeat at Moscow's troops Hetman Hodkevich in August 1612, the situation for the Polish garrison was critical. Prince Dmitry Pozharsky showed generosity and invited the Poles to surrender on honorable criteria. All promised to release, the wounded and unhealthy provide carts. But the proud Gentry said rudeness: "Moscow is the most despicable people in the world and courage is like a marmot or asses … do not continue to write us your capital's silly, but you're better, Pozharsky, let Soham to their own people."
Resistance Poles not explained their courage, but rather greed. They did not want to leave the stolen treasures, and were robbed not only the royal and church property, but private individuals. Thus, the Poles broke even in the house of Fyodor Mstsislauye (he led the council of seven and participated in the election of Russian tsar Polish king Vladislav Sigismundovich), all the values and the food has been selected, the nobleman himself beaten. In the end, greed outweighed prudence, the Poles remained in the Kremlin, though they were offered free to go to Poland, to ensure their safety.
In September, the Polish garrison famine — in August convoy with food could not be held in Moscow, the city has managed to break only squad Neverovskiy (300 marines). The invaders ate all the dogs, cats, birds, horses. The first died of starvation Neverovskiy Marines — in their own supplies were not, as funds to purchase other products. A share in Europe, it was not accepted, every man for himself. There are no funds — die, do not bother others. Everything in the framework of the theory of competitiveness. First October snow fell, closing quinoa and roots.
Then, to await the approach the king's army, colonel of the jets and wake were ordered to withdraw from the dungeon Russian prisoners and detainees, as they scored the cattle and ate. But it was enough for a short time. Then there were the bodies of their own, to break the freshest graves and killing feeble, unhealthy. The strong devour the feeble, lost in gambling. There have been cases when a relative killed each other. People began to disappear. Destroyed and ate itinerant girls, who were at the Poles (around EUR least some troops always wipe them with any kind of "business" people, a prostitute who helped the men to part with the good). After the girls, got down to the servants. Grabbing people off the street. However, the Russian left in the fortress is not a lot, some were killed in clashes and fighting, others fled third expelled the Poles themselves as useless eaters.
"The civilized and enlightened" Europeans traded even human flesh, which they prepare prozapas. Thus, the human head sold for three zlotys feet — two. Boyars were found ourselves short of servants and maids who came out of the gate and were sitting in the estates, fearing a terrible fate. Among them was the future ruler of Russia — Mikhail Romanov with his mother.
But the Poles as previously refused to surrender, even though their forces are rapidly dwindling: of the 3.5 million soldiers have less than 1.5 thousand fighter. October 22 (November 1) 1612 Russian troops took China Town. The remains of the Polish garrison held out in the Kremlin. The Poles, in the face of starvation and death decisive assault, tempered pride and went to negotiate. Initially, they are still playing for time, first released from the fortress of wives and kids of the boyars — unnecessary mouths, and then themselves boyars. Then hold on there was no power. Question of free passage was not, the Russian command filed a demand unconditional surrender.
October 26 (November 5) 1612 the balances of the Polish garrison surrendered and began to leave the Kremlin. Colonel Osip (Jozef) roused his men, surrendered to the army of Prince Pozharsky and was pardoned. Budilo last years of his life spent in prison in Nizhny Novgorod. The soldiers of Colonel Nicholas (Nicholas) of the jets gave the Cossacks Prince Trubeckogo, those were not as tolerant and killed opponents. Strus himself remained in captivity until the Russian Deulino truce in 1619. October 27 (November 6) 1612 , there have been a festive entrance to the Kremlin warriors and princes Pozharsky Trubeckogo. Moscow was entirely freed from the enemy.
Polish lord Sigismund tried to make their way to Moscow, but failed to take even Volokolamsk and retreated. It should be noted that although the November 4-5 1612 is a fundamental date in Russian history, but it is impossible to overestimate the event. Most of the finds, after which the Time of Troubles ended. In fact, Smoot has lasted long years, and the blood was flowing river. Namely, in the south of the resistance to the new authorities provided Ataman Ivan Zarutsky (in the spring of 1614 this center of the Troubles has been suppressed), in the north rebelled Baloven Cossack chieftain who were sent to war with the Swedes. In the spring and summer of 1614 Cossack uprising took possession of a gigantic area — modern Vologda, Kostroma and Yaroslavl regions. In the spring of 1615 5 th. Baloven squad suddenly made a raid to Moscow itself. The city was in a panic, because the major royal troops fought lisovchikami that devastated the Russian land. For example, in Russia called the connection of the Polish-Lithuanian light cavalry under Alexander Lisowski (after his death in 1616, troops led by Stanislav lisovchikov Chaplinsky and Valentin Rogavskaya) operating in the Russian borders of the kingdom in the years 1608-1617. Metropolitan government managed to prolong the negotiations with the spoiled child and pull troops destroyed the chieftain, his "thieves" captured. In 1618, the capital was besieged Moscow and broke the Polish-Lithuanian-Cossack troops under the hetman and Vladislav Sagaydachnogo and Hodkevich. Take Moscow they could, but their breakthrough reads a lot. Namely, on the way to Moscow at the beginning of the Cossacks Ataman Sagaydachnogo captured Putyvl, Ryl'sk, Kursk, elec, Lebedyn Skopin and Ryazhsk, the town was destroyed and burned, the Cossacks slaughtered inhumanely for all that not only warriors, but also civilians, sparing neither women nor children. Cossacks before teamed with an army of Vladislav, also captured and destroyed Yaroslavl, Pereiaslavl, Romanov, Kashira and Qassim. Already connected to the Poles, Cossacks threw fire Serpukhov and Kaluga.
So Makar, the liberation of Moscow 4-5 November 1612 was the final act of victory. Ahead were the long years of war, a great blood and ruin of the Russian land.