According to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation optical eye defects are found in the vast majority of children of school and pre-school age. Strabismus affects more than 2% of children. The earlier the disease is detected, the better the chance of full recovery. Also, in the case of "naughty eyes" it is very important that parents just noticed symptoms of the disease in children.
Strabismus is shown that the visual axis of one eye deviates from the point of fixation, that is, the eye deviates in either direction (left, right, up, down). This is not only a cosmetic defect. Strabismus — a multifaceted pathology which leads to abnormal development of the entire visual system, loss of vision, perception disorders. If a healthy person sees the world surround and takes full information about it, then he is a child suffering from strabismus two-dimensional, flat, as if drawn on paper.
Despite the outward manifestations of the same disease, there are more than twenty varieties of strabismus. In the first place, isolated congenital or acquired.
Congenital strabismus, usually associated with the pathology of the central nervous system, hydrocephalus, high intracranial pressure, birth defects, prematurity, or systemic disorders in the child. Furthermore, it may be due to ocular optical defect (high and medium farsightedness, astigmatism, congenital myopia) at which the eyes begin to develop properly. There is also a squint associated with anatomical defects of the eye muscles or a violation of their innervation.
Acquired strabismus can occur in children aged 1.5-3 years, when not yet fully formed mechanism of stereoscopic vision. It usually occurs as a result of past infectious diseases — measles, scarlet fever, influenza.
Depending on the type of "failure" in the visual system, two types of release strabismus.
- Paralytic strabismus due to paralysis or paresis of one or more extraocular muscles. It can be caused by various factors: trauma, tumor infection. Paralytic strabismus is characterized, above all, the lack of or limited mobility squinting eyes of paralyzed muscles. The second feature of this strabismus — inequality of primary and secondary deflection angles (secondary always more primary). The third common feature — the presence of diplopia. Double vision — blurred vision, double vision consists in the visible objects (from the Greek. Diplóos — double, opós — eyes).
- Concomitant strabismus associated with impaired in visual perception. If a child with images of the left and right eyes do not add up to a single visual image of how it should be normal, it becomes easier to see with one eye. If you deviate from the point of fixation of one eye, called strabismus one-way. If both eyes are rejected, there bilateral strabismus. In the event of alternately one or the other eye, they talk aboutalternating squint
Diagnosis and treatment of strabismus
For the diagnosis of strabismus where specific examinations, including:
- visual inspection;
- hardware techniques for the determination of visual acuity, refractive power of the eye, the mobility of the eyeball in all directions of gaze;
- electrophysiological studies (visual evoked potentials, electroretinography), which allow to find out whether the patient has organic or functional damage to the visual system.
Methods of treatment of strabismus selected individually depending on its cause, type and severity of symptoms. When the disease is reduced eyesight, broken connection between the eyes in the brain develops an imbalance between the muscles that move the eyes. Therefore, treatment should be comprehensive, include both hardware conservative treatment aimed at improving visual acuity and recovery bonds and surgical methods.
Surgery is usually required in 80% of cases of strabismus, but with each particular patient issue is resolved strictly individual. Currently in clinical practice, we have put high-tech operations, allowing for minimal traumatic eyeball and maintain vascular nerve bundles extending in the eye-motor muscles. In addition, we have developed the technology operations to effectively cure the non-permanent squint, earlier in the application of classical methods of surgery was not possible. The main feature of these modern methods of classical is a unique opportunity to very precise (down to fractions of a millimeter) dosing quantities reversal of the eyeball in the eye slit, providing a symmetrical position of the eyes.
Advice for parents whose children have vision problems, including strabismus.
The first thing you need — timely checkups by a qualified pediatric ophthalmology. In case of a deviation of the visual system — immediate start of treatment measures.
It is necessary to emphasize the importance of an integrated approach in the treatment of strabismus, timely introduction of the surgical stage and the need to correct an adequate selection of a method of surgical treatment depending on the type of strabismus. Of course, necessary to carry out rehabilitation activities at the final stage of the treatment. The ultimate goal of treatment can be summarized as follows:
- high visual acuity;
- symmetrical position of the eyes;
- stereoscopic nature of visual perception.
Such a state of view, using modern methods of complex medical and surgical treatment can be achieved in 98% of cases. That hard work, which is carried out and the medical staff and the parents of a child with strabismus, is the important goal we have set ourselves, namely, to give children the joy of clear sight!
Igor Erikovich Aznauryan, Ophthalmic children, MD, academic RAMTS, a member of the European Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology (EPOS) and the European Association strabologov (ESA) (strabologiya — the science of strabismus), the head of the Association of Clinical Center Safety Vision of Children and Adolescents "Clear Gaze."