Strabismus

Strabismus.

This is one of the few eye diseases, which can be identified even without the help of a specialist. Strabismus — a condition that is characterized by a deviation of one or both eye from the central axis, the human eye is not looking in the same direction as necessary, and in various. As a result, opinion can not focus on the subject under consideration.

Most often, strabismus develops in children 2-3 years during the formation of both eyes friendly. According to medical statistics, some degree of strabismus suffer every 50th child.

Causes

Strabismus may be the result of:

  • trauma and infectious diseases of the brain;
  • inflammatory, vascular or neoplastic changes in the ocular muscles;
  • incorrect or untimely compensated nearsightedness, farsightedness or astigmatism;
  • congenital diseases or birth defects;
  • increased mental and physical exertion;
  • non-visual loadings children.

What's going on?

There are two forms of strabismus — friendly and paralytic. In the case of concomitant strabismus mows then left, then right eye, and the magnitude of the deviation from the central axis is about the same. This type of strabismus is associated most often with features of the device eyes, inherited and manifested mainly in children.

Paralytic strabismus occurs due to deterioration of the oculomotor muscles, or due to disease the optic nerve. At that mows a (healthy) eye. When a man treats the subject, his bad eye poorly or does not move, and have a healthy deviate by a larger angle. Strabismus can be:

  • converges (often associated with hyperopia) when one deviates from the eye to the nose;
  • divergent (often associated with myopia) when one deviates from the eye to the temple;
  • vertical when the eye squints up or down.

Most likely, the first to notice the surrounding strabismus, for example, the child's parents or peers in kindergarten or school. Adult hint that he something something was wrong with his eyes constantly or periodically their situation becomes asymmetric. In this case, the patient begins to disturb the double vision, dizziness and headaches. Instead, he sees a three-dimensional image plane, notes decreased visual acuity in the squinting eye.

Strabismus, has developed in childhood can affect the formation of the child's mind. Children disturbed perception of the world, could slow physical and mental development. Strabismus is a common complication Amblyopia ("lazy eye")— A sharp drop of at squinted eye as a result of the lack of visual load on the muscles of the eye.

Diagnosis and treatment

The diagnosis of strabismus is only set eye doctor after a thorough examination and determine the possible causes of strabismus. The doctor will test visual acuity with special tables that define the angle of strabismus, a friendly appreciate the work of both eyes using special mirrors, examines the mobility of the eye in all directions. In the case of paralytic strabismus necessarily appointed consulting neurologist.

Treatment of strabismus is desirable to begin as early as possible, as the disease never goes alone. On average, it takes 2-3 , requires careful observance of all the doctor's instructions and constant observation.

Begin to struggle with strabismus correction available with visual impairment: nearsightedness or farsightedness, astigmatism. From an early age the child wear glasses. You need to wear them continuously for long periods of time — to reduce the symptoms of strabismus. Another important part of the treatment — perform special exercises aimed at the creation of the workload on the weakened muscle groups squinting eyes.

With the development of Amblyopia may require the wearing of glasses, one glass of which sealed. In this case, worse seeing eye is under constant stress, "trainee" weakened eye muscles. Such treatment is carried out for a long time and requires constant medical supervision.

Surgery indicated in cases of paralytic strabismus, as well as the ineffectiveness of the therapeutic treatment of concomitant strabismus. In children it is often conducted in aged 3-6 years. At the age of 14 operations carried out under general anesthesia, after 14 years — under local anesthesia. Recovery takes an average of ten days. After the operation it is necessary to perform specific exercises to train the eye muscles and constantly observed by an ophthalmologist.

Prophylaxis

Prevention of strabismus is:

  • compliance with the rules of visual stress in children (toys not hang too close to the eyes, etc.);
  • Early examination of the child by an ophthalmologist to detect strabismus and other eye diseases;
  • timely treatment of ocular diseases.

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