The first weapons on planes

The history of aviation weapons began with a rather nasty moment. Thus, according to the 1907 Hague Convention, all kinds of air guns are prohibited. All the activities of aviation since limited the adjustment of fire ground artillery and conduct remote reconnaissance of enemy positions and fortifications. For eight years earlier, in 1899, the Hague Convention was imposed limit on the thorough development and implementation of small-caliber automatic guns. Namely, shooting explosive shells from guns permitted only with the caliber of 37 mm or more, and the weight of warhead had to be more than 410 g. In Russia and some other countries in the shell, which has the least weight of 410 g., Was listed as a bullet, to 16.4 kg. — Grenade, and above — a bomb. After 1914 most of the projectile and are distinguished by a bullet type infeed rifling made in the barrel and not by weight. For example, a bullet slammed into the shell, and the shell driving bands.

The first weapons on planes

In 1913, engineers Solin and Schneider have patented the latest scheme of synchronous machine-gun drive that gave the opportunity to strengthen gun specifically on the fuselage near the cockpit and carry fire through the plane, out of the screw. But then this innovation has not been realized.

Specifically, first World War most of the aircraft warring states generally did not have to battle armed with machine guns. Coupled with the narrower the first days of the war showed how to arm the aircraft to conduct air combat and ground attack.

Obviously, the choice of weapons for the aircraft was more effective military installation on the aircraft heavy machine guns and hand-caliber 7-8 mm. Initially, during the years 1914-1915, these air guns mounted on the machine without requiring configurations. Later, during the years 1915-1916, the army guns before installation was somewhat modernized. Thus, in the light machine guns instead of the ordinary wood butt established one or two handles. The flow of air during flight cooled machine gun body is much better than on the ground. With this in mind, it was decided to abandon aircraft machine guns from the water cools. Most of the aircraft machine guns are usually equipped with gilzoulavlivatelyami.

The upgraded aircraft machine guns mounted on turrets to fire in the rear hemisphere puller in the front hemisphere with the introduction of a pusher propeller, and subject to availability of 2-and more than engines.

For firing arrows on top of the screw was obliged to stand on the seat to get to the set at the height of the machine gun. It is clear that it was very uncomfortable, and since 1915, such a method has been replaced by firing machine guns that shoot through screw. In February 1915, the French army pilot Lieutenant Garros for the first time used a special tilting the device in the form of a triangular prism made of steel and fastened to the propeller blades with maintaining a 45 ° angle in the band crossing blades with the bore gun. In this case, gun mounted in such a Makarov that the bullets in the conduct of fire fell exclusively within the verge of iron triangles and for all that did not break through screw. Of course, from this innovation, together with the ins and had very many downsides. Thus, the desired power screw decreased by 10%, a large amount of bullets and not reach the target, but at the same time, the main objective was achieved — gun could carry fire through the propeller. It was a revolutionary step that allowed the French in the first period after the introduction of a new method of fire dominate the German air force.

The first weapons on planes

During air combat April 18, 1915 Garro fighter was shot down by anti-aircraft fire and was required to go to land at the rear of the German army. The Germans took off from the French aircraft armament and immediately handed him over to his own designer Anthony Fokker for careful study. After 10 days, Fokker has brought its proposal for the installation of the synchronizer for firing through screw. In a brand new version of synchronization mechanism is a connecting link between the motor shaft and a trigger mounted machine gun. In the end, only carried out in the absence of a helical blade in front of the barrel of a machine gun. Naturally, all of this was reduced by 30% the rate of fire, but it sent a bullet reach the goal.

In Russia, the first aircraft synchronizer was designed and made by the Russian army lieutenant G. Lavrov in autumn 1915. The first fighter planes, which were set synchronizers Lavrov, steel S-16 Sikorsky designer. From April 1916 on their Vickers machine guns were installed with the new synchronizer. Later in the Russian army began to equip the South American synchronizer system Colt machine guns. As the protective arms of the C-16 of the manual gun Madsen standard in 1900.

The first weapons on planes

Unlike foreign armies in the Russian machine guns, which were installed on the aircraft, not altered. The same Vickers installed water-cooling. The rate of fire of machine guns and Colt Vickers was about 500 rounds per minute, and Madsen — 400. At Vickers and Colt ammunition supply was tape, while Madsen — shopping, with a capacity of 25 rounds. These machine guns, as well as a 7.62-mm Russian Maxim with the cooling water for a long time remained the main armament of the Russian Army Aviation.

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