I'm sure many watched the famous film by Stephen Sommers "Mummy" the adventures of treasure hunters in the Sahara Desert in 1925. Stumbled on an ancient tomb, adventurers unwittingly set free the forces of evil, which for three thousand years of lurking in the body of an Egyptian priest who was executed. Condemned to eternal existence as the "living dead", he experienced a rebirth and began to take revenge.
Of course, everything that happens in the movie is fiction. Speaking of ancient Egyptian mummies, most of all, it refers to the category of the impossible. The fact that, to preserve the body from the late expansion thereof brain and internal organs were removed (except for heart). Then the corpse was kept in a salt solution. At the end of the ritual period of 70 days, the corpse was removed and, depending on the availability of funds for mummification, filled with fragrant resins and zapelenyvali a linen cloth or a cavity filled the chest, abdomen and skull filings. The insides are also processed spices, and preservative agents and fell in a sarcophagus.
It is clear that to revive the mummy, filled with sawdust, is very difficult. As a candidate for recovery, it can act only in the case of cloning. But when it comes to non-traditional mummification, the chances for recovery increase dramatically. And then the mummification process can be considered infinite life extension. And the confirmation that is.
For example, a mason, Samuel Goodwin and his assistants, have sawn half meter stone monolith in the career Kettlbruk (Birmingham), found in the middle cavity of the size of two fists. Extracted from there toad lived in the open air for about an hour. In the coal depots Lilishel (Paddington), according to J. Scott found a live frog after the split a large piece of coal. The castle chill hermit showed up slabs of marble fireplace.
Some scientists immediately began to experimentally verify such assumptions. Frenchman Seguin bricked 20 toads in clumps of plaster and 12 years later found four of them alive. American Frank in 1825 planted 12 toads into blocks of limestone and sandstone, and they sealed the plate glass, slate and buried a meter under the ground. A year later, it became clear that the toads have died in the sandstone, limestone and even gained weight …
Of course, the toads can not be equated to the people and make a conclusion about the possibility of mummification followed by recovery. But here's what I wrote in the magazine "Sputnik" in 1989, Doctor of Biological Sciences N.Lisevich, talking about one of the attractions of the temple Dow Zen sect in Vietnam.
"… In front of me in a yellow monk's robe, leaning slightly forward, in the lotus position, sitting Vu Khac Minh rector — a person born three hundred years ago! Argued that at the time of the penultimate Vietnamese royal dynasty Les he reached the top of the court career — and yet retired to the monastery.
By the end of his days alone in a tiny brick chapel on the edge of the monastery, Jun immersed in prayer and fasting, by allowing students to come to him only when he no longer heard the prayer drum …
Since the time of Pythagoras is known that a person can abstain from food without damage to itself no more than forty days — the prior fasted for a hundred. When the forces finally left him, he turned to the monks gathered around him: "The time has come to leave this world to me. When my spirit departs from the body want to wait a month. If the smell of decay — bury me, as it should be according to the custom, if the corruption will not leave me here, so I'm always offered prayers to the Buddha! "
…After the death of the last century. In Russia managed to prevail and go into the history of the Romanov dynasty. In Vietnam, seized the throne of a new dynasty, the Nguyen, then came the French, behind them — the Japanese anti-colonial war began … And the abbot was still sitting in their niche, timeless course of time. " Of course, he is not alive, but the condition of his body does not deny such a possibility.
Also described is the custom of mummification in the lifetime of one of the Buddhist sects in Japan.
In the IX century monk Kukai founded the Shingon esoteric school, which should have the secret knowledge available only to a small circle of initiates. Among the many ideas of the founder of the school was the idea of "Sokusin Dzebutsu" — "to become a Buddha in his own body." Translating ideas into reality, the transition to nirvana preserving incorrupt body, require complex preparation.
Have embarked on this path after the ascetic fanatic complex psychological preparation, prayer, meditation, proceeded to the final stage of his life, which lasted less than a thousand days. The terms of this phase were stillness, detachment, contemplation, a special mode of breathing. Diet is all decreasing portions of food, eliminating all of the nutritional components, such as starchy substance.
The body of the ascetic passed on endogenous nutrition — consuming its own tissues, and then the end of the phase of the person leaving only skin and bones. Therefore, when a person is dying, rotting, in fact, there was nothing. The corpse was placed in an extremely dry conditions to speed up the drying of the remaining soft tissue, with no additional treatment the body is subjected to.
Not everyone managed to become imperishable mummy in vivo. Many died long before the appointed time, the body begins to decompose and had to be cremated. According to legend, he Kukai went to the end of the whole process and miraculously disappeared. That is his mummy was not there.
The practice of mummification lifetime was widespread among followers of the mystical teachings of the "shugendo" — "mountain hermit." The mummies were exhibited in temples and worshiped as the incarnation of the Buddha. The most widespread practice samomumifikatsii received in Dewa province (present-day Yamagata Prefecture). Several mummies such ascetics are still the object of worship in the temple complex on Mount Daynitibo Yudono. Secular authorities of the Middle Ages were suspicious of activities of the sect and banned syugendo samomumifikatsiyu as a perversion of Buddhism. But it was all in vain.
Among the most famous people tried samomumifitsirovatsya monk Enku (XVII century), a beautiful sculptor, carved wooden statues of Buddha more than 5000. Feeling his death, he asked to bury him alive in the ground. Being buried alive, he was breathing through a straw, and prayed, and from time to time the bell rang. But since it is buried in a cemetery in Mirokudzi, as evidenced by extant tombstone, it can be concluded that the attempt to Enku samomumifitsirovatsya failed.
Sometimes zamumifitsirovavshiesya deified as a result of certain diseases. For example, in South China in the XVIII century, a peasant girl who suffered from a debilitating illness and died of exhaustion. The corpse was samomumifitsirovalsya and became the object of worship, the girl herself was ranked among the pantheon of Chinese Buddhism — in her honor the temple was built.
The authorities of medieval Japan, pursuing samomumifikatsiyu were right, believing that this act is contrary to the ideas of Buddhism. Buddhism is alien to the cult of relics, requires the destruction of bodily remains, as a victim of living beings surrounding nature, the denial of the resurrection of man, not only his own flesh, but of the soul. No wonder the word "nirvana" literally translated from Sanskrit means "extinction".
The study, which was subjected to one of the 'living mummies "in Vietnam showed that the body was mummified, as was customary, for example, in Egypt. The brain, internal organs were intact. Such self-preservation for such a long time, all the more surprising since the Vietnam humidity most of the time remains at 100% for months pouring monsoon rains. Statue wide open, but there is no sign of mold, moreover, remains not only moisturize, but continued to shrink, even in these extraordinary circumstances!
Since science can not explain this phenomenon, and it can not play it. So far, scientists are on the path reconstruction technology Egyptian mummification. So in 1994, Ronald Wade of the University of Maryland Medical Center and Bob Brier of Long Island University has successfully experimented with mummification. It was the first mummy for 2,800 years, which was embalmed with the use of technology and products of ancient Egypt.
It is known that the Egyptians mummified their dead in Egyptian linen used, soda, and frankincense, and myrrh, cedar leaf oil, palm wine, and natural gum. Through trial and error, Wade and Breyer found the right use of all these components.
Discard the liquid and the internal organs of the body, they covered the entire body with soda, which the Egyptians used to dehydrate the body. Was used for the disinfection of palm wine. Then the body was left in a locked room for 35 days. When, after 35 days, the scientists examined the mummy, she already weighed 80 pounds less than the loss of moisture under the influence of soda. The experiment was conducted on the body of a man who died of a heart attack at the age of 70 years. He willingly sacrificed his body for scientific experiments.
Wade for this experiment was the culmination of all his scientific activity. "I have a special interest in this" — he says. — "Back in ninth grade, I was trying to mummify the neighbor's cat, but she was the mistress of mind, so I had to use a rat."
"Honestly, I do not think that mummification can be of any practical application in the modern funeral practices", — said director Mike Cancer Funeral Service Baltimore. Despite this, his colleague John McDonagh, director of the funeral service of Lauela, Mass., said he did not rule out the possibility that one day, somebody wants to be mummified.
Before the mummy was exhibited in the Museum of Man in San Diego from 1998 to 1999. Now it is stored in the Medical School of the University of Maryland.
According to analytical newspaper "Expert Centre", on the heels of Brier and Wade is an American company «Summun» Salt Lake City, who offered to everyone mummification of their mortal flesh after death. The service costs just $ 60,000. The price includes the price of the sarcophagus of bronze. On request, the sarcophagus may be made of more expensive metals may be very intricate configuration.
Management believes that this unusual campaign, maintaining a visual image of eternity will help people maintain their descendants spiritual connection, to maintain the continuity of different generations, though separated from each other for centuries. The know-how of the pharaohs, has generated enormous interest and demand among affluent Americans, and over time, this service will be available to the average citizen and the United States.
The company «Summun» there were already powerful and famous clients. The owner of London's shops «Harrods», the Egyptian millionaire Mohamed Al Fayed intends to ensure immortality by mummification of their remains. He has already made an order campaign of Salt Lake City. Eccentric billionaire wanted to keep his mummy in a glass sarcophagus at his villa near Paris.
Sergey Klimov, "IFG"
See also: Strange archaeological finds. Photos, civilization in Antarctica.