The first attempts to increase chesthave been undertaken in the Middle Ages. However, the first officially registered operation to change the shape of the breast was made only at the beginning of the 20th century in England. The patient was "thirty". After surgery, she had lived for more than 50 years and died at the age of 86-minute. Only at autopsy, doctors discovered she had implants, the existence of which no one guessed.
Problem. Small breasts
What to do. Endoprosthesis — to change the shape of the breast using implants. Shell implants are made from silicone plastic, sometimes with the addition of other polymeric material. They can be smooth or rough (last practically do not give complications), round or teardrop-shaped (and it is a matter of taste).
Fillers implants are also different: cohesive silicone hydrogels (polyvinylpyrrolidone, cellulose based hydrogel, etc.) or saline. In addition, implants are already filled with saline (valveless) or filled (they are filled with saline during surgery). Of the option you choose depends on the course of the operation. The manufacturer gives a warranty on the implants. Surgeons believe that the safety of breast shape with an implant filled with silicone — 10-15 years old, with an implant filled with saline — up to 20 years.
Give birth with the implant can be. Breastfeeding also, but in that case the implant is placed deep under the pectoral muscle, and not directly under the mammary gland.
Operation. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. Implants can be administered in different ways. Through an incision around the areola (nipple) through an incision under the breast (inframammary fold), or in the armpit. The method is selected depending on the shape of the implant and the patient's wishes. Implant location: under the breast tissue or under the pectoralis muscle.
Contraindications. Tumors strongly lowered the chest.
Possible complications. The formation of fibrous capsule (hardening of the breast). It may appear after 1-2 weeks or a few months. Then you need to cut through the fibrous capsule and, in some cases, to change the implant.
The recovery period. Immediately after surgery, the pain may be in the breast may be slightly rising temperature. Within a month, you need to wear special bras, avoid exercise and weight lifting. A month later, all restrictions are removed.
What to do. Endoscopic breast prosthesis.
Operation. Endoscopic, or video-assisted breast prosthesis allows using special equipment with built-in micro-cameras implanted fillers with maximum precision of the armpits and other parts of the body. The surgeon monitors the progress of the operation from the screen. The whole procedure lasts from 45 minutes to 1.5 hours, depending on the complexity and under general anesthesia. This operation allows you to make on the body of the patient are almost no traces of any significant and seams.
Possible complications. Same.
The recovery period. The same.
Problem. Chest lost form
What to do. Mastopexy (breast lift).
Operation. Continued for 2 to 3 hours under anesthesia. The surgeon removes the excess skin, and moves the nipple and areola to a new position. Then creates a new breast contour and connects with special fabric seams. If chest lowered slightly, and the seams are around the side of the nipple. If the chest greatly lowered, the seams are straight down from the areola to the crease under the breast and inside the crease.
Contraindications. Swelling of the breast.
Possible complications. Areola necrosis (cell death due to poor blood supply to the nipple) and loss of sensation in the area. It happens very rarely.
The recovery period. Pain held in 1-2 weeks. Bandages are removed after 5-7 days. Within a month, you need to wear a special bra. Chest takes final shape within a week after surgery. Subsequently form may vary depending on the hormonal shifts, variations in weight, pregnancy. Quite often done at the same time operation mastopexy and stenting of the breast.
Problem. Too big breasts
What to do. Reduction mammoplasty — breast reduction.
Operation. Extends from 3 to 5 hours. The surgeon removes excess skin and tissue, and then everything happens in the same way as in the case of a mastopexy — moves the nipple and areola to a new position and the formation of the new breast contour. Sometimes, to remove excess fat from the armpit liposuction is used.
Possible complications. Same.
What to do. Breast lift by liposuction.
Operation. The operation lasts 1.5 hours. Puncture is made in several places along the contour of the breast. Excess fat is sucked through a special duct with a diameter of 2 to 7 mm, which is introduced into the pockets of fat and which are connected to a vacuum pump.
Contraindications. Operation is better do after having children.
Possible complications. No.
The recovery period. Swelling go away within a week or two. 2-3 weeks should wear a compression garment to the skin better reduced. At night, it can be removed.