About the Author: Dmitry Filippov — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Military History of the Academy of Military Sciences.
The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. In 12 volumes. Volume 2. The origin and the beginning of the war. M. Kuchkovo field, 2012. 1008., Ill.
The implementation of a major research project to create a 12-volume seminal work "The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945", you can already say with confidence is gaining the necessary momentum. The Victory Day was published the second volume work "The Origin and the beginning of the war."
SECOND VOLUME: STRUCTURE AND CONTENT
It introduces the main events of the 1930s in Europe and Asia, which led to the Second World War, as well as the course of the Great Patriotic War in the first three months — from June 22 to September 30, 1941. Such a composition is dictated by the volume of an important principle that authors adhere to the fundamental work: the Great Patriotic War is seen as the most important part of the Second World War. Its origin and progress in this chronological framework disclosed with the patterns and trends of world development over the past two decades, from the First and Second World Wars to.
The authors combined the research material in six chapters: "Historical and cognitive foundations for the study of the Great Patriotic War," "At the root of the war," "Start of the Second World War and the policy of the USSR", "on the eve of the German invasion of the Soviet Union," "The entry of the Soviet people in the struggle against the aggressor "" The results of the first months of the war. "
In these chapters, the relationship politics of fascism and militarism, the process of formation and strengthening of the Nazi regime in Germany, the appeasement of Nazism by the Western democracies. It is shown that German National Socialism was the driving force leading an aggressive bloc unleashed the Second World War and sought to destroy the Soviet Union as the main obstacle on the way to world domination.
Volume thoroughly analyzed the Nazi plans for world domination and the attack on the Soviet Union, paid considerable attention to the history of the development plan "Barbarossa" and the general plan "Ost", according to which the Nazis waged a war of extermination against the peoples of the Soviet Union carried out a criminal policy of racial genocide.
The questions of foreign policy on the eve of the war, proved inconsistent diplomacy of Western Europe and the United States. Brought a lot of new facts and alternative estimates of pre-war political crisis, agreements between the USSR and Germany, concluded in 1939, the foreign policy of the Soviet Union before the war. This contributes to a better understanding of the conditions of occurrence of the Great Patriotic War during World War II, the elucidation of the fact that Nazi Germany undertook an unprovoked aggression against the USSR.
This volume contains a great amount of material on the preparation of the Soviet Union to the war with Germany, the development of the General Staff of the Red Army plans to repel the aggression, conduct a war of defense. The book shows that the Soviet leadership promptly identified Germany as the main source of military danger. Detailed explanation of the line of the Soviet leadership, who tried to escape the onslaught of Hitler’s Germany, or at least delay it.
In all of the drama described the border battles of the Red Army, shows the process of mobilizing the forces of the Soviet Union, discovered the phenomenon of mass heroism of the citizens of the multinational Soviet state, analyzes the causes of defeat of the Red Army in the early months of the war.
A NEW LOOK
The volume opens with a chapter in which summarized the results of more than seventy years of the development of the historiography of the Great Patriotic War. Of course, a review of the vast array of the most diverse literature interfaced to the reader with some difficulty (although who and when he said that the study of history — a light exercise that does not require a certain effort?). On the other hand, getting a holistic view of the fact that over the past decade has been written about the Great Patriotic War, the reader will be able to more exacting approach to the assessment of novelty and meaningfulness of work under review.
A new in this volume compared with the works of such lot.
For example, if a previously unreleased in this country multivolume publications on the history of the Second World War and the Great Patriotic war aggression of Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union was linked primarily with class and ideological factors, with Hitler’s elite anti-communism, in a peer-reviewed volume, it is considered as due to primarily civilization factors. Building on the recently discovered original master plan "Ost" in the volume shown in detail that the management plans of the Third Reich East Slavic ethnic group deprived places in the world civilization. To survive, the Soviet people had to take to challenges and fight without worrying about the price of victory. There was no alternative: win, or go into oblivion.
Or take the background anti-Hitler coalition. Previously, it was very common notion that it arose almost overnight, since the German attack on the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, documents found in foreign archives, show that movement in this direction the government of the USSR beginning immediately after Hitler’s attack on Poland, prompting in October 1939, the British, and in April of 1940 and the Americans to negotiate.
On the basis of the newly introduced into scientific use of archival documents conclusively refuted popular in the circles of the modern "interpreters" version of history about the plans of preventive war against Germany, supposedly existed in the USSR. Indeed, the development of the last pre-war version of the strategic plan for the deployment of the Red Army on the Western theater of the Red Army General Staff called for pre-emptive attack against the enemy, to concentrate on the borders of our country. However, as the authors point out is true of the second volume, ‘Reasoning in spring 1941 on how to conduct future war did not mean the solutions begin immediately by the war. On the contrary, all our military and political decisions and diplomatic moves came from a desire to delay the entry of the USSR into the war. "
Compared to published works more deeply and extensively shown activity Soviet intelligence on the eve of the war, called the names of many soldier and, at the cost of dobyvshih critical intelligence about the plans and the practical training of the aggressor in the attack on the Soviet Union. This material provides information to answer fundamentally important question: how deep and comprehensive leadership of the Soviet Union has been informed of Hitler’s plans.
Stalin as ANALYST
Information "up" there have been many. During the year prior to the war foreign intelligence and military intelligence to Stalin’s Commissariat of Defense sent more than 230 reports on Germany’s preparations for war. In many razvedsoobscheniya penetrated and misinformation, they often contradict each other. But to separate the wheat from the chaff was no one. The authors attribute this to the volume of Stalin banned engaged in the analysis and assessment of the extracted data. The leader of the right to leave the conclusions for themselves. As noted in the work, "such a scheme reduced the barrier to entering the target him controversial materials and ve
rified information is not enough."
Stalin thus took over the analytical component of intelligence, and hence the responsibility for possible errors in the conclusions and projections in assessing intelligence. As a result of hard work of scouts mined mostly reliable information sometimes did not get a proper evaluation of the leader of the Soviet Union. They made a mistake in determining when the Wehrmacht attack, which was one of the reasons for the catastrophic outbreak of the war the Red Army.
BEGINNING OF THE WAR AND LESSONS
The authors have given a significant place events in the first months of the war as a dramatic transition of society from a peaceful state of war, showing the value of this period for further developments on the battlefields of the Second World War. Describes the retreat of the Red Army, its losses, and the heroic struggle of how managed to keep the core strength and keep the enemy advance.
In this regard, it is impossible to ignore just how deeply and objectively by a team analyzed the causes of defeat of the Red Army in 1941.
In general, their task authors of the volume handled. Among the main causes of the defeats of the Soviet Union at the beginning of the war with Germany highlighted the following: poor material and technical readiness of the USSR to the war, the Red Army’s lack of sufficient combat experience, outdated attitudes of the Soviet command for an initial period of war, a miscalculation in the estimates of the timing of the war, the errors of personnel policy, strategic miscalculation of the Soviet leadership in the estimates of the likely actions of the aggressor, aborted a functioning mechanism for decision-making on strategic management of the Army and Navy, and others.Each of these reasons is disclosed on the basis of mainly new documentary material only recently introduced in the scientific revolution. Let’s pay attention to only one of these documents — Staff report of the German 4th Panzer Group on November 7, 1941, containing detailed assessment of the actions of Soviet troops.
Judging by the content of the volume, authors saw his task not only in the light of past events, but also in the formulation of practical lessons for the future in order to strengthen the modern Russia.
At this orientated historians and Russian President Vladimir Putin, whose appeal to readers that opens: "The Great Victory over fascism and militarism paid cost of the lives of millions of Soviet people. Historical memory requires us to build a Russian, dreaming about what our dear veterans. And weighty support in this case — the true knowledge, which includes a new fundamental work of the Great Patriotic War. "