The vast number of people reared in the USSR used to take air rifle only as of mandatory attribute galleries located in the parks of culture and rest. How severe tool no one took her, except as a means to show their marksmanship to his comrades and good friends. Meanwhile, the first air rifles were made not as a toy, as a completely normal tool.
Pneumatic tool vserasprostraneno extensively throughout the world and affects a variety of natural forms and calibers. The famous Leonardo da Vinci in his writings developed the principles of this instrument, taking as a base the standards of the old Egyptians, who built a catapult, operates on the same principle. To have survived standards pneumatics 17th-century Vienna Museum is a gun, in which the air pressure created by the piston, which actuates a compressed spring.
First came the 18th century with the use of a pneumatic type of receiver, in which the previously created for the highest pressure with a pump similar to the modern bicycle. 200 strokes of the piston pump is made pressure the receiver of the order of 6 atm. The volume of the tank allowed to produce up to 20 shots at an initial speed of the bullet up to 330 meters per second. In such type of weapon used 7.62-12.7 mm caliber.
In 1779, a gunsmith from Austria made air rifle with a receiver, which fulfilled the function of the butt, he was attached with screws and, when necessary could simply be replaced. Taking into account the rate of muskets as long (4-6 rounds per minute), its standard just threw everyone in a state of shock with their 20 shots per minute. Joseph second counting that 500 fighter with such an instrument would be overshadowed by the total firepower of the same amount of flint trunks at least 5 times, ordered to re-equip the army. But because of this very labor-intensive technology and the highest rates of rifles to complete the transition to a new military weapon is not reached, and was released only about 1,500 barrels.
As alleged witnesses rifle Zhirandoni kept stopping distance in meters okolo45 first 10 shots, then it is uniformly decreased, and after 20 rounds in store compressed air allowed to kill the enemy at a distance of not boleee30 meters. But it is well acted by the enemy psychologically because of the lack of smoke and the sound of a shot from the combustion of gunpowder.
First, the 19th century due to the development of firearms, pneumatic lost its military significance, there is only a means of self-defense and hunting weapon. For example in the UK since hunting was very vserasprostranennym noble occupation in circles, specifically here and has spread hunting pneumatic gun.
In our time, the creation of air rifles (and not only) is engaged in a lot of campaigns in the world. In the price of these companies you can find samples of a variety of price ranges, from the cheapest kind, around 2000 rubles to "how much money is in your wallet." Regular features on its rifle costs an average of 30000-45000 rubles, add here the price of iron for tuning and get its real value.
Currently vserasprostraneny three main types of rifles differ in principle act. Let's briefly look at each individually.
Rifles, using the principle of the piston for the bill previously compressed spring — common type of pneumatic tools. Resulting in the movement of the piston spring in their platoon or fracture, or a separate lever on the side of the rifle, in which case the trunk is set motionless in bed. This assembly provides the best rifle shooting accuracy and is used in the main weapon in the sport of the highest class (Faynverkbau M 300).
Pneumatic pump therapy. In this case, the "pump action" has a different meaning, if in case of firearms, and particularly in the form of air guns (rifles and namely) implements the principle of injection preparations air receiver. It is usually located under the barrel in the vicinity of a particular breech and charging using a special pen. The pressure in the compression chamber is dependent on the number of moves made by the piston pump. Pump-action tool allows the shooter to independently set the working air pressure depending on the conditions of implementation. Pump action rifle extensively represented in the model series of companies "Walter" and "Sheridan".
Relatively recently formed species using the energy of compressed carbon dioxide. The very thought of it was born long ago, back in 1889, Paul Giffard received a patent for air guns that use this principle, but because of the imperfection of technology ever since he became widespread only in the moment. Ease of such tools is that the pressurized gas contained in the replaceable cartridges, like all conventional siphon and charging rifle does not take much time.
The house in the middle of the pneumatic tools are top-class standards with the highest reservoir pressure (PCP). Pressure in the order of 200 atmospheres, which provides velocity of 300 m / sec. Defect such tools is that you need to have access to the high-pressure pump to charge the receiver with compressed air.
Vserasprostranennymi ammunition for air rifles are now the following: bullet DS-0.28 g (hollow lead glass with a convex bottom, veselitelnoy designed for target shooting at a range of about 10 meters), DS-0.40 (different from the previous increased weight and improved ballistic characteristics) DS-0.50 (flat head a short range has no effect on the poor shock small game), MS-0.87g (hard core of brass lead sheath, length of 8 mm. created for the massive rifled guns, due to the increased weight retains a maximum of energy in the vast distances).
As though any gun, pneumatic amenable to update, which is to improve traits such as precision and power. Methods to better my rifle there are many, and each chooses currently applicable options. The traditional set, included in at least some improvement in the rifle contains a strengthening of the spring, better sealing of all joints, the softening of the trigger, improved sights, and then it depends on the hands or the availability of funds. Air Rifle, over which worked great hands, is a severe threat to life not only the crows hunting, which at the moment is so popular, and a man with a solid range. After permitted by law 7.5 kJ. Muzzle energy just converted to 18-20 on the same MR-512 in Russia. With all this it gives accuracy within 10mm. by 25 meters and the initial speed of the order of 280 m / sec.
So what is a air rifle?