The story is long and detailed. Among other things, also because a significant part of many potential readers have long been forgotten, and unknown to many at all due to take place from 1985 shuffles school programs, first in the Soviet Union, and then in all of its fragments.
So mnogabukaf — asilte!
Traditionally an inaccurate view
In Soviet times it was considered to be condoning anti-Soviet German revanchism maneuver Britain and France. In fact, it is difficult otherwise to explain why the unilateral abrogation of Germany one point the Treaty of Versailles after the other did not meet any resistance to the winners of the First World War, although the strongest powers in a single gesture would be enough for the retreat of the Germans (and even the arrest of politicians, plunging the country into threat to a losing war by the military).
However, the explanation was found. And quite convincing.
An island off the peninsula
Europe is often called the peninsula of Asia. In fact, even in geographically natural boundaries — the Ural and Caucasus Mountains Caspian yes — it is only a small fraction of Eurasia. If we take into account that part of the Slavic representatives of more than Western nations sincerely believe Asian, if not a little that remains. Although violent activity of this little girl is not the first century is reflected in the world.
In Europe, in turn, has a small, but all sick of the particle.
Britain for several centuries, officially called the Great. In fact, for a long time her tenure spans the globe so that the empire the sun never set. Even now, officially releasing the will of all the former prey, except that the Falkland Islands Gibraltar yes, it remains at the head of the Commonwealth of Nations, whose mutual trade preferences give it considerable economic and political power.
But Britain itself — a relatively small island separated from the mainland of twenty Roman miles (32 km) Strait (in the world it is referred to by the French word la manche — sleeve, but the British came up with the proud name of english channel — English Channel) and is therefore very vulnerable. At least remember that the Briton Celtic tribe that gave the island its present name, conquered by the Romans back in the 43rd, when navigation was, to put it mildly, is not perfect. Romans left at the beginning of the V century, but after a few decades, the island came Germanic tribes of Angles and Saxons, destroyed most of Celtic and drove to the outskirts of the remains of the island — in the current Cornwall, Wales, Scotland — and across the strait in Brittany. Anglo-Saxons, in turn, regularly ravaged Scandinavian raiders — Vikings, also of German origin. 1066.10.14 Normans — Vikings who settled in the north of present-day France, but because for centuries heavily Frenchified — defeated King Harold at Hastings Godvinovicha Wessex, conquered England and settled in it. Anglo-Saxons for centuries considered second-class citizens. Their language is finally merged with the French invaders around the same time when the Spaniards began to explore the New World. By the end of the XVI century Spaniards tired of English piracy and they set out to conquer the island of annoying. True, the Armada campaign — about 130 ships — in May and September 1588 ended in complete defeat as a result of a two-week run-ins with the light and maneuverable English ships and subsequent storms: the Spaniards, whose sails and masts were defeated British artillery, could not face the wind. And seven Spanish attempted invasion also broke down: the empire, grown fat on the plunder of South American gold and silver reserves, has lost organizational skills. But 1677.06.20 Dutch fleet under Michiel de Ruyter Adrianovich entered the mouth of the Thames, burned a lot of British ships, brought terror to the whole of England (knowingly Rafael Sabatini Vinchentsovich attributed to his favorite hero Peter Blood seamanship training just at De Ruyter). However, this invasion and the remaining episodes of the war, and does not turn into a new conquest. But even after the conquest of England in 1282, Wales and Scotland in m 1707th became a British kingdom remained too small and vulnerable.
In addition, the British own experience of taking control of the territories where the easiest way to invade the island, was unsuccessful. Once the vicissitudes of dynastic entanglements have allowed England to claim the French throne. But the Hundred Years (1337-1453 th years only, ie 116 years), the war ended with the expulsion of the English, and soon to set there the native nobles Normandy finally moved to France.
Sitting on a hill, looking to battle the Tigers in the valley
Britain was the only way to prevent further incursions — European balance. Several centuries British politicians saw to it that Europe had two almost equal strength, so that their equality forced them to constantly compete with one another, and to the invasion through the Strait there was not the resources nor the desire. Britain to support the weak — that good advice, then money, then pushing potential allies. Direct military force it to intervene only when the indirect means of maintaining the balance remained.
Thus, in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14), the memorial we were basically on a brilliant screen adaptation of Scribe's "A Glass of Water", Britain was involved directly (its commander, John Churchill Uinstonovich for multiple victories won the ducal title, and thus founded the genus Marlborough) because otherwise it was impossible to form a reliable counterweight to France. Ended the war compromise: the Spanish throne went to Philip Luichu Bourbon, but subject to the waiver of him and his descendants the rights to the French throne, and the union of the two great empires of the time remains impossible.
Being determines morality
Countries are developing at different rates. The balance of power is changing constantly. The principle of "Britain has no permanent friends, no permanent enemies, only permanent interests" — not bragging or deceit, but an inevitable consequence of incessant maneuvering around the political arena. Hence also the infamous British hypocrisy: when you have centuries of experience betrayals, necessarily learn to conceal his thoughts.
From our point of view, this behavior is uncertain. Russia is also constantly under the threat of foreign invasion. But the boundaries of our enemies are not so intertwined as in Western Europe. So we almost impossible to play off them for one another. We just have to meet each new invasion force across (thanks to our open spaces is where to get it), hold at this time other potential enemies only by the threat of force to throw against them. Hence the traditional directness of action. Formula Svyatoslav Igorevich Ryurikova "I'm going to you" — a symbol of over-concentration. Few Russian rulers, capable of participating in diplomatic maneuvers are considered to have cunning, and even hypocritical, although pan-European standards — not to mention the English tradition — they are remarkably simple and frank.
Wonderful English historian and theorist of historical scholarship Harry Arnold Joseph Toynbee, Volpich defines civilization as usual format of the call is answered. In his opinion, the Russian civilization is under external pressure shrinks dramatically, going from a pressure source, and then just as sharply expanded, absorbing this source in itself and turning into one of the many sources of his power. The phrase "for the defense of the century Russia increased by half of the Eurasian continent" — not an anecdote, a pretty accurate description of the long-term follow-described Toynbee course of action.
However, the English civilization was at least as effective. Honed the art of etching is often allowed to take new ground almost bare hands. Thus, India, whose population has always been stronger than the English, has won itself for Britain itself practically: the internecine feuds of hundreds of local warlords have allowed the British again and again to crush the next ruler of the independent forces are dependent. And in the books of James Fenimore Cooper's Uilyamovicha Delaware noble and Huron are insidious because for most of the XVIII century the Hurons fought on the French side, and Delaware to the British. By the way, the scalps they (and other tribes) were shooting in the same way, because this technique taught by their British: mercenaries paid by the number of surrendered scalps.
The lion and the bear
Power and wealth attracted many supporters. The growing empire has become a desirable ally. In twenty years of wars that followed the French Revolution, Russia was on the same side of the barricades with Britain, not only from the monarchical reasons, but also because the British market readily absorbed Russian raw materials and food products are constantly giving back diversifying industry. However, the British had to assist the conspiracy against the Emperor Paul I Petrovich Romanov: that following the example of his great-grandfather Peter Alexeyevich I tried to develop its own industry and therefore gravitated towards an alliance with France, and by then the nobles — like the present — was much more profitable to sell raw, not indulging in economic intercession and balls and foreign trips of the proceeds of exports.
Joint victory over Napoleon Bonaparte Karlovic has not prevented Britain after four decades side of his nephew — the new French Emperor Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Luicha, known under the title of Napoleon III (the second is Napoleon Francois Joseph Charles Bonaparte Napoleonovich, the first son, born 1811.03.20 , died 1832.07.22 formally ex-emperor with 1815.06.22, when his father, shattered 1815.06.18 at Waterloo, sought political asylum in Britain, to 1815.07.07, when the winners declared the rightful king of France, Louis XVIII Louis Stanislas Xavier of Bourbon-Ferdinadovicha) . Now called the Crimean War because the latter-day allies suffered a heavy defeat everywhere except in the peninsula. Particularly impressed with the British expedition to Kamchatka. Garrison tamoshnego Petropavlovsk was about one hundred and fifty people with disabilities (in those days the word meant unfit for full military service). To them at the approach of the British squadron joined a couple of hundreds of local hunters. In addition, the bay were Avachinskaya frigate "Aurora" and transport "Dvina". It was enough to discourage 1854.08.20 landing at seven hundred and fifty marines, supported by the power of the British artillery, and 1854.08.24 to flight squadron very proud mistress of the seas. But Crimea is connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus so that the enemy could bring up the sea there is incomparably more troops and resources than we do on land. Two-fold around the Crimea and more than three times near Sevastopol numerical superiority enabled the combined forces of the British, French and Ottoman empires (with the participation of the Kingdom of Sardinia, who later became the core of the unification of Italy) in the year of the siege beat Russian troops from the main base of the Black Sea Fleet. It is true that the loss of the enemy in the Crimean War a quarter exceeded our. But experienced journalists presented questionable success as a grand victory over the whole of the Russian Empire. In addition, the Emperor Nicholas I Pavlovich Romanov died (by uncool at the same time — most likely by British propagandists — rumors — killed him with resentment at the military failures, but failures at that time still, in fact, was not) 1855.03.02 six months before the fall Sebastopol, and political games by changing the board eased perseverance of the country. The war ended with the Paris Peace Treaty 1856.03.30, considerably limited the possibility of Russia (in particular, neutralized the Black Sea: Russia's Black Sea fleet is banned altogether, while Turkey has maintained fleet in the Sea of Marmara, near the entrance to the Black). Denounce it was only in 1870, after the defeat of France by Prussia.
By the time the Treaty of Paris denouncing Britain has found a new reason to fight with Russia. Regular raids by nomadic settlements forced the Russian empire gradually take control of the whole of Central Asia and to prevent smuggling foothold even in the Pamirs. And for him — already the Himalayas, with the Himalayas — Indian gem British Crown. In the novel, Joseph Rudyard Kipling, John Lokvudovicha "Kim" colorfully describes the intrigues of British intelligence in the Himalayas against the Russian. Roman gave the opposition of the great powers called "The Great Game", recently applied for Leontiev Mikhail Vladimirovich series of books and programs on this subject.
The war of each against all
Along the way, Britain and France competed. They vied captured the colony. While both have enough land, it did not bother anyone. But in July 1898 the first French expedition took the town of Fashoda in the upper reaches of the Nile, had already declared a zone of British interests. After months of diplomatic wrangling France withdrew from Fashoda.
By the time France, after the defeat of Prussia became a republic (for the third time in its history) already soyuznichat (basic agreement signed on 1891.08.21 and 1892.08.18 political cooperation on the military) with the Russian Empire (mostly — thanks for that great time loans to its Russian). According to the principle of "do not be friends with a neighbor, and a neighbor." After all, between Russia and France lay mighty Germany. Around Prussia, has proved its power, united almost all German states. The largest remaining on the sidelines — at that time a multinational Austrian Empire, the loser of the same war on Prussia 1866: Prussia, namayalis to get her Germanization of Poles wanted to create an ethnically pure German power, leaving only the natives of the colonies. However, Austria unconditionally obschenemetskoy policy followed in all cases where the opinion of the Austrian asked. Therefore, in most of its military forecasts ranked as Germany.
By the way, deprived of the possibility of expansion to the north and west, Austria was forced to refocus on the south and east, is a zone of interests of Russia. Being obviously weaker, she used, as they say, non-conventional weapons, financed the implementation of ideas on the transformation of the Polish population in the south Russian anti-Russian in Russia. Then owned by Austria's eastern slope of the Carpathian Mountains — Galicia — served as a convenient testing ground for experiments. But the history of waterlogging brain Galicians and their subsequent use as a poison of mass destruction goes too far beyond even such a lengthy narrative.
The total human potential for mobilization Russia many times superior to the German, including the Austrian. But even without the industrialized Germany Austria was much stronger in France and Russia combined. Therefore, France was forced to forget about competition with Britain and go to her allies, and politically younger. 1904.04.08 signed agreements entente cordiale — a heart accord. 1907.08.31 Britain and Russia signed an agreement on the division of spheres of influence in Asia, from Iran to China and Russia actually entered the Entente.
For his participation in an apparently imminent World War demanded that Russia fulfill its age-old dream — to withdraw from Turkey in favor of Russia Bosporus and the Dardanelles, thus opening a free exit through Russia to the Mediterranean Sea of Marmara. This does not suit either England, which owned it the largest islands of Cyprus and Malta, and even Egypt or France, which owned a good half of the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and was hoping to take control of a hefty — Italian and Austrian — part of the northern coast. Not surprisingly, at the first sign of impending loss of the Quadruple Alliance (Germany, Austria, Turkey, Bulgaria) in the war of attrition, after many intrigues and maneuvers, including the murder of Rasputin New 1916.12.29, also known as Rasputin, a large group of high-ranking Russian figures closely associated with Britain and France, business and political interests, 1917.03.15 abdicated Nicholas II Romanov, and then in Russia for a long time chaos. In an atmosphere of hopelessness took power 1917.11.07 one of the extreme at that time, political parties, and the rest tried to take control, and chaos gradually moved into the civil war that stretched in the European part of Russia until the end of 1921 (and some alienated land returned to the country only in 1940), and the Far East, even before the end of 1922.
Unfortunate for us the outcome of the First World War, many explain the wrong choice of an ally. Indeed, much more natural look traditional alliance with the German states. With all of our quarrels and clashes with many of them still have not been with them as irreconcilable differences, which have been around a century with Britain. Especially since we were with them similar to one of the most important criteria — inter-ethnic tolerance.
To the Russian Empire for a long time glued propaganda label "prison of nations". But in this prison was almost no mortality can be counted on the fingers of those hundreds of ethnic groups, conquered Russia, in the course of the conquest were completely assimilated and / or forced to flee to the greater part of other lands. As a rule, however, the new citizens peacefully to get used to the overall system, respected by their customs, and natives of the empire-wide have made a successful career. Everybody knows a great commander beginning of the XIX century, Pyotr Bagration — scion of the Georgian kings. Less well known is actually the second man in the empire after Alexander II Nikolaevich Romanov and the author of the constitution, is not signed by the Emperor 1881.03.13 just because the road to the palace was blown up with hand grenades terrorists "Narodnaya Volya" Nikolai Trotters and Ignatius Ioakimovich Grinevitsky — Armenian Mikael Tarielovich Loris-Melikov. And against the abdication of the emperor's grandson who was killed were only two generals of the cavalry (in terms of modern rank — generals of the army or the marshals combat arms): The Baltic — Baltic — German Lutheran Fedor Arturovich Keller and Azeri Muslim (according to some sources — orthodox) Kelbalievich Hussein Khan of Nakhichevan .
A similar picture in the Austrian Empire. Shortly before the outbreak of the First World War killed himself — according to the standard version, due to the exposure of their work on Russia — Head office of agent Intelligence Bureau of the General Staff Colonel Alfred Redl Franzevich — Rusyn, that is Russian (he was born in Lemberg — current Lviv — on the eastern slope Carpathians, now — after a century and a half of psychological and political experiments of the Austrians, Poles and the Bolsheviks ультрареволюционаристского wing — Ruthenians were only on the western slope, and the inhabitants of the east — Galician — already largely do not perceive themselves as Russian). One of the greatest generals of the Austrian Field Marshal Johann Joseph Wenzel Anton Franz Karlovich Count Radetzky von Radets (in his honor by Johann Baptist Franz Borgiazovich Strauss — Strauss Sr. — written in 1848, one of the most famous in the world marches) — Representative of the Slavic race, who served as and Russia (in the beginning of the Transfiguration of the street in Odessa today is a house 2, where in November 1889 went under the age of Infantry General Fyodor Radetzky and where, alas, died in January of 1890, unable to enjoy a well-earned rest.) In the famous operetta by Emmerich Karlovic Koppshteyna (Imre Kalman) "Gipsy Queen" (in Russian stage — "Silva") the protagonist Edwin — son of Prince Leopold von und zu Lippert Vaylerskhaym and former pop actress Cecilia Pitkesh, that is, in the literal sense avstrovengr. His friends — the same age as the Count Boniface Cancian — Italian — and the same age as his father Earl Kerekesha Ferenc — Hungarian. His bride Anastasia Countess von Edelberg — German. His beloved pop actress Sylvia Varetskaya — apparently ovengerivshayasya Slovak. And the local audience watched it all, making sure only the ups and downs of the plot (which, by the way, and then unraveled restaurateur Bear — probably Czech), but not at the origin of actors: the hall was the same mixture of ethnic groups.
In the British or the French Empire (becoming a republic in the form of government, France has long been a multi-ethnic empire on) in the same years it was impossible to imagine even the colonel non-indigenous. Hindu and Boer shelves led to the attack the British or, at best, Welsh, Algerians, Senegalese yes commanded the French net or — occasionally — quite Frenchified Rafaelevich Jews like Alfred Dreyfus — the helper sadly memorable process for nationalistic reasons, adulterated and turned back many years of scandal. And in the English nobleman's wedding with a French or Indian woman with malgashkoy even on stage no one would have believed.
In continental empire united nations for centuries lived side by side and have accumulated a lot of ways to mitigate the inevitable conflicts. Imperial power is only to provide a common understanding and application of the law by all these people. The colonial empire is made up of land, divided (in the era of sailing) for weeks and even months way. The administration of the colony inevitably insignificant compared to its population. Provide peace of mind of the population can only be cruelly suppressed all forms of freedom but for the destruction of local residents every opportunity to reach a level of development that allows to hope for a replacement overseas managers own experts. Hence the traditional contempt for the people of the metropolis to the peoples of the colonies: if we consider them as equals — not enough moral strength to their continued humiliation.
Britain and France — the classic colonial empire. They are imbued with the spirit of national conceit so that the tension was even relevant to peoples have long lived side by side with them. So, the only Welshman in British history as prime minister — Uilyamovich David Lloyd George (1916.12.07-1922.10.22) — there was even a single later in this post Jew, even the son of immigrants — Benjamin Disraeli Ayzekovicha (1868.02.27-1868.12. 01 1874.02.20-1880.04.21). United States of America were formed while on the continent, but the people with the colonial mentality. But Russia, Austria, Turkey (during the Ottoman era) — the classic continental empire. Germany after reunification in 1870, considerably contracted colonial contempt for outsiders, but still remained largely continental in spirit.
Alas, the alliance with the German states — Austria and Germany — has been for us at that time impossible. Not only because Russia owes France unbearable for the payment amount, and Austria competed with Russia for supremacy in the Balkans. Much more important is that the Central Powers did not have many of the key natural resources, and to ensure a reliable supply did not see other ways, besides conquering Russia. Even if we together defeated Britain and France (which had a good chance) in the near future, Germany and Austria will likely be turned against us — and without allies Russia, is lagging behind in the development of many key industries, would have been subdued.
In early 1918, following the collapse of the Russian army Germany and Austria took over the rich lands of the south of Russia: Ukraine, New Russia, Crimea, Donbass. But it did not help them overcome the food crisis. Agriculture Russia had already self resided in decline as a result of the mobilization of peasants and horses. No wonder that the Russian government has introduced 1916.12.02 schedule of food — required by each product delivery to rural producers at fixed prices. Shoveling stocks from each hut has required almost as many troops as had previously been employed at the Russian front (for Germany, he was a minor, and even in the height of the offensive in 1915 there were only about a quarter of the German forces, and about half of the Austrian — other Austrians traditionally beaten Italy entered the war 1915.05.23). In addition to the French front reinforcements arrived from the United States of America joined the war on 1917.04.06. Our revolution did not change the outcome of the war: the Quadruple Alliance lost. That's just the straits, no one gave.
New times — new rivals
Britain out of the war seems to be the best one enemy — Germany, challenging British naval and colonial domination — is defeated and the Treaty of Versailles 1919.06.28 forever deprived of the opportunity to fight in earnest, the other — Russia, threatening its vastness many key British colonies — plunged into devastation, and in addition is controlled doctrinaire believers in the absurd notions on any gentleman political imagination. In Europe, there was a set of new states applying for the land with each other due to the passage of most of the boundaries of the regions with ethnically mixed population, and therefore doomed to best feuds of England.
Alas, it soon became clear: the picture is not so rosy. France, has only just got in and forced British allies, was not at all rivals on the continent. Moreover, almost all the new states were guided in their policy is on France. Is that Italy has traditionally tried to compete with it — but it might accurately assessed saying that appeared no later than 1848 and was common throughout Europe: "The Italian army exists for the sake of the Austrian army had someone to beat." Desired and cultivated for centuries Britain European balance was disrupted so dramatically that it took immediate action.
For the sake of creating a serious counterweight to France first British politicians studiously blind eye to minor infractions of Germany at Versailles conditions such as placement of weapons design bureaus in other countries (in the Netherlands — submarines and aircraft, in Sweden — the tanks, Switzerland — automatic small arms, the Soviet Union — artillery and aviation in part, as well as a training school for German aviators, tank crews and specialists in chemical protection) and then reconciled with an open denunciation of the Versailles one item after another — from re-militarize the area west of the Rhine to the revival of mass conscript army.
British err. Removich historian Lev Vershinin has repeatedly pointed out: from the variety of German nationalist politicians scrambled up to the top is the one whose obsession borrowed from the British and French racial theories Germany guaranteed a catastrophic decline in political reputation, almost inevitably leads to an unwinnable confrontation with the world, and all the way This policy is generously strewn with money of unknown origin and cleared intrigues, surprisingly reminiscent of the fate of Paul I Petrovich and Nicholas II Romanov, and many other eminent personalities at different times in the path of the island nation. And the forces of Germany were not big enough to seriously challenge the UK: for example, the creation of the fleet, which is comparable with the British, it would need a decade.
However, in the latter-day German USSR opportunities by all accounts would be enough. But hardly anyone in the West seriously conducted these calculations. If we are in 1920 and Poland, has just re-created from the fragments separated in 1794-1815 between Austria, Prussia and Russia, it was possible with a minor by the standards of the First World War (only arms, ammunition, and a few generals and colonels) help repel the French — though in most of Warsaw — the Soviet counter-offensive, and even take prisoner about one hundred and fifty thousand men (a good half of them remained in the Polish soil: if a prisoner in the camp to strip naked, kept in barracks with broken windows, but still do not feed, but regularly beat, then after a few weeks of his EQS any disease, which is convenient to put on the official record), it is clear that the power of united Poland and Romania (their treaty against our country signed 1921.03.03) will be enough to crush the savages, led by fanatics. Why connect to the serious business to? England is recreated armed Germany against France.
And what about France? Why not let?
First of all, because — contrary to the fears of the British — did not want to fight with anyone else. The war took every twenty French man — and if we consider only the age group 15-49 years, from the ground and the soldiers were taken, the 133/1000. The greatest losses occurred in the group of 18-25 years: it killed three tenths of all mobilized. Many of them have left no offspring, so that in addition to the moral decadence generated hardest by the loss of time, the country is still experiencing a significant demographic and failure (he said to the beginning of the Second World War).
In addition to war was not on that. Four-fighting in the north and east of France resulted in immense destruction much of the economy. Even the return of Alsace-Lorraine, seized by Prussia in 1870, is not paid for these losses. Perhaps that could help target payout defeated the restoration — repair — ruined the winners. But Germany also suffered badly (in its territory not visited one enemy soldier, but the workforce considerably lacking even for a reverse translation industry from military to peaceful production) could not pay. Even more so — a fantastic sum for that time to 132 billion gold marks (at 0.358423 grams of fine gold in the mark). Even though in 1922 the winners have replaced cash payments to the supply of wood, coal, and steel.
1923.01.11-16 France even sent troops into the Ruhr Basin, where over seven tenths of German coal and smelted more than half of the iron and steel. Germany declared passive resistance to the invaders. In the Ruhr region, it turned into a massive sabotage and even sabotage (in which participants from across the political spectrum — from monarchists to communists, 137 people were killed by counter-insurgency operations; 1923.05.26 executed by the head of the guerrilla unit Albert Leo Schlageter — in his honor Hans Jost wrote then play "Schlageter" that was incorporated into the history of the aphorism, "When I hear of culture, I take off the safety catch my Browning"). In the rest of Germany's hyperinflation broke out: fiat money printed — at least formally — to pay the striking workers Ruhr. 1923.09.26 government had to give up resistance and to resume payments. In July and August 1925 the first French troops withdrew from the Ruhr.
Salvation from overseas
By the way, hyper-inflation in 1923 was at the time the record: prices doubled every 49 hours. On average, for the 1921 third years, prices have doubled in three days. At the end of paper money needed for the purchase of firewood, which weighed themselves more firewood, and it became more profitable to sink money. 1923.11.15 introduced a new brand, which is equal to one trillion old. She was named the rent, because it provided a real estate mortgage bonds (6% of the country's property). 1924.08.30 put equal to her imperial mark, provided regular income of the state: after the end of the Ruhr crisis and the introduction of a rental brand finances have stabilized. Both of banknotes were in circulation until 1948. Interestingly, as a result of hyperinflation in Germany the entire domestic debt accumulated during the war, was much less than a new brand, so it was formally extinguished.
But these economic miracles can be executed only with the internal debt. External to pay. Came to the aid of those who have been in the First World War the last straw that broke the German Ridge. United States of America on behalf of Brigadier General Charles Gates Dawes Rufusovicha (1925-9th — vice president under John Calvin Coolidge John Kelvinoviche) headed an international commission to develop a plan for German reparations payments. The basis of the agreement 1924.08.16 loans were SGA in Germany: they were going to repair, but SGA agreed to await the return of German debt far longer than they could afford devastated military spending Britain and ruined, and even destroyed, France.
WGA did not stay in the loser. Much of the military expenditure of the Entente was the purchase of weapons, ammunition, food and all sorts of gear in the SGA. There the arms industry, generously fertilized European gold has grown so much that she could not afford to let go pretty much already in the loan. This loan was repaid now German reparations payments. That is American money is not stuck in the UK and France, and immediately returned to their homeland. More precisely, they do not even drove across the ocean: all payments were in the mode of netting bank records.
But why not just SGA extended loans, these onetime allies? Why Germany pulled out of the bad debt trap?
Thirteen British colonies in North America, the self-proclaimed independent states 1776.07.04 not stop being British. They are still used to pit one another potential competitors, turning them into real victim. However, now and in conflict with their historical homeland. First of all — for crossing over to their side the other British colonies located to the north. Last open war between the WGA and the rest of Britain occurred in this occasion in 1812 to 5th years (in the course of the war the British troops, even the freshly burned the capital WGA, named after the largest of the commander of the war for independence and the first President George Washington Avgustinovich). But even during the Civil War, 1861 5th Britain seriously considered the possibility of an intervention on the side of the South — the Confederate States of America: blockade committed by the north, interrupted the supply of cheap American cotton spinning mills in the UK, and British access to the Latin American market has slowed considerably WGA since then, as Spensovich President James Monroe in 1823 proclaimed the slogan "America for the Americans".
Another war between relatives (on both sides of the ocean is still ironically call each other cousins) considerably prevented the Russian Empire. Her relationship with the British at that time newly sharpened — just in relation to the first sweeps of the Central Asian raiders. Given the role of sea lanes in the life of Britain, the Russian government decided to prepare for cruising (from the German kreuz = cross: Warship baptizes major waterways, destroying all met the enemy ships, which will be tough for him.) Two Russian squadron of frigates entered the largest overseas base is not subject to British control: Nyu York on the Atlantic coast of the SGA and San Francisco on the Pacific. The British did not dare to attack neither Russia, nor in the SGA. Of course, not only out of fear of disorder supplies to the island: the country is quite hard going through the recent almost a Pyrrhic victory in the Crimea, and the suppression of the Sepoy Rebellion — Indians on the British military service — in 1857, the 9th has taken away a lot of energy. Yet the WGA and Russia still remember the episode of mutual aid, at least in official rhetoric.
In 1898 CAB defeated the Spanish empire — by the time (and Ottoman) is rotten from the inside, but still respected for its former glory — and got their hands on some of her colonies. It was a serious claim to great power status. The First World War was finally adopted by SGA in this status. Taking into account the industrial potential created by the Entente, WGA competed even with Britain.
1922.02.06 Washington Treaty limited the naval armaments. Combat fleets of SGA and Britain were to equalize, but leave the world's largest. The fleets of other nations were: Italian and French — to 1/3 of the British, the Japanese — 3/5. Japan, seriously deliberate subjugation of not only torn stretching from 1920 civil war in China, but also a large proportion of Pacific colonies of Europe, considered a betrayal of the restriction of the SGA and Britain, hitherto its former allies (the British navy was created by the British model and basically on British shipyards, and the war with Russia in 1904 to 5th she was in the British political support and for U.S. credits). The conflict, however, was inevitable: Britain and the WGA had their own interests in China and in the oceans, so that does not want to admit to their feeding grounds of the new predator. Cooling 1941.12.07 bringing to the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor — the main base of Pacific Island MUH. The subsequent history of the Pacific battle goes far beyond even so branchy narrative.
But the pressure on Japan — just a side episode. WGA and Britain fought primarily among themselves, Britain kept previously purchased, WGA intended to break all foreign markets, including the markets of all the colonial empires. Nagryanuvshaya 1929.10.24 First Great Depression has made the fight for markets vital.
The rivalry was so obvious that Herbert George Wells Dzhozefovich in 1930, described in the novel "autocracy Mr. Parham" military confrontation between the two powers. Through equity, secured the Washington Treaty, the two fleets vzaimounichtozhilis in a pitched battle, leaving the world's oceans at a fraction of minor competitors.
Clearly, such an outcome is not satisfied with any home Wells or CAH. The British resumed the search for a common language with the Japanese. MUH resorted to the Anglo-Saxon centuries streamlined process for indirect pressure on rival — the creation of new competitors him. Britain regarded Germany as a potential counterweight to France. MUH — as a potential counterweight to Britain. Hence, the Dawes Plan, and the amazing ease of creation in many German WGA affinity groups and societies to support Germany. And — most important! — Huge investments of American financiers and industrialists in the German economy.
But Britain at that time was called the Great is not in vain. If all German WWI did not have the opportunity to crush her, then during World War II Germany, considerably weakened by previous defeat, and certainly not had — according to calculations the mid-1920s — no chance.
Americans have paid attention to the then derelict, by its very remoteness of the politically doomed to grasp at any straw to look the slightest possibility of an alliance with someone else, and moreover, ruined, even when compared with Germany, and deprived of any opportunity to revive the industry itself. The second counterbalance Britain was doomed to become the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Already in 1927, began construction of DniproHES — with strong technical and financial assistance to General Electric. Architectural bureau Yozefovicha Albert Kahn — the creator of most of the then center of the American automobile capital of Detroit — was involved in designing the plant, whose construction and equipment cost the Soviet Union in huge at that time, two billion dollars (a dollar before the arrival in 1933 of President Franklin Delano Dzheymsovicha Ruzvelta contained 1.5050069 grams of pure gold, which corresponds to $ 20.67 per troy ounce = 31.1034768 grams, and immediately after he took office, depreciated to 0.8886708 grams, or $ 35 per ounce). Much of the process of the majority of these plants also worked overseas. Many plants — for example, Nizhny Novgorod car — bought a whole, together with a license for final products.
It was easy for us to produce a purely military solutions.
For example, high-speed wheel-track tank created by John Walter Christie, bought as a tractor: he was taken to the Soviet Union without the tower, for tank guns to us by the year 1930 has already learned to do. It became the basis of a series of BT tanks, gone out of production only after the designers hit upon the idea to use manganese steel Robert Abbott Robert's Hadfield to create a wear-resistant caterpillars (that truck broke down a couple of hundred kilometers, making the whole world tankostroitelny experimenting with wheel drive for mezhboevyh marches). However, even in the legendary T-34 survived — in view of the continuity of production — large-diameter wheels on a vertical spring suspension design Christy and his own transmission, is clearly outdated (only in 1943, her body was thrust into a new — better — a system of gears: equipment for the construction of the body is so complicated that it was used to physical deterioration of key machines, bought with the filing of the same Christie).
Made in the USSR aircraft engines water cooling set up largely on the basis of licenses purchased from the German Bayerische Motoren Werke and the French Hispano-Suiza, while Soviet designers have managed to squeeze out of a specific size (in the engine cylinders and the diameter is the length of stroke of the pistons to a large extent determine the course of working processes and cooling conditions) several times larger than the original authors. And on the air-cooled engine in 1930 were ahead of the Americans — and our planes crossed with motors, whose lineage goes back to the French firm Gnome-Rhone and the British Bristol, on the descendants of creations Wright and Pratt & Whitney.
Sometimes the easy access to U.S. military designs even harmed.
Thus, the ocean carried away with versatile tools capable of with equal ease to fire at all angles of elevation — from anti-aircraft to anti-tank. And our Deputy People's Commissar of the weapons of defense Mikhail Tukhachevsky long insisted on using the best of the American experience. He was not worried about any structural complexity of such equipment, which hinders their mass production, no significant weight and dimensions, complicating the transport to the battlefield and to disguise it. Only real operating experience of the universal instruments in the military — and the U.S., and our — allowed in peacetime refuse excess of universalism and go to specialized structures.
In fairness, I note that throughout the Second World War, probably the best anti-tank weapons capable of hitting any then-fighting vehicle, remains the German 88-mm and similar to her Soviet 85mm anti-aircraft gun. As far as I know, the pocket for them and our German designers have created together in 1932 — shortly before the rise to power of the National Socialist German Workers Party broke the technical and economic cooperation between our countries. Also in 1932, created and sleeve used in our 14.5-mm anti-tank guns (and then a heavy machine gun Vladimirov) and the German 15-mm aircraft machine guns. The difference in labeling due to the fact that we have decided to measure the caliber of the minimum diameter of the rifled barrel, while in Western Europe the maximum. By the way, for the sake of advertising WGA caliber often indicate the diameter of the bullet: it is more than the maximum diameter of the barrel, so that the bullet tightly pressed into the channel and blocked the slightest possibility of leakage of propellant gases. But with all the ingenuity of the designers really anti-aircraft guns were so large and complex that they are of the troops was not enough for a full-fledged anti-defense, but on the battlefield they could neither mask nor the roll out of the fire, so that their calculations could only win or die.
However, technical impasses happen at all. The main thing — economic and technical cooperation with the United States of America has helped us create a strong industrial basis for most of future military and economic success.
In the military part of our defense greatly sharpened under clash with Britain — even apart from the cooperation with the WGA. After all, the British anti-Soviet rhetoric allow management to solve many internal problems. For example, in a newspaper circulation 1924.10.25 thrown in a forged letter of the then chairman of the executive committee of the Communist International Ovsei Gershon Aronovich Apfelbaum (on the party name — Grigory Zinoviev Evseevich) with a recommendation by the British proletariat to prepare a civil war, so that in four days the Conservatives won the election and the first Labor Government Dzhonovich James Ramsey MacDonald gave way to the Conservatives led by Stanley Baldwin Alfredovichem. 1927.05.12 A raid on the Soviet trade mission in London gave the Conservatives an opportunity to throw in a lot of fakes circulation newspaper of the communist conspiracy, and in this way not only to sever diplomatic and trade relations with the Soviet Union, but — most important! — To strengthen its position in the country. These tricks may at any time move into direct conflict.
The appearance in the late 1930s, a large shipbuilding program is also difficult to explain without the notion of the coming confrontation with Britain. The outcome of battles with Germany clearly decided on the land. Huge money and effort it took to newest battleships and heavy cruisers, and not descended from stocks, it would be far more useful to spend on tanks and guns. But it seems that the overseas sponsor hinted obligation to work earlier support.
However, much of this support by the time we covered the usual way — money. Soviet exports grew by the day. Although he remained mostly raw — but also raw materials we produced more and more just because of industrialization.
Sadly memorable famine of 1932 third years did not happen just because collectivization focused on mechanized cultivation of the land, and the technology for this was done too little, but largely also because at that moment, for political reasons range of subjects of Soviet exports was limited.
Thus, the WGA did not buy Soviet timber for the logging worked, among others, still prisoners, and forced labor, according to U.S. concepts that reduce the price of products. In fact, forced labor costs the state much more expensive free hiring: it concluded, in any case, contain, and even pay for protection. But in the SGA — as in Britain — has long abounded practice of putting prisoners in hiring private entrepreneurs: a classic example of optimal in a market economy nationalization of losses and privatization of profits. By their example they suspected the Soviet Union in the same, not even thinking about the fact that at that time we privatize profits was simply no one. Historian Yuri Zhukov said, the Soviet authorities had to sell the then Minister of Finance MUH Andrew William Mellon Tomasovich — on auction prices, but without the auction — a dozen masterpieces of the Hermitage collection, that he recognized the Soviet goods produced without the use of artificial udeshlevlennogo labor and allowed to be imported. However, Mellon did not go shopping in store: the scandal broke, and he had to send a picture of the state — they now form the basis of the capital of the National Gallery.
A dozen masterpieces of the Hermitage bought Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian — a prominent neftetorgovets. The export of Soviet oil vigilantly oversaw the former owners of the Baku oil fields — Mantashev Nobels … They asked her how the confiscation of his property: it nationalized the oil fields without adequate compensation according to market laws. Gulbenkian Foundation has agreed to sell Soviet oil under the guise of its own. The money, according to Zhukov, he gently returned to the USSR. Thus this part of the collection went on punching holes in the economic and political blockade of the world's first socialist country.
After the establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR 1933.11.16 WGA and major political export restrictions were lifted. In addition, First Great Depression had already destroyed so much of the world economy, which at the first attempt resuscitation economic ties revealed many inconsistencies, and headed to the simplest — but that's why massively popular — Soviet goods. USSR record quickly paid off most of the debt, and was much more independent foreign policy than you bargained for his sponsors.
The final settlements
The classic anecdote. Policeman finds in the trunk of the car inspected "Kalashnikov" and asks, "What's that?" The driver is responsible "Calculator". The policeman took out a simple calculator and the driver says, "Really? That is — the calculator. " The driver dismissively: "This to preliminary calculations, and my — for the final."
By the mid-1930s, the situation in the world — primarily under the influence of the First Great Depression — has changed so much that a large part of the pre-political calculations become invalid.
In most European countries have established themselves dictators (before the crisis, they were, as I recall, only in Hungary — Miklos Horthy with Ishtvanovich 1920.03.01, Italy — Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini Alessandrovich 1922.10.31, Lithuania — Antanas Smetona with Yonasovich 1926.12.17) . Particularly impressed with the German dictator, Is that Britain was to his racism quietly, while France was worried, because he — contrary to the founder of the theory of racial superiority Luichu Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau — proclaimed the French degenerates, that is legitimate targets for destruction.
However, Adolf Hitler scared Aloizovich France not only arguments about the inferiority of much of Europe. The main thing — he really set out to bring back all the lost by the Treaty of Versailles. Including Alsace and Lorraine, passed from hand to hand for many centuries, but because as a goose stuffed with apples fortresses, and even having one of the most powerful industrial complexes in Europe. At the moment, these regions belonged to France. Leave them in no way wanted.
In addition, Germany came under even the most powerful — money — control. The president of the Imperial Bank (and in 1936 the 7th — and even the Minister of Economy) Hjalmar Horace Greeley, William Leonhard-Ludwig-Maksimillianovich Schacht built several pyramid schemes that provided the German industry five years of virtually unlimited recharge money.
Any pyramid eventually collapses. Already in 1938, the German finance saved only Anschluss — Connection — Austria 1938.03.12-13.
However, by that were legal grounds. The Austrian Empire was transformed 1867.03.15 in the Austro-Hungarian, collapsed as a result of the First World War. 1918.11.12 Emperor Charles I of Austria (part III Karel Czech and Hungarian Karoly IV) Franz Joseph Hubert Georg Otto Franz Joseph Karl-Ludwig von Habsburg-Marievich abdicated. 1919.03.15 favorites in the German Imperial Remnant Constituent Assembly decided to request the rest of the reunification of Germany. But the winners have included in Versailles (with Germany 1919.06.28) and St. Germain (with Austria 1919.09.10) peace treaties special prohibition on execution of the will of the people (according to the results of the Second World War, the ban is confirmed by the State contract for the restoration of an independent and democratic Austria 1955.05. 15, but no doubt sooner or later will be canceled, as, for example, informal, but no less significant, the ban on the reunification of Ukraine with the rest of Russia). Canceling one another is clearly unfair, by all accounts, items of post-war world order, Germany finally came up to the reunification of the ban. 1938.04.10 plebiscite in Austria and in the rest of Germany approved unity. The territory of Germany increased by 17%, the population — 10% (6.7 million people). The official protest was followed except that of the Soviet Union, did not participate in the formation of the Versailles system and not just point to its imbalance and instability, but not at all interested in her demise.
A key role in the success of the Anschluss played the French position. Before Germany — despite all efforts to revive the armed forces and military industrialization — was unlikely to oppose France, supported by potential allies in the east (Poland with great mobilization potential, Romania, with huge oil revenues, Czechoslovakia with a first-class military production). The reunification of Germany has changed the balance of six Austrian divisions joined the German army, and the Austrian arms industry, though inferior to the Czech (mostly created in the years when the Czech Republic was part of Austria), but deserves respect (her rifle is still very good ). But as long as the integration of an all-German military and economic mechanism is not over, France could not make the event go back. Alas, she was still afraid to fight and looked back at formally allied Britain. And that was favorable to France without her and could not step to step. The protest did not take place.
France so cherished union with Britain, that the government of the Popular Front in France, who won the elections (first round 1936.04.26, 1936.05.03 second), did not support the Popular Front for the equivalent of Spain, who beat 1936.02.16, when the National Front organized a war against him 1936.07.17 rebellion, and agreed with the British proposal of non-interference in the internal conflict, that is, in fact equated the legal power to criminals (the same practice adopted and now: at least remember Libya and Syria, where the legal authorities were not even equated with the rebels, and the mercenaries of the same in Britain, France, the United States of America). As expected, the non-intervention was one-sided arms blocked legitimate authority created interference arrival of volunteers to help her, but Germany and Italy openly rebels were driven not only weapons and ammunition, but also tens of thousands of troops have fulfilled the new technology out there fighting. One can only wonder the will of most of the Spaniards who resisted rebels and interventionists to 1939.04.01. However, to honor the head of the rebels Francisco Paulino Ermenehildo Teodulo Nikolasovicha Franco Bahamonde should be noted: in the outbreak of the Second World War soon he retained almost complete neutrality. He even closed his eyes to escape from occupied France, many of whom the Germans would be killed. And against the Soviet Union had sent only one division — from the volunteers, getting rid of most of the most frostbitten Civil War veterans who are unable to get along in the world. But for Germany, Spain bought a huge flow of oil from the SGA. Trade was completed only in 1944, when the WGA and Britain began in earnest their preparation for the landing of troops on the north of France and decided to limit the mobility of the famous German troops, so as not to allow them to immediately reset the landing in the sea.
Within six months after the Anschluss — 1938.09.30 — Britain, Germany, Italy and France have agreed to submit to Munich from Czechoslovakia to Germany Sudeten Mountains, where the German population was more than the Czech. Formally, this is just eliminated another postwar injustice. In fact, Czechoslovakia lost the most powerful system of fortifications, to prevent the sudden invasion, and much of the economic opportunities. In return, she received only promises not to touch the rest.
At the same time Poland was Cieszyn region, whose population until the mid XIX century, referred to himself as a "local" and was divided into Polish, Silesian and Czech only under strong pressure from the neighbors. However, by the time of the collapse of the empire of the Poles there was a little more than half — but mostly owned by immigrants from the Austrian part of Poland. In short, a typical example of imperial mixture whose unenviable fate of any attempt to divide the multi-national empire in the mono-kingdom.
Protested against lawlessness again only the USSR. Moreover, he said, although the current agreement on mutual obligation to side with the Soviet Union Czechoslovakia only after France, the Union is ready to help, and without this precondition. However Czechoslovakia chose to obey his Western allies, saying in the case of resistance itself is found to be the culprit Czechoslovakia war.
This recognition would not formal. At the end of the First World War, and a judgment against the leaders of countries recognized by the aggressors. They almost never punished, since the beginning of the war aggression is not considered a crime. But the very decision of the court sets a precedent: aggression punishable. Therefore, by the way, the trials of German and Japanese war criminals were based on already existing international solutions.
There were also non-legal considerations. According to conventional wisdom legend Ian Antoninovitch Dad — brother and heir to the grand creator of Tomas Bata shoe empire — at a meeting of top business people in the country showed a bill of 1,000 euros and said if Hitler would come, we will have it, if it comes Stalin
Capitulation — no salvation. 1939.03.14 Prime Minister of Slovakia Jozef Tiso Joseph Gaspar-called parliament of autonomy. He decided to secede from the rest of the Czech Republic (Slovakia and turn into an ally of Germany). On the night of the 15th president of Czechoslovakia Emil Joseph Joseph-Dominique Emmanuelevich Haha called to Berlin and forced to sign an agreement on the transformation of the Czech Republic in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (whose president he remained until 1945.05.14, when arrested for treason, he died 1945.06.26 in prison — perhaps also because he knew too much.) 1939.03.15 declared itself independent Carpathian Ruthenia (on the west side of the Carpathians), but already occupied Hungary 1939.03.18 (now it is part of Ukraine and its inhabitants declared Ukrainians, though they consider themselves Ruthenians, and speak a language almost altered since the "Lay"). Britain and France declared: Czechoslovakia security guarantees given in Munich, lost power due to its collapse, and therefore Germany's actions did not violate any obligation and does not violate no one's rights. Germany received a stock of weapons used for the nine infantry divisions, and the first-class quality products (in particular, has generated a tank chassis, which served as the basis for many self-propelled guns of German army) high-performance military industry Czech Republic, who had worked under German orders throughout the Second World War (its reserves products created just since January — when the Soviet offensive blocked the main road export to Germany — to April 1945 inclusive, then Israel had to defeat the six Arab armies in the War of Independence). The newly saved and the German financial system: Britain gave her stored in its gold reserves from banks Czechoslovakia.
The next step in support of Germany stirred up even the usual quirky British public opinion. Britain (and with it France) has given assurance of safety, Poland, whose relations with Germany were upset because of a dispute about the Danzig corridor — ceded to Poland as a result of the First World War, the outlet to the sea, which separates the port of Danzig (now Gdansk), declared autonomous, and German East Prussia (now divided between Poland, Lithuania and Russia about equally) from the main German territory. Poland, feeling behind him a strong base, refused to negotiate on the terms of German transit corridor. And Germany was in dire need of regular cash crutches — in the form of annexation or even trophies. Soon after the Second World War broke out in Europe.
USSR — contrary to preliminary estimates by the British and American — turned away from the war for almost two years. Although the British and the French formally tried to win him over to their side. Since April 1939 were sluggish negotiations, where from the Soviet Union demanded ready to go to war at any moment require it of him, without promising anything in return. In particular, Soviet troops could stand against German only through Poland, but she refused to let them through, saying that with Germany, we lose our freedom, with the Russian soul. Clearly, an attempt to fulfill the potential of the USSR alliance commitments would be declared aggression against Poland, which would allow the UK to France, if not to side with Germany, then at least to leave the Soviet Union without support. When it became clear that the negotiating partners are not going to influence the Polish position, the Soviet Union and Germany 1939.08.23 concluded a nonaggression pact.
For such a dramatic exit from a planned role of the Anglo-Saxons retaliated immediately after the victory in the Second World War. In the spring of 1946, published in the SGA secret protocol to the treaty of non-aggression, allegedly found photocopies of materials destroyed the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Secret supplement to formal agreements — the usual diplomatic practice. But the text of the Protocol is replete not only logical errors (for example, it is essentially fixed official, has never concealed the position of the Soviet Union invaded Poland in 1920, Russian lands, now called the Western Belarus and Western Ukraine — what's the secret?) And design errors, but also the geographical inaccuracies. According to him Tyumen publicist Alexey Kungurov calculated: the report was composed in the same place and at the same time, where and when published. There are other arguments in favor of the falseness of the protocol. Nevertheless, he was one of the key points of the anti-Soviet agitation and eventually used for the destruction of our country. But that's another story, familiar to readers without this article.
The shortest output
We too often seek in their past erroneous and improper acts. For example, consider a bloody tyrant Ivan IV Vasilyevich Ryurikova personally compiled a list of more than three thousand men of ruined his fault, for funeral prayers (according to historians, the total number of his victims with chady and households amounted to 10-15 thousand), whereas like his contemporary Charles IX Maximillian Genrikhovich Valois in St. Bartholomew's Day 1572.08.24 own shot at protesters from the window of his palace, and the total number of victims of the massacre, one surpassed all their actions Terrible king (and throughout Europe during his reign of Russian rulers of the number of victims, commit extrajudicial killings and rigged courts, in per capita terms is many times higher than the Russian.) I think from the above historical sketch of the shortest clear: we think we are sinners because our measurement is extremely righteous — even the worst cases of our own behavior is much better that the country still call themselves civilized, do not believe what the norm, but even merit . We have nothing to be ashamed of — we have the right to shame all those who are trying to shame us.