Russia has repeatedly evinced their rights to part of the Arctic shelf, where the vast reserves of natural resources. Earlier it was reported that in 2012. Russian companies have to start the first oil production on the Arctic shelf, and in 2016. — Gas.
The company "Rosneft" sent Lukoil, TNK-BP, "Surgut" and "Bashneft" proposals for cooperation in the 12 areas of the Arctic shelf. In addition, the development of fields in the Russian part of the shelf in partnership with Russian companies and foreign companies claim, including ExxonMobil. This was announced after February 2012. acting Russian President Vladimir Putin spoke about the need to expand access to oil and gas companies to develop the northern fields. Under current law, the developers of the shelf can only be state-owned companies that already have experience of developing the appropriate fields. In the future, the list of companies competing for shelf can be expanded.
According to experts, after fifty years, the Arctic could become a major source of energy and a key transportation hub of the world. However, the complexity of development experts compare the Arctic offshore with the cosmos, and environmentalists do not get tired to trumpet the increased risks to the environment, in the case of early exploration of the depths of the North Pole.
Note that the "Arctic pie" is already underway with serious geopolitical struggle. In October, 2011. RBC magazine published a detailed article on this topic, given the emergence of a new player in the big "battle of the Arctic" — China.
The authors remind us that in the beginning of September 2011. Chinese billionaire Huang nubo Icelandic authorities offered to sell him 300 thousand square meters. kilometers of land in the north-east of the island for the construction of the resort. The experts then concluded that a former state official acting on behalf of the Government of China, trying to make friends with Reykjavik subsequently to claim their share in "the Arctic pie." Iceland is on the verge of default, was glad to new investors.
Earlier, the Chinese have concluded agreements on cooperation in the Arctic with the Norwegians, and Canadian scientists. "Green light" Beijing has given Denmark, published a new Arctic strategy, opening the northern seas investors around the world.
The only country that had refused to let the Chinese in the Arctic, Russia has become: joint agreements for the Study of the north polar zone with Beijing is not yet concluded. And it is understandable: in August 2011. during the Moscow — Beijing scholars from China stated that they intend to expand our presence in the Arctic Ocean. "For us, the key question of the Arctic. And we would like to see Russia not only has met at the research level, but also provided a favorable environment for the passage of our ships through its waters," — said the then deputy director of the Center for the Study of the Polar Regions Oceanic Li master soul. Chinese experts have declared their readiness to establish a constant raids across the polar waters and to establish a joint research base in this region.
China has stepped up its polar program after the Arctic Council, including Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the countries — participants of the organization refused to accept China as an observer, given that Beijing announced its intention to carry out only "scientific research".
Immediately after China announced it was ready to master the Northern Sea Route, a passage through which shortens the duration of the flight to 10-20 days, and fuel consumption — an average of 800 tons. In the Shanghai Maritime University have calculated that such a route would save China 60-120 billion a year.
Earlier forecasts of Ministry of Transport of Russia, melting ice could lead to an increase in traffic on the Northern Sea Route from 1.8 million tons in 2010. to 85 million by 2030. However, Russia is going to personally supervise this "gold mine" that is certainly not popular with many Western countries. Earlier, Denmark, Norway and the United States have proposed to revise the jurisdiction of Russia along its coast, saying, in essence, the internationalization of the Northern Sea Route.
At the moment, Russia remains the leader in the number of icebreakers.
However, the lifetime of most of them will be released soon, while China already in 2013. plans into the water two new icebreakers, and then build the grouping of polar ships. Beijing’s position is understandable: before Lee Chen-fu of Dalian Maritime University in a research report to the State Council clearly pointed out: "He who gains control over the Arctic route will control the new way of the world economy." However, rival China here could reach the United States, which also declared its claims to the Arctic shelf.