On most illustrations — the process of unloading the South American military transport "Shewhart", which is used for shipping worldwide equipment the Army, Navy and Corps sea U.S. Marine. The trick is that the original title of this vessel sounded completely different — before becoming a "messenger of democracy", a high-speed military transport "Shewhart" was peaceful Danish container ship "Maersk Laura!" In 1996 krosotka "Laura" without any trace of missing the docks of San Diego, and a year later at the World Ocean came out 55,000-ton monster that can in a matter of days are to deliver on foreign shores 100 units of the heavy armored vehicles and 900 "Hummers".
At first glance, buying container in Denmark looks logical solution for the U.S. — NATO countries to solve their immediate problems, which we had previously been the case?
More surprising sound history of another high-speed transport Sealift Command. Ro-ro-container "Lance-Corporal Roy Witt" in the old days was called "Vladimir Vaslyaev"! Large modern gas-turbine, once the pride of the Black Sea Shipping Company, even after the disappearance of the Soviet Union continued to work on the impact of distant ocean lines until it was seen by South American strategists, after it was bought for a lot of money. Americans cut the body in half and welded extra section (in / out and the court has increased to 55 tons), set the 60-ton derricks, updated equipment, and now the "Lance-Corporal Roy Wit 'sails the sea under the Stars and Stripes" mattress " imposing a nightmare for anyone who has oil.
Paradoxically, even the United States, owning advanced shipbuilding industry and a year that build aircraft carriers, the UDC and other large ships, not smuschyayutsya obtain foreign technology to equip its naval forces. Half of the 115 military transports Sealift Command are of foreign origin!
The ancestral home of the modern Russian Navy is set accurately — Netherlands. Specifically, there came to us first shipbuilding technology, the best maritime tradition, and the word "navy» (vloot). "Culprit" of these large-scale projects was the most enchanting characters in Russian history — Peter A. (aka — the navigator Peter Mikhailov, scorer Petr Alekseev or simply majestic.) As a strong-willed person, pragmatic and enthusiastic, he drove "Crossing Europe" and, without unnecessary arguments, acquired all that in his view it was necessary for the creation of the Russian Navy: Ships ready standards, drawings, tools, materials, and a couple of hundreds of leading Dutch shipbuilders .
After 20 years, Russia is firmly anchored on the shores of the Baltic Sea, have built up a massive fortress Kronshlot and St. Petersburg, and a number of naval victories under the flag of St. Andrew absolutely assured of Europeans in the event at the sea space of the new harsh player. It is a pity that Peter's life was cut short by 52 year of age — had he lived longer, we may have to fly into space in the XIX century.
In the following years the Russian Empire did not hesitate at times have their military orders zabugornyh shipyards — Top of Russian-Japanese war, a significant part of the Russian Navy ships were built abroad!
The famous protected cruisers "Varyag" — Philadelphia, PA, USA;
Protected cruisers "Svetlana" — Le Havre, France;
Protected cruisers "Admiral Kornilov" — Saint-Nazaire, France (the drama of fate — just at the point where at the time of construction
"Mistral" for the Russian Navy!)
Protected cruisers "Askold" — Kiel, Germany;
Protected cruisers "Boyar" — Copenhagen, Denmark.
Neuzh it perfectly? This is bad. These facts indicate that the trivial dilemmas in the industry Russian Empire. In general, from the standpoint of sailors, ships built zabugornoy were no different from their Russian "colleagues" — like no matter what technique they have their advantages and drawbacks. Adversity Russian-Japanese war exactly lay out the technical plane, and were due to purely organizational neuvvyazkami.
Rightly see in the Tsushima battle Russian mariners confronted more raznosherstaya Japanese squadron: the flagship battleship "Mikasa" was built in England, and battle cruisers "Nisshin" and "Kasuga" Italian buildings were overbought Japan from Argentina!
Purchases warships abroad continued until the October Revolution. For example, before the First World War, Germany had built a series of 10 destroyers "Mechanical Engineer Zverev," and from France were obtained 11 destroyers "Lieutenant Burakou."
To say that the Russian Alliance has used foreign ships — is to say nothing. It's a whole ballad with a nonlinear storyline, and enough by ordinary conclusions. Even before majestically Russian, Soviet Union had a "clipped" at their own future opponents two reputable ship.
First — the unfinished heavy kkreyser "Lutzow" ("Petropavlovsk"), acquired in Germany in 1940, but remained unfinished, due to the outbreak of war. In particular, sales were delighted USSR "pocket battleship" the German soldiers who fought at Leningrad — in September 1941, it was nice to think that they are flying the German 280-mm shells fired from the guns of the real German ship!
2nd purchase — a favorite of destroyers "Tashkent", the famous "blue cruiser" Black Sea fleet, built in the shipyards of Livorno (Italy). The ship was built true masters — the speed favorite exceeded 43 knots, making it the most high-speed warship in the world!
However, another attempt to use zabugorny warship ended disastrously — captured Italian battleship "Giulio Cesare" (more recognizable as "Novorossiysk") was destroyed by the explosion, 10 years after the war ended. The death of "Novorossiysk" wrapped magical secret — so far it is not clear what has become a prerequisite for the death of the ship: the unfortunate case with the introduction of internal sabotage "bookmarks" or external explosive device fitted underneath the battleship saboteurs from the order of the "Black Prince" Valerio Borghese.
"Italian track" looks very impressive, given that the Italians obviously not lusted after parting with his ship and were ready to kill him at any cost, but would not take an enemy battleship. Surprisingly, of course, expect that as many as 10 years.
In the second half of the XX century Russian Alliance of time allows for themselves and have large military orders for civilian shipyards abroad. Any "technological gap" speech, obviously, did not go — the prerequisites of overseas ord
ers in the majority of cases were in the political or economic plane.
So, for example, first the 1970s, the Soviet Union wide "master's" gesture of Poland granted the right to build large amphibious ships project 775. The circumstances of this unusual decision of Russian rule had two:
1. Strongly support its own ally in the Warsaw Pact;
2. Russian shipyards have been overwhelmed by the more respectable orders, the Soviet Union was no time to mess around with the "Small Change" with a displacement of 4000 tons.
As a result, all 28 units of BDK have been built at the shipyard Stocznia Polnocna. Many of them so far are in the Russian Navy, performing tasks in different areas of the globe (for example, at the moment BDK this type were sent to the coast of Syria.)
According to statistics, 70% of large Russian ships (transport, passenger, commercial) were built at the shipyards of the German Democratic Republic, Germany, Denmark, Sweden and Finland. Against this background, in particular stood out "capitalist" Finland. The Russian sailors from the Finns were davneshnie connection — quite remember that before the Revolution, one of the main Fri-based Baltic Fleet was Helsingfors (now Helsinki).
To the credit of the Finns, they bravely suffered defeat in the second World War and were able to return to good relations with the Soviet Union. "Our courageous opponent beat us. Now every Finn has to realize that the mighty Russian Alliance will not want to suffer from the government's own borders, filled with the idea of revenge "- with such a speech addressed to the population of Finland Foreign Affairs Minister Urho Kekkonen. The Finns were the ones who gave us their location without any booby-traps or sabotage detachment.
Taking into account the favorable attitude of the northern neighbor, is also indisputable success witty Finns in large shipbuilding, the Soviet Union is increasingly in Finland have become their own special military orders — the usual plavkazarm and tugs to sea rescue facilities and icebreakers!
The most famous examples are:
— ocean rescue complexes of the type "Photios Wings" (1989), capable of hauling any ships with a displacement of up to 250 thousand tons, to carry out deep-water diving operations, to blur the ground and put out fires;
— 9 oceanographic ice-class vessel "Akademik Shuleikin" (1982);
— massive polar icebreaker "Ermak", "Admiral Makarov", "Krasin" (1974 — 1976 years.)
— nuclear icebreakers "Taimyr" and "Vaygach" (1988).
Meanwhile, Finland's great living on "double rations": with one hand lucrative contracts entered into with the West, the other hand received a generous reward from the Russian Union. In general, this situation suited everybody.
Presence in equity Navy zabugornoy naval equipment to one degree or another "sin" all the nations of the world. It is not a secret that virtually all modern destroyers advanced countries is based on a single common project: Spanish "Alvaro de Bazan," Norwegian "Nansen," South Korean "Sedge" Japanese "Atago" or Australian "Hobart" — modification of the 1st and same-Aegis destroyer "Arleigh Burke", with a similar power plant, domestic equipment and armament. All of the "filling" for ships delivered from the U.S..
More large-scale processes taking place in the European Union: the French and the Italians "gash" own cooperative project — air defense frigate of the "Horizon", the Spanish built a helicopter for the Royal Australian Navy, and the French were able to "break" a lucrative contract with Russia itself — the epic with the purchase of "Mistral" reincarnated the Russians in the nationwide MNOGOseriynoye favorite shows.
Another small but very curious example of naval arms imports — Israeli Navy: submarines from Germany, corvettes from the U.S. missile boats from France.
On the other side of the globe there are similar processes: the naval forces of Taiwan are a motley collection of gaming obsolete ships of the U.S. Navy … In general, there is no mystery there — "who orders a lady, and one of her dances."
But on the other side of the strait, on the coast, "the rebel Taiwan 'menacing look upon the destroyers" Hangzhou "," Fuzhou "," Taizhou "and" Ningbo "- all ships, etc. 956" Buzzard "from the Russian Navy — China successfully uses Russian technology niskolechko and is not concerned about it.
India — a single song! Hodgepodge, which still need to turn up: the aircraft carrier "Viraat" — English, half subs — Russian, the other half — delivered from Spain. BOD, frigates and missile boats — Russian, Russian and Indian
its structure. Naval Aviation — machinery Russian, English and South American production.
But despite so fragmented state of the, Indian seafarers have decent experience of modern naval warfare — in 1971, the Indian missile boats in the fleet of dry defeated Pakistan in rather short but brutal war at sea (of course, all the Indian boats and rockets were Russian production).
And yet, so windy relation to the choice of zabugornyh suppliers, in the end, angrily punished the Indian sailors: recognizable because of economic and political events that took place in Russia at the turn of the XXI century, the implementation of many Indian treaties was called into question. Delays in the construction of aircraft carrier "Vikramaditya" serve stern warning to all who cherish hopes in the style of "foreign countries will help us" — do not even have to rely on tried zabugornyh partners.
Curious shtrishok: First, one of the real contenders "Vikramaditya" ("Admiral Gorshkov") was an aircraft carrier "Kitty Hawk" — in the case of buying an old South American aircraft carrier, the Indian Navy has played a whole riot of tropical colors!
We purposely will not discuss in detail the naval arms exports to the countries of the Third World — it is clear that in this market spinning billion (dollars or euros). Anything goes — fro
m the new designs, to purchase obsolete ships, retired from the Navy advanced countries. Last destroyer since the second world war (the South American "Fletcher") was written off in Mexico in 2006 alone!
Of all the above facts should be a number of simple conclusions:
1. Hysterical clique of some representatives of Russian society: "Do not let go of French to Russian fleet!"Or" Sunk! Shame on you! Ships already under construction in France "- less than the available comedy, designed for impressionable audience. We took zabugornye ships, buy, and probably will be taking in the future. This is a common practice worldwide. The main thing — do not overuse this technique and do everything in reason and in moderation.
2. In perfect form, all ships shall be built in Russian shipyards. But how annoying it did not sound so is not always — due to many factors (technical, political, economic) of the country are required to take the ships from each other.
If there was an urgent need to upgrade the Russian fleet, which option is better — to get ready for a series of overseas ships or restrict the purchase of technology? At first, I was planning to conduct a public survey on the subject, but even without any polls say that 75% of the public will be for the purchase and study zabugornyh technology, with a view to their introduction on the next Russian industries. Alas … so, too, is not always the case.
3. The decision to buy zabugornyh warships should be made not on the basis of the logic of the "Soviet reliable" or "foreign cars better," but proceed from the specific needs of seafarers. "Need" or "not necessary" — that is the question.
This is the moment to break the veils and openly ask: Do I need a Russian mariners UDC "Mistral"? I have no right to give a concrete answer to this question. But judging by the reaction of public opinion and the professionals of the Navy, the purchase of French UDC appears as one more adventure. If the Russian fleet as needed Western technology — may have cost to acquire multi-purpose helicopter to replace the frigates "Lafayette" or "Horizon"? Or at least, that of buying a descent there is a series adequate explanation.
4. Interestingly, the history of purchases of foreign ships, there was not the 1st option of some dirty tricks on the part of the exporter or disastrous "bookmarks" in the design of the ship. Neither the 1st option! That, in general, is explained quite worldly — one identifying such "surprise" and the arms market is closed for the country to 10's years slur not wash.
But, without hesitation, no matter what zabugornye technique requires meticulous testing — just like that, just in case.
As for the epic with the "Mistral", it is to recognize that the Navy has once again found himself in the role of "unloved stepchild," whose interests are sacrificed to the more pressing dilemmas of foreign policy. Alignment of the seafarers themselves nobody cares — under the current criteria, the logical solution would be to adopt the French "gifts" and begin to prepare for the development of the helicopter — in the unlikely event that the allocated funds can simply go to the offshore.
"Gifts", frankly, not as bad as they sometimes try to imagine — even without taking into account specific features of landing UDC "Mistral", its air group of 16 helicopters is a formidable force on the sea space: anti puzzles, search and rescue operations , landing and fire support "point" landing — the introduction of a range of helicopters is very wide. One of the helicopters can make the function of "flying radar" — the detection range of the radar at an altitude of 1000 meters is 10 times higher than that of the radar on top of the mast of a ship.
In the end, all of this tragicomedy cost "only" 100 billion — a sum fun disappears against the background of the promised $ 5 trillion on the development of the Russian Navy until 2020. It would be nothing to argue about, fair word …