The limiting factor the traditional use of coal is the increased environmental damage compared to the use of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Therefore, the creation of environmentally friendly coal-based technologies and competitive products to generate electricity and heat, is a priority for energy strategy.
Technology "Carbonic" implemented in Krasnoyarsk in pilot production scale 30 tons of coal per year
Work on the creation of such technologies are several ways:
- Reduction of specific emissions into the environment by investing in environmental protection, which inevitably leads to an increase in capital expenditures. In the coking industry cost of gas and water treatment is comparable, and in some cases exceeds the capital cost of primary production.
- Reduction in fuel consumption per unit of energy using coal gasification combined cycle power plants with the use or at higher steam parameters in the boiler. It also leads to an increase of capital costs.
- Creating efficient coal technologies with low emission of pollutants within the technological cycle.
- If the first two lines abroad is a good start, while the third so far not created any even a bench or pilot plant with the exception of technology "Carbonic". This technology is implemented in Krasnoyarsk in pilot production scale 30 tons of coal per year for 5 years, worked out all the major technical and technological solutions, conducted research process at different coals and established industrial and experimental batches of the product passed the test at a number of Russian and abroad.
Currently, the technology "Carbonic" is ready for large-scale deployment and replication. The company has a pilot plant at the cost-effective and delivers competitive products in the industry. Tariff for heat (a by-product of technology, "Carbonic") — 150 rub. / Gcal — the lowest in the city, and, possibly, in Russia. In the U.S. and Germany, for example, all created in the 80-90s industrial installation for thermal processing of coal are subsidized by the state.
The technology "Carbonic" the principle of auto-thermal (no external heat supply) incomplete gasification of coal using a public sponsored development in the 90 years the effect of "reverse thermal wave" in the layer of coal. In gasifying coal and air is supplied and products are only medium temperature coke (char) and a combustible gas. No by-products.
Technology "Carbonic" has a number of advantages over traditional of thermal coal.
- Energy efficiency. All the existing technologies based on coal heating external coolant, while technologists "Carbonic" autothermal process. A by-product in the technology, "Carbonic" — fuel gas — is suitable for the generation of electricity and heat as in the traditional scheme of "boiler — steam turbine," and in the combined-cycle plants having an increased electrical efficiency.
The energy balance to 60% of the calorific value of raw coal and semi-coke found in up to 40% — in the fuel gas. Therefore, for the successful implementation of the project requires a large heat consumers with respect to the uniform year-round without.
- Environmental safety and waste-free. In technology, "Carbonic" all organic compounds are broken down inside the gasifier and the gas does not contain dust and tar. In its combustion even without further purification specific emissions NOx, SOx, CO and dust is lower than that of coal boiler or power station below the applicable standards and two orders of magnitude lower than in conventional coke production. In technology, "Carbonic" does not use water to extinguish a char or produced condensation products of thermal decomposition, therefore, no process wastewater.
- Simplicity of instrumentation and a single-stage. The specific investment costs are lower than in other technologies. Depending on the scale of production, they are a size from 2,700 to 3,200 rubles. per 1 ton per year char, including ~ 40% — Production char ~ 30% — turbine and boiler ~ 30% — electricity generating unit.
- The high maneuverability of technological equipment. For example, the cycle of the output of coke oven battery at steady-state is about 2-3 weeks, the gasifier — 1:00.
- Flexibility of technology. Technology "Carbonic" allows you to convert different coals — 1B-3B, D, DG, G (which are mainly used in power) to get the deficit target products, and only changing the process parameters, adjust the output of products according to customers’ requirements (char or produce sorbent increasing the yield of combustible gas, etc.).
- The reliability of the equipment. For example, in a heat recovery boiler, where the associated gas is burned, there is a moving grate, ash removal system and possible slagging of heating surfaces. In the traditional burning of coal is the most problematic in terms of reliability nodes.
- The possibility of effective implementation of the technology as separate units small capacity.
The above allows us to estimate the technology "Carbonic" as a breakthrough in modern coal utilization. In this process of low-grade coal produced coke can (semi-) with high calorie and reactivity, low volatile matter and high electrical resistance. This product is used as the metallurgical and process fuel, smokeless household fuel, carburizer and carbon reducing agent for the steel industry. Semi-coke of lignite has, besides these qualities, high specific surface area (500 m2/ G or higher) and adsorption activity. Produced by JSC "Carbonic-F" semi-coke of coal-Achinsk kansko certified as activated charcoal brand ABG (including for drinking water), delivered a number of enterprises in Russia and abroad. The largest consumers — "Norilsk Nickel" and RAO "UES of Russia".
Currently, there are favorable conditions for large-scale implementation of the technology, "Carbonic":
- Acute shortage of high quality carbon materials, primarily for reducing carbon electrothermal processes (ferroalloys, silicon and steel production) and both at home and abroad. This is due to the conclusion of 90 years of operation of enterprises for the production of semi-coke in Russia (Angarsk and Cheremhovsky Coke and Gas Plant, both of 2 million tons of char per year) and in East Germany. The reasons — physical wear and tear (in Germany, semi-coking ovens were built in the 30’s and 40’s, in Angarsk and Cheremhovo were moved out after the Second World War from the German reparations), environmental hazard data production and the lack of modern, efficient and environmentally sound technologies.
- Tangible shortage of metallurgical coke and, as a consequence, the growth of prices. In Russia in 2004, the average price of different cokes increased from $ 80 / t to $ 250 / t This trend, in spite of fluctuations in the price will increase, because, first of all, by 2010, almost all of the life of the Russian coke batteries will be exhausted, and second, ending the recoverable reserves of the most valuable types of coking coal K, QOL, KS in Kuzbass.
- High export potential of char. In 2004, the price of reducing carbon in Germany, Norway and Japan amounted to $ 300 / t in short supply these products.
- Growth in
consumption of carbon sorbents (First of all — for environmental technologies) in recent years in developed countries amounted to more than 5% per year. Traditional technology of multistage activated carbon, energy-intensive and environmentally hazardous. The price level of activated carbon, comparable in quality to the activated carbon of JSC "Carbonic-F" is in Russia and abroad 1200-1500 USD / ton Consumption in the world — up to 1.5 million tonnes per year in Russia — less than 20 tons per year (in the early 90’s — 90 thousand tons per year). Given that the cost of large-scale production Activated Carbon, produced by technology "Carbonic-F", will not exceed $ 100 / t, it export potential should be assessed as very high. Especially at the price of the product will be out of competition.
Passing the product — a combustible gas, can be used not only for combustion to generate energy (see Fig. 2). It is valuable for many technological processes:
Thus, the industrial implementation and replication technology, "Carbonic" will create in the Krasnoyarsk region and beyond range "Industrial" clusters "", producing the following products:
- Metallurgical coke is (Char) to replace the traditional coke in the iron and steel to create new industries using local raw materials.
- Process fuel for alumina, sintering and cement industries.
- Reducing carbon for thermal-electric plants, including for export.
- Carbon sorbents for the industry, including the pharmaceutical, food and export.
- Environmentally friendly (smokeless) fuels for large energy and utility needs.
- Methanol and products, synthesized based on methanol.
- Hydrogen fuel cells and based on hydrogen.
- Iron, obtained by direct reduction of ore with associated gas of coal processing.
- Electricity and heat for their own needs and livelihoods surrounding areas.
- Implement sale of licenses and (or) replication technology outside the region and Russia.
- In addition, the machine-building enterprise edge will be provided with additional orders for production of non-standard equipment for the implementation of the technology, "Carbonic".
The current Pilot production JSC "Carbonic-F" is the testing ground for new technologies, developments batches for market research and may be the center of training of newly created objects. As a part of JSC "Carbonic-F" working doctors and candidates of science, there are a number of promising developments in the field of energy conservation, recycling different types of raw materials and waste. There are all prerequisites for reorganization of JSC "Carbonic-F" in NGOs, focused on the development and implementation of application development, both its own and those created in other organizations, universities and institutes of RAS.
Placing power technology companies producing a wide range of coal conversion products, a short distance from the edge of coal mines will enable alleviate traffic problems associated with the lack of rolling stock for the transport of coal. In addition, the radical increase in value "return" 1 ton of coal will increase the tax base and economic growth in the province.
Director of the branch of JSC "Carbonic-F"