April 27 in the waters of "Shipbuilding Company" Diamond "a ceremonial launching of the floating dock PD-455 gunship small" Makhachkala ". This is the third project IAC 21630 (a type of "Desperado"), who will travel from St. Petersburg to Astrakhan.
The region has changed
In recent years, the status of the Caspian flotilla has increased dramatically. She used to be, according to many experts, was in fact the "appendage" to the main fleets — the Baltic, the Black Sea, and the North Pacific. But today, its importance in the national interests of our country has increased dramatically.
This is due primarily to the need for Russia to protect valuable resources of the largest endorheic lake in the world. The Caspian has a lot of mineral deposits. On its coast and offshore, in addition to oil and gas are extracted salt, limestone, stone, sand and clay. In addition, being an industrial scale fishing (bream, carp, pike, and other fish, of course, sturgeon — more than 90 percent of the world catch). From this comes at the rich man’s table-foodies of all white light super-expensive caviar (legally and illegally). In addition, here are engaged in the seal fishery.
Second, it is an important shipping artery with access to the Black Sea — the Volga and the Don and beyond to the ocean.
"The Caspian Sea — the only sea area where there are no formal boundaries and can occur at any time of armed conflict"
Third, changed the political geography of the region. If before the water washes the shores of the Caspian Sea only two states — the Soviet Union and Iran, after the collapse of the Soviet Union created new sovereign republics — Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan. As a result of a giant lake has been the subject of unresolved controversy related to the section of the shelf, mineral and biological resources. For a long time there were negotiations on the status of the Caspian Sea — Baku, Astana and Ashgabat insisted section at the midline, Iran — by between one-fifth of all the Caspian countries. Experts believe that the Caspian Sea — the only sea area where there are no formal boundaries and can occur at any time of armed conflict, as the high probability of the use of force or Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, and Iran’s behavior is malopredskazuemym.
All of the above factors and demanded strengthening of Russian borders on the Caspian Sea, as well as increased operational formation of the Russian Navy in the region. That is why in recent years the Caspian flotilla significantly expanded with new ships, boats and other weapons systems.
It is planned by 2018 to increase the number of samples of modern weapons and military equipment in the pool to 90 percent. Until recently, most of the new combat unit of the fleet was its flagship — which went into operation in 2003, the Project 11661 frigate "Tatarstan". In early 2012 he was joined by "Dagestan" — the second patrol of the same project with a reinforced missile weapons. Both ships — "child" Zelenodol PKB, their construction was carried out by "Zelenodolsk Plant Gorky." Recently shore of the Flotilla latest missile complex "Ball" of JSC "Corporation" Tactical Missiles ".
August 27, 2010 laid intended for sailors Caspians small missile ship of Project 21631 "Grad Svijazhsk", and on July 22 of 2011 — "Uglich", the first production of the MRC project.
When creating these IRs Zelenodol’sk PKB used design decisions underlying the development of the other ship, which have prepared in advance with the Caspian Sea, — MAC Project 21630 "Buyan". Currently, "Astrakhan" (serial number 701), the lead ship of the project is a part of the fleet. "Volgodonsk" (serial number 702), the first series or second in a row IAC in the same project, in July 2011, took part in the International Maritime Defense Show in St. Petersburg. Now he is waiting for the Navy and handed over his move to their permanent home at the wall of the plant — JSC "Shipbuilding Company" Diamond ". Besides the "Makhachkala" (serial number 703) in the Navy plans to get a few more ships like "Desperado". Work on them at different stages.
Are needed for different purposes
Today, the need to have small vehicles for operations in coastal Navy commander said many countries, including the world’s leading powers.
Americans have summarized the experience of recent military conflicts, and pointed to the use of such vehicles in the plans for the future. In 2002, the U.S. Navy adopted a program Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). The so-called littoral combat ship (or coastal) — naval weapons fundamentally new class. Some experts often refer to the LCS generation after next, that is, possessing combat capabilities not only of today or tomorrow, but also more distant perspective. The tender for construction was announced in 2003. LCS ships in size and main characteristics belong to the class corvettes. For 15 years, planned to acquire up to 60 ships of this type, at a cost of $ 14 billion.
While the U.S. Navy got LCS1 Freedom (in September 2008) and LCS2 Independence (January of 2010). They go through the various stages of the naval tests. Two more ships were built, floated and are running and acceptance test, their transmission Navy is scheduled for June 2012 (LCS3 Fort Worth) — early 2013 (LCS4 Coronado).
The source of interest in such other ships of the Russian Federation: the abundance of border rivers. Besides Russia, unlike the U.S. is not going to fight away from their shores. Our geography is quite different, and the amount of financial investment is much less. With regard to the Caspian Sea, there are taken into account its special conditions. Caspian Flotilla ships need mixed class for use on lakes and rivers, but with powerful weapons. Need heirs river armored, gun boats, gunboats and monitors, which Russia has long been constructed. The last such ships did the border guards in the second half of the 90s. It is about the river shallow-draft gunboats Project 12130 "Spark" Zelenodol PKB (chief designer Vladimir Yudin) displacement of 91 tons and a maximum speed of 20 knots. In addition, until 1991, the Navy received artillery river ships of the project in 1248 "Mosquito" a displacement of 220 tons.
Especially the "Hellraiser"
The gunboats had a powerful artillery armament and acted in the coastal areas of the sea, rivers and lakes. They are mainly used in landing operations and to support the coastal flanks of the Army. Heir gunboats and turned the IAC Project 21630 "Buyan", developed by order of the Navy Russia Zelenodolsk Design Bureau (Chief Designer JE Kushnir) in the early 2000s. According to the instructions of the ship is intended to safeguard and protect the 200-mile economic zone of the State. "Desperado" is able to swim in a river estuaries and out to sea. The main mission of the ships in the Caspian Sea is to patrol the coastline and the Russian participation in the anti-terrorist operations in the coastal zone. IAC may also be involved in the fight against poachers and traffickers.
In spring 2003, the Russian Navy held a competition for the right to build the lead ship of the project 21630. In the most difficult competition won "Diamond", and 30 January 2004, the company was laid IAC "Astrakhan". The works were also involved NGOs ‘Aurora’ (CEO VV Voytetsky), JSC "Zvezda" (CEO of PG Fin), NGO "Star" (General Director Vladimir Radchenko), JSC "ERA "(CEO of VS Tatra), JS
C" Petrel "(General Director Vladimir Glebov).
Displacement of the ship — more than 500 tons, length — 62, draft — 2, width — 9.6 meters. The highest speed — 26 knots.
One of the main advantages of the MAC — the presence in the construction of "stealth" technology, as evidenced by the shape of the hull and superstructure. How effective measures to reduce the visibility applied to the "Brawler" show time and practice combat use. Despite the relatively small displacement, the ship has a powerful weapon and seaworthy. It is equipped with modern navigation systems.
Primary Weapon MAC — artillery and rockets. One 100-mm cannon A Universal-190, placed in the bow of the "Hellraiser". The gun has developed a CB "Amethyst" (chief — the chief designer VV Samulevich) and passed a rigorous test on Indian Talwar class frigates of Project 11356, built by Severnaya Verf.
At the IAC, except for A-190, there are two six-barreled 30-mm automatic cannon AK-306, one launcher MLRS "Grad-M" anti-aircraft missile system "flexible" MANPADS "Igla-S" means jamming the PC-10 , the radar "Positive", the CEO search and discovery PDSS and other systems.
Shallow draft — an indispensable condition for sailing close to the coast, rivers and lakes. Ships like "Desperado" are equipped with unique propulsion units consisting of two water cannons. They provide the IAC draft no more than two meters.
By the way, one of the attempts to create a water jet for domestic ships of the Navy was made in the early 70’s. Then Zelenodolskoye PKB has developed a reduced technical project 204B conversion of small anti-submarine project 204 under water cannons and testing program. IPC delivered to the plant, but to rework it did not come.
According to experts, propulsion system, similar in size and power that is mounted on a "whoop it up", has never been produced in Russia. Therefore Zelenodolskoye PKB has announced a tender for their design and delivery. As a result of "CA" asterisk "won the competition against the world renowned Finnish, Norwegian companies, as well as a number of Russian companies — CB" Screw "(today the NGO" Screw "is a branch of" Sprockets ")," Marine engineering "and others. In 2005, the "asterisk" fully manned water cannons head "Desperado" — MAC "Astrakhan". Propulsion provide high maneuverability ship in shallow water, reducing noise and vibration chassis.
Main propulsion "Brawlers" — diesel, production of the St. Petersburg Society "star", which has extensive experience working with the Navy. To improve the efficiency of the organization control of the ship, to improve the working conditions of the IAC team and the overall design of the room pilothouse provides integrated bridge systems (IMS). System of technical facilities the ship together in one package.
The work is proceeding
"Astrakhan" was launched on October 2005, 1 September 2006 on the ship raised the flag of the Russian Navy. Then, on inland waterways IAC made the transition to the Caspian Sea, which entered the composition of the compound water region patrol ships based at the city whose name it bears.
According to former (until November 2005) Caspian Flotilla Commander Vice-Admiral Yuri Startseva, the cost of the lead ship — 372 million rubles, and the serial ships can do customer (Russian Navy) no more than 250 million.
February 25, 2005 at the "Diamond" was laid serial MAK this project. At first it was called the "Caspian" (serial number 702), and later renamed "Volgodonsk." December 20, 2011 the first successful state tests of the ship. Until the termination of navigation on inland waterways to transfer him to the Caspian Sea does not have time, and the decision of the Commander in Chief of the Navy next IAC wintered at the main base of the Baltic Fleet — Baltic. Spring "Volgodonsk" made the transition to St. Petersburg and May 2 was placed in the PD-455 in the waters of "Almaz", where minor repairs are carried out, verification mechanisms and preparation for towing. Upon completion of work IAC goes to the Caspian Sea for combat service.
The third ship — the "Makhachkala" — was founded March 24, 2006 and, as mentioned above, on April 27 it was lowered to the water, but without the main battery — 100-millimeter cannon A-190. Plant "Arsenal" again, as in the construction of "Volgodonsk" delaying delivery of artillery systems, which forces begin trials without guns. That is why the transfer deadline ship fleet may move significantly.
Nevertheless guide shipyard is optimistic. On the "diamond" cut metal, cook mortgage section for factory order number 504, they say, and the start of work commissioned by the number 505. At the launching ceremony, "Makhachkala" General Director of JSC "Shipbuilding Company" Diamond "Leonid Grabovets said:" I am very pleased that we now descends "Makhachkala". This year, we have to pass six ships will still be laid new orders. "
Right now outfitting the walls of the plant is the whole "flotilla" of future combat units. These are two types of MAC "Desperado" — "Volgodonsk" (in the dock) and the "Makhachkala", two border patrol vessel project 22460 Northern Development PKB and two boats of the type of border "Sobol" project 12200.