Charles Higham. Trading with the enemy. How America helped Hitler


… Facts about the secret cooperation between U.S. (as well as British, French) German monopolies and big business were made public in the mid 20s.

But one thing — peace time, the other — the military. Trading with the Enemy was a crime against the nation. Each of the firms, companies engaged Dirty "business" of this nature, risked being attracted to justice in their own country. Risked … However, none of the American monopolies, making the deal with the Nazis during the war, was never brought to justice. A list of collaborators includes the biggest names.

And still thrive, "Standard Oil of New Jersey", "Ford", "Dupont", "General Motors", ITT, invested along with banks, industrial corporations of other capitalist countries shameful contribution to the preparation and the outbreak of the Second World War. Now some of their partners in the face of industrial barons of the Ruhr, the banks, who brought Nazism, changed the name. New signs have not affected the substantive nature of these associations, whose role in the state-monopoly capitalism, whether in Germany, the UK, France, the U.S. or in other countries of advanced capitalism, is usually crucial in the area of economic and very large, often decisive in the political sphere.

This book, penned by burzhuaznoliberalnogo author, of course, can not qualify for a more or less complete analysis of the role of monopoly capital, the main imperialist powers in connection with the preparation and the emergence of the Second World War. Charles Higham such a problem ever set himself. Outside of the book remains the most urgent consideration of the complex inter-imperialist contradictions, the carriers which were competing with each other for markets, sources of raw materials monopoly of the leading capitalist countries.

The main theme of the book — to show how the pursuit of monopoly profits, the United States, on the one hand, and Nazi Germany, on the other hand, in spite of growing competition and even the fact that since the end of 1941 the United States was at war with the fascist powers, did not stop cooperation. In addition, they are the author stresses, trying to work together to achieve the isolation of the USSR and decide at his expense severe problems of tearing apart the capitalist camp.

Generalized conclusions in a book of this kind is not, but they all follow logically from the enormous amount of factual material collected and presented by the author with great integrity. There is an extensive literature on the interaction of monopoly capital and competing with each other capitalist powers under conditions of increasing inter-imperialist contradictions. One, at first glance, contradicts the other.

Cooperation and competition … But it is in this dialectic was shown taking shape in the capitalist world situation. This book is a great source-value — it contains little known or completely unknown facts gleaned from the documents derived from the recently declassified archives. Of course, all is not well known, but that it was possible to track down the author sheds new light on the secret of secret Anglo-American policy in the Second World War.

Aware of the approach of the military explosion, the bosses of monopoly capital in the United States have tried to act on several fronts. Some of them tried to prevent a clash between the aggressors and the so-called. "Western democracies", pushing the Fascist powers a "crusade" against the USSR. Others, realizing the inevitability of struggle against the fascist powers would agree in advance with the Nazi monopolies secrecy channel "business cooperation" in time of war. Evil designs were realized in the respective agreements. And they are implemented in practice and in the midst of war, providing significant financial assistance to the war machine of the aggressors.

The ruins of Warsaw, Coventry, Rotterdam, the death and destruction that have sown the streets of London "Fau" barbaric atrocities of the Nazis in Dachau, Auschwitz, Treblinka gas chambers where millions of people died — all this involved monopoly the United States and other countries, calling themselves "democracies." Through its partners in the U.S., UK bosses Nazi business continued after the war to obtain the necessary raw materials for the Wehrmacht, and industrial machinery. Under the control of the Nazis in Germany and the occupied territories continued to operate many branches of U.S. corporations. Attributable to owners of their overseas profits correctly translated by the Nazis to the relevant bank accounts!

How could all this happen? Is the U.S. government and the United Kingdom did not know what was going on under their noses? The data presented in the book do not leave on this account is no doubt: in the higher instances of government in Washington and London not only knew, but in many cases have sanctioned such machinations. There were, of course, cases where the authorities intervened and stopped the illegal operation. But more often than they did nothing.

The causes of such indulgence — otherwise it can not be called! — Charles Higham care. He rightly points to the infestation of official agencies in Washington by reactionary wing activists who sympathized with the Nazis and in many cases have served as trustees of the monopolies, banks associated with the Nazi business. Acheson, Dulles brothers, James Forrestal — these are just some of the characters of the clan of American politicians pander relations with the Nazi business. Documents unearthed Higham, irrefutable evidence: thread partnership lasted from the offices of U.S. monopolies leading to the ranks of the SS, the Gestapo, who was sitting in the headquarters of the German firms and companies. Lack of signals from many Americans, to learn about various facts of the alliance with the enemy, was not. Roosevelt himself and many of his associates have repeatedly expressed concern about the criminal practices. The author, by the way, in a positive way illuminates the event the FBI and its director E. Hoover to detect and prevent American business relations with Nazi Germany, and the subversion of the Nazis in the United States. But we should not forget that it is — is not the only aspect of the FBI, which, combining the functions of criminal and secret police, are actively used and is used by the ruling circles of the United States for the pursuit of progressive organizations.

Why is the president of the United States did not use the powers available to him to put an end to criminal business?

The explanation given by the authors of the book, does not look very convincing. Roosevelt, he says, was afraid of loud political scandal, if available to the authorities of the facts were made public, and this in turn could hinder U.S. efforts in the fight against the enemy. It's obviously not all right from the point of view of logic. After aiding the Nazi monopolies just cause significant harm to the efforts of the U.S. military. Timely detection of such "Trojan horses" among the U.S. business community would go just for the benefit of the cause of the anti-fascist struggle.

And do Americans overwhelmingly would support their president, he said cheer them the truth about those who put their own interests above the national uzkoegoisticheskie in the hour of mortal danger for the country, for all mankind!

So that from this point of view, the arguments are malovesomymi Higham.

To give a satisfactory answer to this question should address the sources of cooperation between monopolies United States and other Western countries with Germany.

German imperialism was able to rebuild its military-industrial potential mainly due to the huge inflow of funds from overseas. According to official data of the Ministry of Commerce, from October 1924 until the end of 1929, German industry has received over U.S. banks over one billion dollars — an impressive sum in those days. The lion's share of that money went to the largest monopolies — such as formed in 1925 concern in the chemical industry, "J. G. Farben "Steel Trust, and others. From the first series of U.S. $ 30 million loan received Steel Trust, 25 million — mining company Thyssen, 10 million — Universal Company of electricity, 34 million — concern "Siemens-Schuckert" and others.

Web of cartel ties joined the Ruhr on Wall Street, City with the Ruhr, Ruhr to the French "de Forges Committee." Almost the day after the formation of "I. G. Farben "- namely January 1, 1926, group companies have entered into an agreement with DuPont, according to which the world market gunpowder was divided between the" GI G. Farben, "Dupont and British concern" Imperiel Chemical Industries. " Rockefeller "Standard Oil of New Jersey" in the same way colluded in the years 1927-1929 with the "I. G. Farben "sharing of markets for synthetic rubber and gasoline. "General Electric" has entered into a cartel agreement with Krupp, "Alcoa" — with "I. G. Farben, "etc.

It is important to emphasize that the cartels were intended not only to divide up markets and the establishment of the dictatorship of the prices on them. Under these agreements implemented conspiracy against the Soviet Union.

By the early 30's in Germany were more than sixty companies — subsidiaries of U.S. firms and companies. Concern "General Motors" has worked closely with the "Opel". One-third of the capital "Universal Electric Company" under the control "General Electric". Not less than two-fifths of the German telephone and telegraph industry fell under the direct control of the American company ITT associated with the Morgan dynasty. "Standard Oil" was holding more than 90 per cent of the total capital of German-American oil company that owned a third of the loading points in Germany before World War II.

New profitable for the Nazi elite in Germany transactions were concluded in the years 1938-1939 with the bosses of Wall Street. In March 1938, Morgan and the other pillars of U.S. Steel Industrial concluded negotiations with the European steel cartel, which was dominated by the Nazi capital. Americans signed a cartel agreement provided for the payment of "bonuses" awards industrialists of the country that does not use quotas steel exports. This item came quite liking the Nazis, given that the arms race swallowed up in Nazi Germany, all the products it staleplavleniya.

Have been successfully completed, and other monopolies negotiations between the U.S. and Germany. "Standard Oil" together with the Anglo-Dutch concern "Royal Dutch-Shell" came to an agreement with "I. G. Farben "to create a new cartel.

It should be borne in mind that such deals were in the midst of the crisis provoked by Hitler's tip in Central Europe. After absorption of Austria in March 1938, the Nazi invasion of the danger looming over Czechoslovakia. At the time, the British ruling circles have taken the lead in that period of trying to design a wide capitalist conspiracy against the Soviet Union, with the official tribune speeches were made in the U.S. soul-saving nature, when in fact require a firm and concerted efforts of all who have the interests of road safety , to repel the fascist aggressors. So, August 27, 1938 U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull said that "the preservation of all that is valuable and important for each nation, depend upon the solemn commitments made ten years ago." Meant signed in 1929, the Kellogg Pact renouncing war. This was discussed at a time when the fascist powers demonstrated their contempt for international law.

U.S. government's actions were louder than those little significant returns. May 12, 1938 State Department said it did not support the resolution on the lifting of the embargo on the export of arms to Spain, introduced in Congress. Thus, the question of assistance to the Spanish Republic was again buried, as sought Hitler, Mussolini and Chamberlain. They could not fail to inspire and U.S. policy in the Far East, where the Japanese militarists waged war against the Chinese people, relying to a large extent on the support of the U.S. ruling circles. From there, went to Japan valuable strategic materials and even weapons.

Wall Street led to the movement of all the levers of his huge machine, guided by the desire to organize the anti-Soviet campaign. One of the henchmen of monopolistic trusts the U.S. Herbert Hoover in early 1938, made a tour of Europe, visiting Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Germany, England and France. Hoover took Hitler and Goering, Chamberlain met with him. Back in the U.S., he declared that "an honorable mission in Germany — in the East." Continuing the anti-Soviet intrigues with the Nazis, Anglo-French rulers knew that the support of powerful circles in the U.S. have provided.

Very ambiguous, to say the least, was the position of the U.S. government in connection with the infamous Munich conspiracy fall of 1938, bringing the rulers of Britain and France gave Czechoslovakia to the slaughter Nazi invaders in the expectation that they will move forward against the Soviet Union. Not formally participating in this monstrous deal, the U.S. government still actually blessed Chamberlain and Daladier to issue Czechoslovakia aggressors.

In the prewar period, the U.S. ruling circles were not bystanders establishing close ties between American and German monopolies — they are sanctioned, encouraged such relationships, based on their reactionary ideas.

The inertia of the pre-war policy of the U.S. was too strong to immediately disappear from the U.S. entry into the war. Legitimate to talk about the government's unwillingness to completely sever Roosevelt and in the changed circumstances, the shameful tradition of U.S. policy, emerging not in years but in decades … Requirements against the Nazi enemy threatening the United States in mortal danger, not completely eradicated the tendencies in U.S. policy and the UK, which played a fatal role in the preparation and unleashing the Second World War.

And that's why so dramatically swung the pendulum in the direction of anti-Soviet foreign policy of the United States and Britain after the war. Dormant, supports the backstage power perk. Aces monopoly capital began to plead over fueling much more desirable to them than the struggle against fascism, the "cold war" against the Soviet Union and the young people's democratic regimes in Eastern Europe.

At the same time began to be undertaken systematic efforts to protect the West German leaders who played a role in the Nazi hierarchy.

Since a single chain links the mid 20's, when the monopoly of the United States and other Western countries have started to cooperate with the German industrialists, bankers, seeing them as "the bulwark of order" in the center of Europe, with the period after the Second World War, when the same American monopolies through his emissaries in the State Department and other official institutions on the path taken by sabotage gosudarstvamiuchastnikami Allies decisions and agreements on denazification, demilitarization, decartelization the former "Reich".

And if these emissaries of the Rockefellers, Du Ponts, Fords, endowed with delicate tasks their superiors, tried to stay in the war years in the shade, under Presidents Truman, Eisenhower, they were not content with such a role, and stood at the conductor's podium, leading the major departments of Washington. Were not forgotten their cronies among the defeated Nazi apparatus. The major Nazi war criminals are punished in Nuremberg. But many in West Germany not only go unpunished, but also received appointments to senior positions.

This "final" can not leave anyone indifferent author of the book "Trading with the Enemy", nor any of its readers. There is no doubt — a topic raised by Charles Higham, will find a ready response from researchers, who for the sake of historical truth will contribute to the exposure of collusion monopolies, which cost the people of so many victims, so many trials.



December 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor (naval base in Hawaii, USA. Dec. 7, 1941 allied with Nazi Germany inflicted on Japan focused on this basis, the main forces of the U.S. Pacific Fleet sudden and devastating blow, which marked the beginning of the war in the Pacific. — Here and further notes the editor, except in accordance with the author's notes and interpreters).

After this day of national shame the U.S. financial industry, it would seem, should make every effort to implement the main goal — the fight against the enemy. The American public is assured that with the beginning of the war, representatives of big business and the government broke off all business contacts with the enemy. This was necessary to maintain the morale of millions of Americans: those who fought with weapons in their hands, and those who stayed at home, waiting for their return.

However, it must bitterly admit that during the Second World War, a number of major financiers and industrialists, as well as individual decision makers in the government chose to benefit the interests of their own state: increasing the capacity of the U.S., at the same time they help to strengthen the military machine of Nazi Germany.

I first came across this fact in 1978, while working on declassified documents for a biography of Errol Flynn, the American movie star associated with the Nazis. In the diplomatic documents of the National Archives I found numerous references to personalities, who I used to think were sincerely devoted to the interests of America, but here figured as suspected of subversive activities.

I had earlier heard that some of the major American, British and German businessmen colluded in order to maintain business contacts and after Pearl Harbor. I also knew that some government officials have provided them his assistance. But I had never seen the documents confirming this. Gradually, I began to pick up scraps of information on the topic of interest to me. The process was slow and exhausting lasted for two and a half years. But what I've learned, deeply moved me.

I was shocked to learn that a number of CEOs of major U.S. corporations before and after Pearl Harbor, worked closely with Nazi corporations, including those with "I. G.Farben "colossal Nazi industrial trust, had a hand in everything that happened in Auschwitz (Auschwitz — Nazi German concentration camp in occupied Poland. Convict labor of prisoners was used for construction in Poland, military-industrial corporations Krupp -" I. G. Farben. "In Auschwitz were killed 4 million citizens of the USSR, Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, France and other countries).

Representatives of big business have formed a kind of community that I have called the "brotherhood." The members of the "brotherhood" were common sources of funding were part of the same boards of directors of companies and banks. At the international level, their services were "National City" or "Chase National." The interests of members of the "brotherhood" defended the Nazi lawyers Gerhard Westrick and Heinrich Albert. Financial and industrial kings were associated with Emil Pulem, the largest figure in the Nazi economy, the de facto head of Hitler's "Reichsbank" and the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) (International Finance organization for the central banks of 30 countries (1975), in the present — the European subsidiary organ of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development).

Dealers attempted to compare the principle of "business first". Welded reactionary ideology, members of the "brotherhood" built their plans for the future, based on the establishment of fascist rule, without attaching importance to the question of who is the fascist leaders of realizing its ambitious ambitions.

Many were ready not only to cooperate with the Germans during the war, but also supported the peace negotiations with Germany. They are quite happy to Germany after the war, served as a police state that provides "fraternity" of the right to financial, economic, and political autonomy. When it became clear that Germany was losing the war, businessmen began to behave much more "patriotic." Immediately after the war, they flocked to Germany to protect their property, to restore the Nazi friends in leadership positions. In order to ensure the "fraternity" of a better term, they helped provoke the "cold war."

From the beginning I knew that would have to get to the truth for a long time. I tried in vain to find the books on the history of monopolies, the mention of their dirty deeds during the Second World War. It became clear that the authors of these works deliberately concealed the facts incriminating corporation. Therefore to this day the vast majority of Americans do not even know what role was played by "brotherhood" in the Second World War. A lot of effort exerted concealment of these facts and the government, and to do it not only during the war, but also after it. This is understandable: after all, millions of Englishmen and Americans well remember the long lines at gas stations and an acute shortage of petrol in the country. It is easy to imagine the reaction of citizens of the United States and the United Kingdom, told them that in 1942 the corporation "Standard Oil" was selling fuel to Germany through neutral Switzerland and that the fuel destined allies get their opponent. They would cover just anger. As they were outraged to learn that after the events at Pearl Harbor, "Chase Bank," concluded million deal with the enemy in occupied Paris with the full knowledge of the board of the bank in Manhattan, that in France, trucks, intended for the German occupying forces, gathered for there the Ford plants on the direct orders of Dearborn (Michigan), where the board of directors of this corporation, that Colonel Sostenes Ben, the head of a multinational American telephone ITT Corporation, in the midst of the war went from New York to Madrid, and from there to Bern, to help the Nazis to improve communication and guided aerial bombs that devastated London vandalized (the same company involved in the production of "Focke-Wulf" drop bombs on American and British troops), that ball, so lacking in American factories that produced military equipment sent Latino customers associated with the Nazis. And this was done with the consent of the Privy deputy head of the U.S. military production, which also was a business partner of a relative Reichsmarschall Goering (Hermann Goering, 1893-1946 — one of the leaders of Nazi Germany and the major Nazi war criminals. Organizer Gestapo — the secret state police — and the system of concentration camps . Since 1933 — Imperial aviation minister and head of government of Prussia from 1935 — Chief of the Air Force. Imperial Commissioner "four-year plan" of military and economic preparation for war with the 1936 Chapter industrial concern "Reyhsverke Hermann Goering" Since 1937 Be responsible for the outbreak of the second world war, looting and atrocities in the occupied territories. sentenced by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg to death. committed suicide) in Philadelphia. Note that in Washington about all this, and knew very well treated either with approval or turned a blind eye to such actions.

The government has sanctioned shady deals of this kind, both before and after Pearl Harbor. Six days after the Dec. 7, 1941, a presidential decree regulated the legal conditions under which could be granted official permission to trade with the enemy. And the government did during the war often give such permission. ITT was allowed to continue trading with the countries of the "axis" and Japan until 1945, despite the fact that the corporation was most closely associated with U.S. intelligence agencies. The government has not taken any steps against the group "Ford" and he continued to work for Germany in occupied France. At the machinations of the bank "Chase" and the Morgan bank in occupied Paris condoned. Established that "Reichsbank" and gave the Nazi Ministry of Economy guarantee heads of some U.S. corporations that after the victory of Germany their property will not be harmed. Thus, the bosses of multinational corporations throwing dice, each side of which was a six. Whoever wins the war, the forces acting behind the scenes, would not remain a loser.

It is important to also take into account the size of American contributions to Nazi Germany at the time of the events at Pearl Harbor, which accounted for approximately 475 million dollars. Investments "Standard Oil" was estimated at 120 million dollars, "General Motors" — $ 35 million; ITT — $ 30 million, "Ford" — $ 17.5 million. Based on the fact that the U.S. is at war with the countries of the "axis", the U.S. side would be patriotic to stop the activities of their companies in Germany, regardless of how the Nazis did to them: nationalize or merge with industrial empire Goering. However, the pursuit of profit making his cynical solution: avoid confiscation by combining American companies into holding companies, whose profits would be transferred to the American accounts in German banks and kept there until the end of the war. It is important to note that nowhere in the documents I found no hint of what Roosevelt was trying to prosecute Americans who engage in collusion with the Nazis, even at a time when Hitler created the impression that he is determined to punish the individual German members of the "brotherhood" by putting them against charges of betraying the interests of the Nazi state. Hitler and his Postmaster General William Ohnesorg had tried to prevent the activities of ITT in Germany (this company has made no secret of their obvious links with the enemy). But they were powerless. The fact that the head of counterintelligence Walter Schellenberg (Brigadenfuhrer SS Walter Schellenberg in 1941-1945. Directed the Nazi intelligence service abroad. He was the chief of the 6th control — overseas intelligence service, which was part of the Reich Security Main Office — RSHA) was one of the directors and shareholder of ITT, and to interfere in the affairs of the Gestapo did not dare even Hitler.

In Roosevelt's position is still much remains unclear. As a skillful politician, he manipulated the actions of forces that are prone to conspiracy and backroom betrayal. On the eve of the events at Pearl Harbor, he allowed James Mooney of the "General Motors" and William Davis of "Davis Oil Company", pro-Nazi sympathies were known to meet for a private conversation with Hitler and Goering. Thus for Muni and Davis found close observation. Throughout the war, J. Edgar Hoover, Adolf Berle, Henry Morgenthau, and Harold Ickes constantly informed the president about any illegal activities of corporations both within the country and abroad. Roosevelt skillfully concealed from corporate executives that monitors their every move. The President understood how significant a role the corporation in general the U.S. war effort, and tried not to interfere with commercial transactions irrespective of whether they have official permission or not. In a word, he led the country to victory in the war and hid from the public the fact that, in his opinion, she should not have to know. That is why the trade with the enemy was thrown over one cover of secrecy, which I took to lift. Moreover, the more evidence I have found, the worse I felt. I felt as if I was a diver plunging into the poisoned water.

Why do many members of the U.S. military administration were tolerant to cooperate with the enemy, and after Pearl Harbor? The answer to this question can be unambiguously otherwise could happen expose. Disclosed by the business connections and the subsequent ban on the basis of their anti-trust law (antitrust laws — laws passed in the United States and some other countries in the late XIX — early XX century. Formally prohibit trusts and monopolies, these laws are, in fact, were an attempt to limit the coarsest and candid forms of their activities. antitrust law, which is a prime example of bourgeois reformism, is designed to create the illusion of the masses in the struggle of the capitalist state monopolies and their abuse) would have caused a scandal. In addition, members of the management of individual companies tried to convince government officials that are brought to justice, much less incarceration would deprive them of the opportunity to work for the benefit of further strengthening the military power of the United States. Thus, the government could not, or rather, did not interfere in their affairs. Later, with the start of the "cold war", to the outbreak of the bosses of corporations which have put so much effort, the truth about the activities of "brotherhood" had to hide more carefully.

I started the book with the story of the Bank for International Settlements in Basel (Switzerland), is no accident. Details on the activities of the Bank are set out in the diaries of Henry Morgenthau, Secretary of the Treasury in the Roosevelt administration. These diaries are kept in the Memorial Library, Franklin D. Roosevelt in Hyde Park (NY). For information about the BIS can be found in the reports Lochlina Curry, a member of the White House economic under Roosevelt, with whom I had long conversations on the phone, because he lives in Bogota (Colombia), where he had been exiled after the deprivation of American citizenship in 1956 for activities to expose US-Nazi ties. Another source was the report of the late Orvis Schmidt of management for the control of foreign capital. Many things I spotted in the German archives: Emil Puhl, vice-president, in fact the head of the "Reichsbank" and a prominent figure in the activities of "brotherhood", directed at the end of the war reports of his nominal boss, Dr. Walter Funk straight from Switzerland to Berlin.

I also received submissions on the activities of the Rockefeller bank "Chase National." It turned out that it provided services to the Paris branch of the Nazi high command until the end of the war. Morgenthau is probably no doubt that historians in the future will be interested in special secret archive documents "Chase National." In his diaries, he made it clear that these documents can be found in the archives of the Ministry of Finance. With the help of an employee of the Ministry of Ralph Korpi I was able to gain access to most of the documents the bank "Chase National."

From "Chase National" thread stretched, of course, to the company, "Standard Oil of New Jersey" — to the largest diamond in the crown of the Rockefeller empire. I managed to get permission to use stored in the department of the diplomatic correspondence of the National Archives earlier closed material on the activities of the corporation. I found in the National Archives documents of companies "Sterling Products, Inc.", "General anilayn and Film", and in addition, materials exposing a major oil deal businessman William Rhodes Davis. It is extremely necessary for me archives ITT and RCA ("Redio Corporation of America") remained classified for a long time, and access to them I got after waiting for almost a year. Classified documents relating to the "SCF Industries", are stored in a branch of the National Archives in Syutlend (Maryland). In the public by the John Mooney at Georgetown University in Washington have information about the activities of "General Motors." Are a very valuable source of unpublished diaries and Harold Ickes, which can be found in the Manuscript Division Library of Congress.

Proved more difficult to trace the activities of Ford in occupied France. In the list of documents available to the Ministry of Finance, I have not found anything that could facilitate the search. However, I knew that at one time, the Ministry of Finance has established a special commission to investigate the activities of the company Ford. We had to find someone who has been involved in its work. And then I remembered that after the war the book "The Devil's chemists." Its author, Josiah Dubois, was one iz'predstaviteley the U.S. Treasury Department at the Nuremberg trials. The book — a kind of report on the trial of the leaders of "I. G. Farben "Nazi industrial trust, which is closely associated with Wall Street.

I re-read the book to find a clue.

Du Bois wrote that he was born in Camden (NJ). There I decided to write. Perhaps the author of the book after the war returned to their homes? The assumption was confirmed. Returning to Camden, Dubois resigned to the case of family law firm.

I wanted to find out if he had any archival material in the case of Ford, which, as it seemed to me, in view of the importance of the information contained therein were to be kept in his personal file. Indeed, Morgenthau, knowing the essence of the case, would not have dared to leave them in the Ministry of Finance. Dubois said that interest me the documents may be kept from him, including letters Edsel Ford (son of company founder Henry Ford) the control of the company in Nazi-occupied France, where he claimed to improve the system of supply of cars and trucks to Germany. A few weeks later, Du Bois wrote that searched the entire attic, but did not find paper — vanished into thin air! However, promised to continue the search. He then landed in the hospital, where underwent major surgery. When he returned home and got stronger as it should, he continued his search. The desire to tell people the truth led him to collect the remains of forces to climb into the attic and rummage through the papers. Finally, losing all hope, he found the documents. The materials were the main dossiers such revelatory character that Dubois did not dare to send them by mail or by courier. I had to go to Dubois, to work in his office. But then there are new complications, pending the arrival of new documents I could not absent himself from home for a long trip to the eastern states. Agreed that I would call back.

Not far from the office Dubois Rutgers University is named. I called back and asked to find a student for research work. We have agreed with the secretary of Dubois that the student will rewrite the documents at his home. When he did that, I sent them the courier. After reading the documents it became clear that the missing words in a crossword puzzle found.

I tried to write this book possible impartially, without moralizing. I did not try to cast a shadow on the currently existing corporations and their executives. In this regard anticipate reproaches addressed to: number of persons mentioned in the book is no longer alive, why bring up the past? To this I would reply as follows: Millions of people died during the Second World War. This knigadan their sacred memory.

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