The report’s author — Alexander (Russos) Popov
Chirkeysk hydroelectric power plant is located on the Sulak River in Dagestan. The largest power plant in the North Caucasus, the highest arch dam in Russia. And perhaps one of the most beautiful.
Construction of power plant began in 1964 and ended in 1978. The most basic structure of the complex — of course, the dam — a beauty-arch height 232.5 m and crest length 338 m thickness of the dam — 6 (only six!) Up to 30 m Enough terse technical data
1. The total construction height — 232.5 m In fact, the height of the double-convex curvature of the arch — 185 meters. It stands on a wedge-shaped concrete tube height of 48 meters. The thickness of the arch varies smoothly from 30 meters to 6 meters below the top.
2. Width Chirkey Gorges Dam in range — only 30 meters. The construction area — very difficult to geological conditions. Moreover, many of the problems got out only during construction.
3. The narrowness of the gorge and the abandonment of the underground machine hall led to a non-standard layout decisions of hydropower. For example, the four main transformer weighing more than 1,000 tons are on the roof of the turbine hall. The photo on the left you can see an office building, and on the right — two reinforced pockets (pockets act as additional fire protection) for the two transformers.
4. The world’s first two-row layout is applied to the two-tier arrangement of hydraulic suction tubes. The photograph upstream — to the left, and the lower — right.
5. Power plant — 1000 MW, the average annual output — 2,470,000,000 kWh In the power house has 4 radial-axial hydraulic capacity of 250 MW, operating at design head 170 m
6. Volute of one of the turbines. Compared with the Zeya hydroelectric station, where the size of the camera is rather modest, but here and head of 170 meters (vs. 80).
7. Because of the narrowness of the valley water mark in the tail can vary by 15 meters. So, in fact, putting the machine room there underwater. At the moment of maximum water discharge is visible only its roof buildings. A life rings appeared after the accident at the Sayan Mountains. Although the use of them …
8. Water is supplied to the units to 4 penstock diameter of 5.5 meters. Usually they are placed in the body of the dam, but here for the first time in the USSR, they were handed over the brink of the arch. This allowed ease her stress, making the arch thinner and simplifying the construction of the dam. But the dam had to suffer the most from water intake — a tower with a height of almost twenty-story house in a seismically dangerous place. In the photo
9. The project site includes a huge complex of underground workings. Three mines, various galleries, culverts and road tunnels.
10. The banks of the gorge in which the plant was built, were as masonry, only these rock blocks were unbound solution. So they passed the water like a sieve. If they are to do nothing, then fill the reservoir will not be possible — all the water is gone. Therefore, from both sides through five tiers of galleries cementation on the length of 150-250 meters. And of these wells were drilled depth of 50 meters, in which the solution was pumped under high pressure. He fills all the voids in the rock and created a virtually impermeable barrier. On the right bank was all right, but the left disappoint. Please note the photo. Below — a huge concrete patch, and slope — 6 tiers of orange spots. These are consequences of the huge inrush of a few tens of thousands of cubic meters.
11. From the rock fell off a huge chunk of which formed the cave. The upper part of the rock still held by some miracle, but could also slide down. Then the dam at least would have to redesign and make a graceful arch could no longer be. And in the worst case target would be ruined. Groth was pretty easy to set in concrete, but what to do with the hanging rock? It was decided to build a very dangerous decision. In the back of the left bank, in a healthy rock, have been passed at different tiers of 6 tunnels along the river. Of them have been passed making the cross, by the shore. Their excavation was carried out just at this miracle of a hanging rock. And the work required a jeweler’s precision and accuracy so as not to trigger another collapse. In the longitudinal tunnels and on shore were concreted strong reinforced concrete beams, which then was pulled jacks. Thus was fortified the left bank.
12. General view of the control room, transformer substation and the gorge.
13. May 14, 1970 under construction power plant was at the epicenter of the Dagestan 9-point earthquake. Hydropower facilities were not injured, but the construction of hydroelectric power station was suspended for a while. The fact that the seismic wave greatest force not worked on the gap, and on pressing unstable massive rock to the left bank. So he stayed where he was.
14. For concrete dams were installed
15. The main problem was in the design of cable crane themselves — it’s flexible. Through the gorge were thrown chetyrehsotmetrovye cables. A cargo dropping down to a depth of three meters, it was necessary to take into account not only swinging in the wind the whole structure, but also the most difficult, draining 25-ton bucket with concrete. Because in fact a crane — it’s bow tie, where the bowstring — it’s the very strained under the weight of the load chetyrehsotmetrovye cables through the gorge. And after a moment of falling of 25 tons of concrete in the next block of concrete the entire structure fires off into space. But the train drivers and operators have learned and compensate.
16. Tailrace tunnel and portal driveway. Its construction also delivered a lot of problems: the sinker came across a fault that the bend tunnel was now walking along it. Change can not trace the tunnel — just nowhere to bring the portal. I had to change the technology penetration, first took a small anticipatory tunnel, then out of it developed and large pieces of concreted directly permanent lining. Penetration rate has fallen many tim
17. ORU (outdoor switchgear) nestled on the right bank, and all the space in front of the dam is shrouded wires.
18. I want to remind you that the dam — it’s not a monolithic piece of concrete. It is built "small" cubes. Section along the length of the dam — 15 meters. The depth of the unit is taken to be the thickness of the arch at this point. But height — only 1.5 meters. This is due to the convenience of operation, the number issued by the concrete and many other factors, including cooling.
19. According to the project in the dam body, 1.5 meter coils are pipes, which circulates the river water — concrete hardens when heated and it needs to be cooled. In the photo you can see one of the tunnels in the dam body. Left two closets — now there are tubes for cementing and various sensors, and used to be a fixture to cool.
20. One of the two vertical shafts depth of about 250 meters. One elevator is mounted and the cable channel, and this is not used. Previously, she was fed through the concrete to the various levels of the grouting tunnels.
21. A hole in blood pressure or a slide in the Dagestan. This service spillway tunnel type. It consists of a tunnel length of 510 meters and a height of 12.6 m cross-section, 144-meter open the tray and terminal ramp with side discharge length of 77 meters. Water velocity rather water mixture in an underground tunnel is 55 meters per second. This imposes the most severe demands on the quality and geometry of concrete masonry in the tunnel.
22. The climate of the alignment Chirkeisk plant — dry. Over the entire history of Chirkeisk HPS (the first hydroelectric station was put into operation in 1974) water dumped idle three times.
23. The height of the reservoir drawdown Chirkeisk power plant from October to April at 40 am At the center of the dam is the water inlet device — the same tower height of 64 meters and a width of 20 m
24. Tailrace in all its glory. Right — the open top of the tray and the side drain service spillway.
26. In order to assess the full extent and beauty of the dam, it is necessary to climb the mountains nearby. There is a beautiful view.
27. The dizzying view from the top of the ridge.
28. Unfortunately, the picture can not convey that the thickness of the dam here — just six meters!
29. But, believe me, take your breath away when you see the one hand a huge reservoir, and on the other — two hundred meter gap.
31. The longitudinal profile of the cascade of hydropower plants on the Sulak River.
32. Dispatching HPP.
33. Spy shot very secret map.
34. The first unit was commissioned in 1974 with a time wheel. Now it has been more than 30 years is in stock.
35. Finally, a brief review of the plant — a few night shots of the dam.
36. Night view even more fascinating.
37. Many thanks to the Dagestan branch of RusHydro for the invitation and personally Patimat for organizing the trip.
38. No less than the head of the station thank Ganipe Magomedov for the meeting, a tour and a lovely dinner.
39. Bonus shot of Fame.
In preparation for the post used the book "Light. Notes of hydraulic engineering. The first book. Light, salty sweat and tears "VN Dvurekova.
Earlier Chirkeisk HPP on CBS: