Deep-sea neutrino telescope.

Project neutrino telescope NT-1000 on the basis of the existing detector NT-200 + for the study of the universe and the causes of high-energy radiation in space.

  • Schematic illustration of the scale neutrino telescope kubokilometrovogo HT-1000 on the lake. Baikal. The top picture shows a top view of the HT-1000. On the bottom left figure shows a cluster telescope and on the lower right section of the optical modules.

Since the neutrino is an elementary particle interacts weakly with matter, it is capable of less than a second to fly through the Earth entirely without noticing it. Thanks to these properties observation of neutrino emission is a great opportunity for astronomical observation of the universe. Unlike other types of radiation that is absorbed by interstellar dust, freely penetrates neutrinos and matter does not interact with electromagnetic fields. After each of us for a second pass trillions of neutrinos, but we do not notice. The source of neutrinos in space are the stars and planets.

 

  • Solar neutrinos are produced in fusion reactions inside the sun.

The elusiveness of the neutrino and causes problems. Such a particle is difficult to detect. To build a neutrino telescope requires a large scale. To build such a detector underground (for getting rid of background radiation environment) will be a costly project. Therefore, Markov MA in 1960 proposed the idea of an underwater Cherenkov detector.

 

Currently, two underwater / under-ice detector receives data: Baikal telescope and telescope ICE-CUBE at the South Pole. In addition, projects NESTOR and ANTARES in the Mediterranean Sea have joined efforts to create an underwater neutrino telescope. But none of the projects are no such prospects as in the Baikal neutrino telescope. The fact that the projects of submarine telescopes depend on the clarity of the water. A subglacial slozhnoekspluatiruemy because of the practical impossibility to remove the damaged detectors under a kilometer from the sea ice. Transparency ice worse than that of water. Underground detectors require the creation of large artificial spaces and fill them at least distilled water. Lake Baikal is a natural body of water with the largest reserves in the world is very pure water. In winter, the lake is covered with ice, which allows installation of the installation with the surface of the ice. There is no need to create special court for the construction and repair of the telescope. You could say nature "gave" us a ready environment for future neutrino telescope.

 

The work carried out to create the installation can be divided into several stages.

  • 1960 — proposed the idea of a large underwater Cherenkov detector (Markov).
  • 1980 — the beginning of the Baikal experiment.
  • 1981-1983 gg — The first experiments on Lake Baikal with Russian optical modules FEU-49B (photomultiplier tube). Mastering the technique of deep-registration. Measurement of optical characteristics of the aqueous medium in the future deployment of the detector.
  • 1984-1990 gg — The construction and operation of deepwater installation matches the magnetic monopole catalyzing proton decay. Setting up of 12 .. 36 FEU-49B, worked for 270 days.
  • 1987-1991 gg — The creation and testing of deep-sea optical module (OM)-based photodetector "Quasar -370" (370 mm diameter). Creating simulation programs OM response to the passage of muons.
  • 1989-1992 gg — Deep-sea neutrino telescope design of NT-200. Design and creation of the mechanical design of the detector and engineering equipment for its deployment.
  • 1993 — NT-36, 3 garlands to 12 PMT Quasar-370 = 36 optical modules.
  • 1995 — NT-72, 3 and 24 PMT garlands Quasar-370 = 72 optical modules.
  • 1996 — NT-96, 4 garlands to 24 PMT Quasar-370 = 96 optical modules.
  • 1997 — NT-144, 6 garlands to 24 PMT Quasar-370 = 144 opticheskimh module.
  • 1998 — NT-200, 8 to 24 strings PMT Quasar-370 = 192 optical modules.
  • 2005 — NT-200 +, 200 + NT-3 external garlands to 12 on each PMT = 216 optical modules.
  • Now on the basis of the detector NT-200 + a draft of a neutrino telescope NT-1000 on the basis of new optical modules of permalloy (for protection from the magnetic field of the Earth).

 

In the process of construction and modernization of an operation carried out annually to maintain its efficiency. In this article I propose to evaluate simple and at the same time having a fundamental value of the work of our scientists. Photographs are for the period from 1987 to 2005, not in chronological order. Most of the operations from year to year are the same.

 

  • Ice on Lake Baikal unusual. Somewhere it is smooth and clear, and somewhere heaving impassable rocks.
  • And somewhere gives an unexpected crack at the middle of winter.
  • Therefore, the choice of location of the telescope is very influenced by many factors.
  • The laboratory is located about 106 kilometers Baikal Railway
  • Control Center neutrino telescope.
  • They brought equipment.
  • Here is the calibration laser.
  • This controller manages four optical modules.
  • Quasar photomultiplier
  • Since quasars appear in pairs on a garland
  • Preparation techniques for winter work.
  • Scheme of the telescope NT-200
  • Telescope NT-200 + functioning at the moment.
  • That’s optical modules record the incident particle

 

  • Communication scheme telescope terrestrial laboratory for underwater optical cables.

 

  • In winter, all the equipment transported from the shore to the installation on the ice. 1996.

 

  • View of the ice camp on shore. Distance 3.6 km. 1997.

 

 

  • Ice Camp. 1987.

 

 

  • Starting to do well.

 

  • The formation of "holes".
  • Water "boils" freed from the ice and beat fountains.
  • Water is extremely clear.
  • There will be attached tap.
  • This is the axis mount.
  • Have drawn the faucet.
  • Installed lighting.
  • Collection of seven hexagonal platforms linking garlands. 1997.
  • Dive hexagonal platform.
  • Crane work.
  • No manual labor in any way.
  • Installation of the first optical sensors PMT 49B. 1987.
  • The Commission examines the quasars.
  • The installation of optical modules.
  • Connect the system controller.
  • One of the seven 25 foot cable connecting the center with peripheral garland.
  • Installation of the system controller optical modules.
  • The system controller is ready to dive.
  • The top 1 km long garlands.

 

  • Mounting the laser.
  • Laser is ready to dive.
  • Immersion laser.
  • Dive bunch of buoys that make garland does not sink.

 

  • Sometimes you need a diver.
  • Connection string.
  • A cold day.
  • Sometimes we had to work in the dark.

 

  • Generator.
  • Pre-loaded calibration equipment.
  • Dinner after work
  • Pomleobedenny smoke break
  • Feeding laboratory dogs.
  • The washing in the bath.
  • Complex event registration.
  • Programming model.
  • Siberian Plain hacker.

 

  • After doing winter work, the group returned to the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Dubna

 

  • And start progress reports and that to be done.

 

  • Consider the alternative project under the ice at the South Pole Telescope.

  • Topographic scheme of the project HT-1000.

  • Schematic diagram of the telescope NT-1000.

  • In telescope NT-1000 will use the new optical modules of permalloy.

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