A native of Yaroslavl province, Fyodor Ushakov remained in the history of the Russian Empire brilliant naval commander, a faithful servant of his homeland and righteous Christian. Birthplace of Admiral two hundred sixty-eight years ago back in 1745. His birthday on the current calculation accounts for 24 February. This special date to remember, we offer all the merits of this brilliant sea commander, not lost for the entire period of his leadership a single ship and have not submitted a prisoner or a sailor.
The memory of Admiral Ushakov revered not only in Russia but also in other countries — Greece, Ukraine, and Bulgaria.
The image of the great naval commander Admiral Fyodor Ushakov became a symbol of glory and the victorious traditions of the Russian Navy.
Fyodor Ushakov is revered as the patron saint of the Russian Navy (since 2000) and Strategic Air Force (since 2005).
In 1804, on the table, the top military commander of the Russian Empire lay down note. In it, among others, contained the following lines: "Thanks be to God for all the aforesaid battle with the enemy, and when he was in full thereof, the fleet under my command of the sea <…> no vessel of this or it is lost or captured any person from the enemy of our ministers do not get". In contrast to the reports of other generals who sought to curry favor with the authorities, the author of these words was not lying — in all the years of his service in the Navy, he did not allow any loss of ships or capture personnel. The great man’s name was Fyodor Ushakov.
Fyodor Ushakov (February 24, 1745, p. Burnakovo Yaroslavl province — October 15, 1817, d Alexeevka Tambov Province.) — Naval commander. He was born in the family of landed gentry. In 1761 — 1766 he studied at the Naval Cadet Corps gentry. Released a midshipman, he served in the Baltic Fleet under the command of SKGrag, then was sent to the Azov flotilla in 1769 and promoted to lieutenant. In 1773 he became the commander of the 16-gun ship "Modon", which in the squadron cruising in the Black Sea during the Russian-Turkish war of 1768 — 1774. In 1776 Ushakov commanded the frigate. In 1780 — 1782 on the battleship "Victor" went to the Mediterranean Sea for the protection of Russian merchant vessels. In 1783 he was transferred to the Black Sea Fleet, has done much to improve it by enforcing Suvorov principles of combat and training of personnel. At the time of the Russian-Turkish war of 1787 — 1791 Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet at about. Fidonisi (1788), in 1789 was promoted to rear admiral. In 1790 became commander of the Black Sea Fleet. Applying them is designed maneuver tactics, scored a major victory over the Turks at the battle of Kerch on. Tendra and Cape Kaliakra. In 1793 he became vice-admiral. During the war against France in the Mediterranean (1798 — 1800) Ushakov distinguished himself not only as an outstanding strategist naval commander during the assault on. Corfu, but also as an astute politician, a skilled diplomat while creating the Greek Republic of Seven Islands under the protection of Russia and Turkey. About this activity Ushakov wrote: "Had these should Happiness exempt the island from enemies will set out the government and keep them in peace, harmony, peace and tranquility." In 1799 he was promoted to admiral. In 1800, the squadron returned to Sevastopol. The new Emperor Alexander I did not consider Russia a sea power, so the court of the prevailing view of a large fleet of uselessness. Ushakov was sent to the Baltic rowing fleet, who had no military significance. In 1807 was retired and lived on his estate in Tambov province. In 1812 he was elected chief of the nobles to create a national militia, but Ushakov declined due to illness. The funds Ushakov was arranged hospital for the wounded.
Holy Russian "Lord of the Seas" Fyodor Ushakov
The main thing — to prevent confusion. Our history, in any case, the church knows of two saints who bear the name of Fyodor Ushakov. However, one glorified as a saint, and the other — as a holy righteous warrior. The coincidence is quite rare. Especially when you consider that one Fyodor Ushakov comes another uncle. Such nepotism holiness afternoon with fire you will not find — we can recall offhand except that the holy brothers Boris and Gleb yes spouses Peter and Fevronia of Murom.
Holy and tsugunder
We are more concerned nephew, that is righteous holy warrior Fyodor Ushakov, who, by the way, a significant period of his life wore a completely Muslim, Arabic title "Al-miraal", which translated means "Lord of the seas". In the European tradition, this title several altered it in all the usual admiral.
When one person converges so many conflicting factors, it is clear that we face a unique figure. If you add something, it will turn out that Fedor was unique in the square, if not in a cube. And as a person and as a military leader.
And you can add more. Well, for example, a quote from the memorandum itself Ushakov: "Thanks be to God for all the aforesaid battle with the enemy and for the rest of the fleet when he was under my view, no vessel of the fleet thereof is lost and no one captured from the enemy of our ministers is not got. " Whether there are in the whole history of the world fleet commanders who can boast of such achievements?
Of course, the malevolent disgust strain that, he says, his men captured the enemy, maybe not getting any. But probably dead — with the bill. It is known fact that the Russian generals rank and file do not regret!
Do not feel sorry, it’s true. And what does "regret"? Admiral Ushakov in his memo, apparently, from the innate modesty, omitted that not suffered in his life no defeats. I spent 43 sea battles. And that they had lost absolutely 500. And despite the fact that in all the years under him went tens of thousands!
And he did not spare his men only in the sense that for offenses punished with the utmost rigor. There are cases when it is prescribed by a thousand guilty shpitsrutenov, ie sticks. That’s a lot. This, if you like, ten tsugunderov. In a literal sense. If anyone sentenced to tsugunderu, ie to one hundred (from the German zu Hundert) Lashes, it often meant death.
Cruel? Probably. But you have to look at what someone has paid back tsugunderom. Will that in serious cases. For theft of public money, for example. For the card, and in general for gambling. For drunkenness. For foul language.
The latter results in "experts" maritime tradition in indignant amazement. Pardon me, but what about the famous "boatswain", also known as "Sloop" Bend, consisting of a solid mat? Do not believe! And if this is even true, then it means that Ushakov’s not like people!
The war on STATE
And he was, "it’s not like people." Purely land boy from Romanov (now Tutaev in the Yaroslavl region) suddenly decides to study at the Maritime gentry housing. And this is the time of the Empress Elizabeth. The fleet was then in the breath-taking condition, as everyone knows who has ever watched a movie about the adventures of Alesha Korsak and Sasha Belov, "Bereytorskoe training horses! Midshipmen, and the sea did not see! "
Then everything is on the rise. His first order of a military officer, Captain 2nd Rank Fyodor Ush
akov is again purely civilian, bureaucratic. Vladimir IV degree. For being taken adequate measures to "uberezheniyu Kherson and the surrounding area from the plague."
When it came to the actual sea battles, Ushakov again does not behave like all civilized people. Then the European and Turkish navies held sacred line tactics Fields Gosta made to all statutes and books and is considered ideal. It was the fact that the ships were built in two lines converged and began mesilovo with disabilities and corpses. Such is war, literally "GOST".
Ushakov as opposed to this old seemingly even more junk. And fought not by some state standards, but only by the will of God. Specifically — the Biblical principle of the prophet Zechariah: "I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered it." It can, and funny, but the Turks, who have always had on our fleet outnumbered, it was no laughing matter. Ushakov small force, lined up in a wedge, attacked the "shepherd", which is the flagship, drowned or burned it — and the other "sheep" really skedaddle, losing his pants.
By the way, about that same "boatswain" obscene bend. In one of the most glorious battles Ushakov, after which the Sultan of Turkey, said: "Oh, Great! Your fleet is gone, "there was a funny episode.
Turkish forces commanded by a Pasha Algerian named Seit, nicknamed the "storm of the seas." It was a pirate and a robber who indeed almost paralyzed trade in the Mediterranean. He arrogantly boasted before the Sultan, that tip the Russian "Ushakov" at the feet of his majesty. And in the cell and in the iron collar.
Ushakov about it somehow found. And in the midst of the battle, when his ship approached the Turkish flagship, Fyodor saw Seit Pasha. After that, grabbed a megaphone and shouted: "Seit, slacker! Unlearning I give you such a promise! "
That’s all. Or "so your mother" or something pohlesche. But further fully in line with the formula: "A man said — man did." 34 Russian ship broke and dispersed 78 Turkish. Loss Ushakov — 17 people. Loss only on the ship Seit Pasha — 450.
So those who believe, they say, Russian usually win with "such a mother", and in their midst chaos reigns, there is something to think about. Especially over what procedure actually prevailed on ships Ushakov.
Everything was easy. "Sailor, as a monk, should constantly pray and work" — this is the basic principle of Russian admiral. And I must say, the results of this technique yielded. Victory without defeat — even if it can if you want to write off and on luck. But the truly chivalrous attitude of the vanquished and the population would not be possible without Ushakovsky education.
Here’s how to write a merchant Nicholas Paschalis on the presence of Russian fleet in the Greek Islands: "It is amazing piety Ushakov, for that matter, and the other Russian. Incredibly, every Sunday, all the soldiers wish to attend the Divine Liturgy, they identified six churches. Seeing as they pray, we are even ashamed of in comparison with them to consider themselves devout Christians. " What can I say? Holy righteous warrior …
Saransk Cathedral Square with the Cathedral and the monument in honor of Fyodor Ushakov.
Eternal memory to the heroes RUSSIA!