Exposing paramilitary sensations


Genre sensational revelations in the press and will persist. Of course, now the public has ceased to believe the news about giant rats in the subway and crocodiles in the sewers. Perhaps that is why demand began to use the exposure in the field of defense and security. Let us try to understand some of the sensations of recent times.

"Izvestia" published "Upgradable MiG-31 was accused of myopia." The article has a promising conclusion that the radar (radar) of the MiG-31, which is just now being upgraded to MiG-31BM "sees three times worse than the U.S. radar." The arguments boil down to the article that the MiG-31 in a collision with a subtle American F-22 would be ineffective and would be easy prey. Let’s see, is this true?

The main argument of the paper is as follows: "in the centimeter range, which employ the majority of domestic radar" stealth "can not be found, required decimeter, and even better meter bands. In Russia is so keen eyesight is given only to ground-based radars, and here in the U.S. they are equipped with and stationary, and air — said the expert. "

Let’s start with the fact that the radar meter and decimeter no one destroyer of the world, including the much-vaunted "Raptor" F-22. The fact that such station must have an antenna diameter is too large to fit on the fighter. Here, an "expert" does make the necessary reservation that "meter radars are E-2D Advanced Hawkeye", forgetting to report that E-2D — it’s not a fighter, and the naval airborne early warning aircraft (AWACS) aircraft with a large rotating radome Antenna "on the back." Moreover radar AN/APY-9 its last modification (E-2D) has a range from 300 MHz to 3 GHz, i.e. decimetre / centimeter. Centimetric radar modes are needed for the detection of small targets against the background of the earth and the sea surface.

So is it appropriate to compare with a dedicated fighter aircraft radar and long-range management? It turns out, yes. Only it is necessary to remember that the MiG-31 is part of the defense and is designed to work closely with ground-based detection (including radar and VHF operating ranges for which the detection of the aircraft, made by "stealth" technology, is not difficult). Its avionics provides data about the goals of the ground control systems "Frontier-M", "Luch-2", "Air-M1" and others. A data transmission equipment allows direct aim at other aircraft, making the MiG-31 the likeness of air command post to coordinate the actions of fighters even other types. He can put things on the target missile launched from other aircraft of approaching the enemy in the mode of the radar silence.

Thus, in a hypothetical clash with the "Raptor" MiG-31 will have information about the enemy from ground radar or AWACS aircraft A-50 well before entering the firing range. However, F-22 will also receive data from their air of command posts (as long as they will not be shot down). Only now launching range of U.S. missiles AMRAAM — up to 100 km, and the MiG-31 is armed with rockets "air — air" P-33C or P-37 with a range of up to 280 km, guidance is possible in the semi-active mode with illumination from external sources. Diameter homing R-37 — 380 mm, against 160 in AMRAAM, which gives it a great opportunity for firm grip of stealth targets (P-37 was created as a weapon against cruise missiles). Thus, the MiG-31 can attack the F-22, with more than twice the distance, without even seeing it (P-37 is a target for data loaded in the inertial system, but at the end portion including a semi-active or active homing, on the whole trajectory radio correction is possible if the target is maneuvering actively trying to break the grip.) It turns out that instead of quiet and unobtrusive stalking "Raptor" will be forced to dodge attacks before entering the launch range of its missiles.

It may be added that criticized onboard radar system MiG-31BM provides detection at ranges of up to 320 km a variety of purposes — including a subtle, low-altitude cruise missiles (CR) on the background of the earth and of the sea surface, tracking up to 24 targets simultaneously firing six of them at a distance of 280 km. Speed engaged targets can be up to M = 6. Thus, today, the MiG-31 is the world’s only production aircraft, able to effectively deal with the subtle, low-altitude and high-speed missiles, as a critical part of the air defense system. According to the current program to the level of the BM 60 aircraft will be upgraded.

Another scoop for the procurement of anti-aircraft missile and gun complex "Shell-S1." Citing an unnamed source in the Command of the Army (NE), the same "News" reported that, from the "Armoring" has reportedly refused, not satisfied with his performance. However, do not end up believing the "source", the author nevertheless decided to check out the information from the developer. CPB director Yuri Savenkov, explained that "the main technical and combat characteristics of the complex of serious issues in command of the Army no", but noting that the troops would like to set not only on the wheel, but also on the track platform. Anatoly Tsiganok commented on the information in the same way, saying that the defense equipment CB-missile gun system has not been canceled (they are provided in the air defense brigade orgshtatnoy structure). Let’s try and understand this.

Let’s start with the wheelbase. Currently ZRPK "Shell-C1" purchased for the air defense / aerospace defense on a wheelbase as its task is to cover a large range of complex air attack in the near field. This is reasonable, since the very air defense systems are wheelbase. Meanwhile, the need for such complexes is also in the Army — with the only difference that support units close to the front it is desirable to have a set on tracks as cross wheel for this insufficient. Even the military complex long-range S-300V has tracked platform. At the moment the nearest NE defense provides ZRPK "Tunguska-M" — also on tracks. It is included in the current organizational structure of the reformed teams. However, its capabilities are inferior to the newer "Pantsir" and the desire to have the latest SW armed clear. And the "Armoring" is a variant on the crawler GM352M1E (is exported and looks). However, the complex itself is noticeably heavier than the "Tunguska", especially in the version with a new target detection station S-band, and I can imagine that, weight and size characteristics required for a complete heavy-duty chassis. Here it should be noted that the heavy tracked platform "Armata" will be the basis for the anti-aircraft complex battlefield. That is no problem with the crawler chassis is not as it appears. But the desire to exclude NE get complex as early as possible is impossible. Thus, the problem with the database for "Armoring" is likely to have about what and said the head of the PBC.

With regard to the characteristics of ZRPK "Shell", the issue is slightly more complicated. Retrieved from "News" says that "the technical and combat characteristics ZRPK" Armour-C1 "do not meet the requirements of the Army," deciphering these claims further: "The rocket is not capable of hitting the maneuvering target, the complex itself is cumbersome and not mobile, which is extremely important for the infantry parts, there are questions to radio-based, — the "Izvestia" officer who is familiar with the situation. Moreover, he pointed out that in modern warfare, such complexes are powerless
against short-range combat aircraft, which attack without going into range air defense systems but against enemy helicopters are much more efficient use of man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS), and small arms. "

I will not comment on the defeat of the maxim of modern combat helicopters, small arms — probably, in certain circumstances, can even stone. I will only note that the appearance of the predecessor "Armoring", "Tunguska" was a response to the new tactic, the U.S. Army Air Corps. Who is the enemy attack helicopters operating from a distance of about 10 km with an extremely low altitude and with an external target designation (illumination purposes), allowing himself to be a helicopter in the affected area air defense less than 25 seconds. The reaction time arrow with MANPADS can be reduced by giving it a signal to the embattled by a set of controls similar to the introduced today, "Barnaul-T". However, the manual guidance MANPADS and the time required to capture the goals of the GOS, it is still not enough to counter the short-lived attack. This problem is compounded at night and in the case instead of the helicopter attack or reconnaissance drone will be nearly invisible. Actually, this has led to more in the Soviet Army "Tunguska", detection and automated guidance which made it possible to deal confidently with modern helicopters.

Compared to the "Tunguska" opportunity "Armoring" significantly higher. The means to automate virtually eliminate operator action, which does not accelerate any discovery or defeat the purpose. Detection, capture, and automatic tracking of possible defeat in the passive mode radar — only optical means, which increases the combat survivability of the complex. Practically the first time the troops were able to fight not only the bearers of weapons (helicopters and UAVs), but also by the means of destruction. Of course, not arbitrary, and just having a little speed — cruise missiles and guided aerial bombs, so popular in the world, "Pantsir" quite capable. For example, to test the simulator speed RCC "Harpoon" amazed at the distance of 9.4 km at an altitude of 24 meters

"Shell" is not designed to deal with the aircraft (where the "source" seems to have guessed) because his shooting range is really less than that at which tactical aircraft uses weapons. It is also difficult to assume that the complex would be effective against high-speed missiles — a task for very different systems. For example, mentioned in the article, "Tor-M2" just have to partially solve this problem. If the "source" was hoping for the most complicated, complex task of protecting troops from high-precision weapons (WTO) to do some "vundervafli" as he saw the "Shell", one can only wonder why the military for missile defense are complex, expensive systems ("Iron House," "Patriot" PAC-3, THAAD) and why the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union did not cost the "Tunguska", spending more money and the creation of "Thor" and the C-300B. Is not it easier to manage small arms?

Yet it must be said that the article shows the characteristics of the first examples of the complex. The firing range with the introduction of missiles 57E6E (standard for non-export "carapace"), has long been brought up to 18 km, the number of tracked targets — up to 40 in the detection range of up to 40 km. The complex continues to improve.

It can be concluded that if the "source" of the newspaper "Izvestia" is real and it is not only the voice of personal reasoning, then ground troops (compared with ASD) had high expectations from the complex, and the desire to solve the problem of the military defense at minimal cost. In addition, if the true information about the claims to the complex on an existing crawler, the ground forces will have to wait for the new landing gear, while bypassing the "Tunguska". In this case we can not talk about the refusal of the complex — only to delay purchases for the CB (especially as the supply for ASD and for export continues). And even more so it does not follow that the complex is bad or not needed troops.

Well, I can advise the reader critical of the published information. Maybe then the news about the worthlessness of Russian weapons will be seen no more convincing than about crocodiles in the sewers.

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