Far East: unfrozen Stalin projects

In the Khabarovsk region have decided to carry out economic projects of the late 1940s — early 1950s.

The current Governor of the Khabarovsk Territory Vyacheslav Shport, while still in status and. about. governor said the relevance of many of the regional projects 50 — 60-year-old and not sold for many reasons. Recall that in 1949 the USSR Council of Ministers approved the draft energy development, transport network and processing sectors of the Far Eastern region. Their implementation began at the end of the same year, but … since the spring of 1953, they, for the most part, have been frozen. Khrushchev’s leadership found these projects’ ambitions of Stalin " and, therefore, does not meet the economic needs of the USSR. Many experts believe that the implementation of these projects, as planned in the 50s of the last century, would lead to a comprehensive industrialization of the Russian Far East, thus freeing him from the role of a raw materials appendage.

In addition — the region "have employed the" people of neighboring countries. So it is no accident many of the initiatives have either already implemented or are preparing to implement, and they are today — on the control of the Russian government.

Thus, according to V. Shport, the Russian government recently commissioned to work out all the technical and economic issues concerning the construction of the railway bridge (the "corridor"), approximately 7 km Nevelsky Strait — between the island of Sakhalin and Khabarovsk Krai. The bridge will be part of 580-kilometer railway trunk between the Khabarovsk Territory and Sakhalin (this project is also in charge of the government of the country).

A preliminary study of the project is ready, it will implement in the coming 5-7 years. The necessary investments today are estimated at 400 billion rubles. This project will provide new access to the Russian Pacific — through freezing Sakhalin ports, which therefore can be used all year round. According to expert estimates, thanks to the railway dock with Sakhalin Khabarovsk Krai total traffic through the ports of Sakhalin, in comparison with the level of 2011-2012., Could nearly double. The growth of foreign trade transportation of the Russian Federation through the same ports also forecasted to more than double. These factors, in turn, will increase the load of Trans-Siberian BAM, which is important for the greater competitiveness of the transport network of the Russian Federation in freight traffic between Europe and Asia.

In this case, Vyacheslav Shport in a conversation with me said that "this project is prepared on behalf of the Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. And rail Sakhalin to the mainland was planned for the first half of the 50s — in the tunnel option. Construction and other work started here about 60 years ago, but were soon stopped. Connect with Sakhalin Khabarovsk Krai, very significant for the Far East, and Russia, was "mothballed" for many years. "

Meanwhile, the fall of 1948 with the idea of "union of Sakhalin to the mainland by rail," declared himself to Stalin. At a meeting of the Union Council of Ministers, he noted in particular that "this decision will increase the role of our ports of Sakhalin, will help develop the economy of Sakhalin. And will lead to the expansion of the network of Soviet Far Eastern Railways, which is important and politically. "

The same idea Stalin repeated shortly after the signing of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance in Moscow on February 14, 1950

By May 1950, the designers have completed the elaboration of options for the bridge, ferry and tunnel (just south — in the northern sector of the Tatar Strait). Then the most appropriate option tunnel was found, that is, below the bottom of the strait, because of lower construction costs. A May 5, 1950 issued a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the construction of the tunnel and the backup — backup sea ferry. Construction of a tunnel junction was asked the Interior Ministry of the USSR (railway lines), and the USSR Ministry of Railways (tunnel work station). Noteworthy in this regard, evaluation of "neighbors" of the Japanese media, according to which "Karafuto (Sakhalin), thanks to the project tunnel to the mainland will be more included in the economic system of the Soviet Union and its foreign trade policy."

Put in place this artery with an adjacent railway was planned in 1954-1955. Construction work began in 1951, but by the end of March 1953, the project, again, has been "frozen". But — not just suspended and terminated at all. While hundreds, if not thousands of workers and engineers involved in this project long after the media reported, "did not go anywhere, hoping, nevertheless, for the resumption of construction." They "wrote about this in Moscow — begged and pleaded. Assuming the termination of the implementation of this important project a wild and absurd mistake. After the tunnel was invested billions of rubles of public money, the years of desperate labor. "

Meanwhile, in the 1970s and early 1980s due to internal and external economic needs of the Far East and the whole of the USSR Ministry of Railways proposed to return to the project as part of the bridge option. What kept B. Beschev, Minister of Communications of the USSR in 1948-1977 years. But the "top" under various pretexts transferred discussions … However, the demand that the project remained, and similar proposals after the collapse of the Soviet Union — in 1992 was made chief of Sakhalin Railway Vasiliev. And in 1999, the project is supported by the Minister of Communications of the Russian Federation Nikolai Aksenenko. But again due support "above" has been received. It seems that the authorities’ attitude to the project has changed, judging, again, on the instructions of the relevant Minister and the Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev.

And Vyacheslav Shport reminded me about another project frozen early and mid-1950s to establish a port of Ayan on the Okhotsk coast of Khabarovsk Krai. After all, is not within the province of a major port. But "in connection with the development of economic relations of our region and the whole of the Far East with the rest of the country, as well as with neighboring countries, Ayan port project also will be in demand." Moreover, this port may have inter-regional importance. According to V. Shport, "modern transportation projects related to the development of natural resources in neighboring South Yakutia, may go to the area and Ayana. What makes Ayan port will not be isolated from the regional and inter-regional railways. "

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