Fascism in Britain

 Foreword to the book by Frederick Mellali Fascism in England 1947.

War of the freedom-loving nations against the fascist aggressors gave a powerful impetus to the struggle for democracy in the world: the main foci of fascism in Europe — Germany and Italy — destroyed; fascist parties in most capitalist countries have been forced to lie low. With the strengthening of the post-war international reaction, they again began to stir, in some places more carefully, and in some places has openly and brazenly they try to go on the offensive against the democratic gains extracted the blood of millions of the best sons of mankind.

The book tells the story of Frederick Mellali past and present activities of fascist organizations in England. The Soviet reader will read it with interest, since so far the facts and events described by the author, can be found only in a brief newspaper reports. We learn that in England, who boast of their "democratic freedoms" British fascists long before the war precisely followed German models. They staged mass beatings of citizens who dared to object to their speakers, terrorized the population working-class neighborhoods of London and were unrestrained violent anti-Semitic propaganda, accompanied by pogroms of small and large scale. The most important thing is that all this took place under the auspices of the British police and judicial authorities. Nothing preventing the bandit actions of Nazi thugs, the police thought it her duty to protect them from the righteous indignation of anti-fascists. Judicial authorities, considering the case of fascists, organizers street attacks, invariably decide the case in their favor, with govarivaya at the same time working for a real anti-fascist defense of democracy to harsh punishments.

For example, the Minister of the Interior refused to make public the investigation bloody carnage, arranged by the Nazis in London at a rally in Olympia Hall June 7, 1934 According to the author, all anti-fascists who were arrested during a rally in Olympia, were fined or sent to prison, but all fascists were acquitted or sentenced on probation.

The advantage of the book is that the events narrated in support of the author cites a large number of documents, including letters and witness statements (belonging to the different sections of society) and the victims of the Nazi orgy.

However, in the book Mellali we do not find the fullness of the actual situation, and its theoretical and practical conclusions identified for severely critical attitude. F. Mellali — Assistant Editor Labour magazine "Tribune." The position of this magazine is uncertain and unstable: he considers himself a left-wing Labour Party, but in reality it often takes quite right position. The same can be said about the views of the Mellali to set out their events.

Speaking from the revelations of British fascism and calling for a fight with him, the author is silent on the most basic — his reactionary class nature.

The book Mellali no precise definition of fascism. It almost does not speak of monopoly capitalism, of imperialism as the main source of fascism. Describing fascism, Stalin pointed out that this "is the party of the imperialists … lot of enemies of democratic freedoms, the party of reaction and the medieval Black-Hundred pogroms" [1] Fascism in all countries of the world has resulted from the general crisis of capitalism, with the deepening of which "the ruling classes capitalist countries diligently destroy or reduce to nothing the last remnants of parliamentarism and bourgeois democracy, which can be used by the working class in its struggle against the oppressors, is driven into the underground Communist Party and to openly terrorist methods of maintaining their dictatorship ". [2] In countries where the reactionary ruling classes hypocritically conceal his dictatorship fig leaf of parliamentarism, the dirty work — massacres, murders around the corner, beating the anti-fascists — charged with award-winning and award-winning fascist thugs.

We Mellali lack the determination — or desire — it is clear and unambiguous to the end to expose this kind of "division of labor" to open a direct connection with the bosses of the fascist thugs of the financial world and some of the gentlemen of the Parliament.

Not being able to determine the nature of English fascism, Mellali, of course, makes a number of erroneous conclusions, it is not acceptable to the Soviet reader.

The history of British fascism match, according to the author, the history of the life and work of Sir Oswald Mosley, the leader of fascism in England. Biography of the hapless candidate for the role of Hitler's English is central to the book. A few words Mellali is for the man whom he considers a precursor Mosley. This is Captain William Stanley Shaw, in 1901, founded the "British fraternal league." The league was organized along military lines and conducted propaganda against the immigration of foreign workers and against the Jews. First the Nazis called themselves the organizers of small companies "British fascists Limited" British "national-fascist", etc. All of these small groups were then combined, "the British Union of Fascists," created by Mosley.

That's about all of the precursors Mosley. His personal biography given in the book much more space than the historical roots of British fascism. Therefore, the precursor Mosley was, judging by the book, a little Captain Shaw, while much larger players remained in the shadows.

Meanwhile, speaking of the precursors of British fascism, it is impossible to ignore Cecil Rhodes, the famous adventurer, colonizer of Africa, acting by means of the most brutal, fierce advocate of British rule throughout the world. It is impossible to ignore the novelist and poet Rudyard Kipling, a preacher of the racial superiority of the Anglo-Saxons over other nations. We must call and Joseph Chamberlain, who was known to be the herald of the militant British imperialism, and boasted openly advocated his "conquering" the power and hostile to democracy. It is interesting to recall that the Nazis considered the spiritual father of his racial theories of English "philosopher" Houston's Stewart Chamberlain. It was he who originated the idea of "superiority" of the Aryan race over all other nations.

During the first world war, the Chamberlain openly sided with Germany.

How do you explain the fact that Frederick Mellali not notice all of these precursors of British fascism? First of all, refusing, as noted above, a scientific analysis of fascism as a historical phenomenon, Mellali naturally turns its attention only on explicit its representatives and participants and mainly on their personal qualities. Second, Mellali tend to notice mainly Italian and German fascism British sources. It supports — voluntarily or involuntarily — the theory of a foreign, alien origins of fascism on English soil. But this theory is contradicted by the facts, including those contained in the book itself Mellali.

Referring to the features of a biography Mosley, by the public interest. Mellali from the book, we learn that Mosley belongs to the tops of the English aristocracy. He is the owner of the richest estates millionaire. According to his wife he is kin to Lord Curzon. Together with hereditary estates Mosley was as if inherited a seat in parliament, in the ranks of the Conservative Party.

Mosley could not wait to become a leader, a member of the cabinet. But in the conservative party elders sat heavily on all of the first places. Mosley felt disappointed. Labour rose up to power. Career MacDonald appealed to Oswald Mosley. He thought that he, a young, energetic nobleman, it is easier to get through to a prominent political position through a fragmented crowd of Labour MPs than the thickness of a close-knit his aristocratic peers. Mosley was Laborite. It was in 1924 he did not do this from a Democrat. But he learned a taste for demagoguery.

In the second Labour government Mosley received a minor post of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He struggled in vain to the first places in the cabinet. Half-hearted policy of liberals laborism it did not satisfy. The old parliamentary machine acted slowly and with difficulty. Mosley has never severed his ties with his social environment, and it scared the growth of revolutionary movements in Europe and mortally hates the young Soviet country, demanded that their leaders vigorous fight against the "red danger".

And Mosley is changing milestones. He is an ardent admirer of fascist Italy ascended to the "stars" — Mussolini. In 1930, Mosley leads a group of fascist "rebels" in the Labour Party. In 1932 and 1933. he defiantly makes a political pilgrimage to Rome. Now he openly promotes fascism in England, and the Italian fascist print sings his praises as his supporter. In 1932, there is a "British Union of Fascists." It is noteworthy that Mosley, and after he had in 1930 led a "revolt" against the Labour leadership, and after trying to split and create a "new socialist party", still formally remained a member of the Labour Party and was expelled from the "it only March 1931

At first, "the British Union of Fascists" blindly copied your Italian prototype. The same black shirt, the same military bearing, the same welcome, the same means of brute violence against opponents, the same policy of intimidation of the people. Mosley himself slavishly imitated his Roman master. Pompous phrases about the "Great Britain", shameless demagogy, belligerent clicks megalomania in leader, barrack discipline among the rank and file members. In developing the program, the British fascists largely copied the Italian Fascists. Subsequently, the program of English fascism has been supplemented and corrected in accordance with the German-fascist model. As Hitler overtook his Italian ally, and of his students became his master, and changed the orientation of Mosley. He went to the bow to Berlin and had a conversation with Julius Streicher.

Program Mosley soaked violent imperialist spirit. If we reject the demagogic promises of any kind, designed to deceive the gullible and unstable people, the program Mosley and his gang of bandits Nazis had two main objectives: within the country — the struggle against democracy and the suppression of the labor movement, the outside — to establish world domination of British imperialism, the organization of "Crusade campaign "against the Soviet Union.

These basic goals and was subject to the subversive work of Mosley and his leash. Shameless, dishonest demagogic agitation was directed against the Communists in England, against democracy in all its forms, against Jews, against the national liberation movement. Heavily promoted in the open or veiled idea of world domination British imperialists, preached preparation for war against the Soviet Union. This fascist activity has intensified especially after Mosley began to imitate the methods of Hitler.

Under the auspices of the Conservative Party, the reactionary press, a certain part of the titled aristocracy and monopoly capital, "the British Union of Fascists" quickly grew. Mosley recruit mainly from declassed young people from middle-class environment (small traders, ruined artisans, petty officials), some of the unemployed. "They — writes Mellali — flocked to him thousands — of anti-Semites disappointed, angry right-wing intellectuals, renegades and misfits left directions, the bourgeois ladies 'patriot' hefty Empty-nerds from universities and schools … and former noncommissioned officers of the guard concentration camps" . Aristocratic his students in no small part, together with some of the professors were recorded in chernorubashechnye troops and became his bodyguard.

Mellali paints a picture of the criminal activities of the British fascists. He describes a typical fascist meetings and rallies, parades and reviews. He tells how, following the nazi samples, British fascists beat everyone who disagreed with them.

But the picture painted by Frederick Mellali different — not by accident — incomplete. Ironically, Mellali likened to Krylovskiy character who is in cabinet of curiosities "elephant that did not notice."

Mellali little or nothing to say about the anti-Soviet propaganda of British fascism. Is it anything about it does not know? No, it does. At one point, he writes about the position of Mosley's foreign policy: Mosley believed that "at any cost should save England from such madness as the war with Nazi Germany. The main enemy — Russia … "(p. 113).

Yes, the British fascist who dreams of world domination of England, to perpetuate colonial rule over all the continents, the most dangerous, the most hated enemy was and is a Soviet country — the bulwark of democracy and freedom. Mosley did not hide it, he cried about it at all intersections. The quest for world domination and hostility to the Soviet Union, as we know, have been the core policy Mosley. Now it is — common knowledge even for minors. But even before the Second World War it was known to all or less versed in politics to people.

Mellali can not be assigned to juvenile politicians. But he is now — after the Second World War, after fascism and exposed in its very essence and in all forms — ignores the history of British fascism in its most important feature: the quest for world domination and the enslavement of the peoples of Europe and Asia. It can not be called an accident, nor is it accidental that Mellali disclaims detailed and careful study of sources of British imperialist fascism and carefully describes only its symptoms.

In the first phase of the "British Union of Fascists," one of his closest cronies Mosley, his "right hand", was the head of the Propaganda Department of BS F. William Joyce — "ideologist" of the British fascism, the English edition of Goebbels. He was head of the British fascist group (later split off from B. SF), which is entirely focused on Hitler and was its secret agents. The purpose of this group was to promote German fascism in the conquest of England, preparing internal "fifth column." Chief among these agents Hitler was Joyce. Of course, he hid this side of his work. He vehemently denounced foreigners, "denouncing" the British Communists that they allegedly receive instructions from the Soviet Union, he was the most zealous English words nationalist, a supporter of the "strong England" … And in fact, he was a mercenary of Nazi Germany, a traitor, a traitor to his country. When war broke out between Germany and England, Joyce fled to Berlin, Goebbels and became an assistant under the nickname of Lord Haw-Haw daily by radio to England showered abuse, threats and demanded the destruction of British power, vehemently urged the British people to war in alliance with Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union.

After the defeat of the Nazi forces Joyce fell into the hands of the British authorities. He was tried, he was executed. The same fate befell his accomplice Emery, British fascists in the German service, the son of a famous English statesman, prominent conservatives. We must regret that Mellali not made it my mission to track more closely ties exposed as British traitors and spies from the top of the English aristocracy. Meanwhile, he calls in the book that these communications were disclosed to the end. He writes, for example, the reaction of the club captain Ramsey, created about a year before the war:

"He had about 375 members, many of whom had influence and power, and most of them have either been convinced by the Nazis or their ardent supporters. Eighth in the list of members was the name of William Joyce. Was a member of the club, for example, the American traitor Tyler Kent (sentenced 7 years in prison for espionage) and Anna Volkova, convicted in November 1940 for attempting to send an encrypted email to a certain "Joyce in Berlin." On most closed meetings of the club is almost always presided late Duke of Wellington. Captain Ramsey, as many will remember, was arrested in May 1940 in accordance with the law on the protection of the state. According to him, the club ceased to function with the start of the war, but its members continued to meet informally (Tyler Kent joined the club in fact a few months after the start of the war). Among the documents seized by the police in May 1940, has been a full list of the members of the club. In the period of 1940-1945 years. government, which was dominated by conservatives resisted all the requirements to publish the notorious "Red Book" of the members of the club. It is hoped that the present government in the end will stick less limited view of their responsibilities with regard to millions of loyal subjects who give their all for the war against fascism "(pp. 114-115). Meanwhile, some of the highest patrons Mosley actually exposed the Nuremberg process, in particular the report Gausgofera Hitler on May 12, 1941, bearing the significant title "English communication and the possibility of their use." The report identifies individuals who are expected to Hess, going to his notorious flight. The first to appear on the names of the Duke of Hamilton, Lord Dunglasa, former private secretary to Neville Chamberlain and Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs in the government of Churchill, Assistant Minister in the government of Churchill Aviation Harold Balfour, former Assistant Minister of Education Kenneth M. Lindsay and others. This group of young conservatives has been linked through the Duke of Hamilton with an influential group of conservative older generation — with Lord Derby, a former Minister of State for the Colonies in the transitional government of Churchill and Oliver Stanley Astor family. Almost all of these individuals have had contact with a former British ambassador to the United States Halifax, which Gausgofer was in a relationship. The Germans also had links with the Assistant Foreign Minister Balfour, a former ambassador to Spain, Samuel Choir and whacked ambassador to the United States by Lord Lothian.

Other persons who are meant to lean German fascists, who belonged, according Gausgofera, a group of young imperialists called the "Round teybl." The Germans counted even a group of directors of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the United Kingdom, the most prominent of which was the former head of the Department of Central Europe and the former head of the Strang south-eastern department of O'Malley. According to Gausgofera, all of these individuals could be induced to conclude a separate peace agreement between England and Germany.

Nazis patronized Lord Sherwood — a personal friend of Mosley, Lord Kuibell. High patrons Mosley and his handy can be found in the ranks of the so-called "Group of imperial policy", educated in the British Parliament by conservative right-wing deputies in 1933 and headed by Lord Bertie-of-the-Thame, Lord Phillimore, Lord Mansfield, Earl of Glasgow, and others. The political direction of the group, which was renamed in 1942 to the committee, is sufficiently well known. During the war it produced newsletter "Review of World affers" was the mouthpiece of Goebbels' propaganda, he campaigned against the cooperation between Britain and the Soviet Union, and put forward the idea of a separate peace with Germany. The editor of this newsletter Kenneth de smoking is, so to speak, the main theorist and publicist Committee, before the war, maintained direct contact with Mussolini, Laval and other fascist leaders and their agents.

Mellali book came out in 1946, since then nothing in this regard has not changed. Modest expectations author, expressed with such a philistine timidity is not justified. "Red Book" of the betrayal of influential circles of the English aristocracy has not been published and the Labour government. Some British fascists occupy the position which enables them to continue their previous work. Wonder whether the fact that in the British zone of occupation in Germany prominent German Nazis continue to use the influence and power in companies and public organizations!

Referring to the notorious club captain Ramsey, where aristocratic conspirators against the independence of England agreed with the agents of Hitler's Germany, Mellali omits other reactionary organizations, to cover "patriotic" declarations of actual cooperation with the German Nazis during the war. Mellali says nothing about klayvdenskoy clique relentlessly propagandizing a separate peace with Hitler's Germany in the name of "crusade against Bolshevism." It says nothing about the group, "Imperial politics." It says nothing about the position of the magazine "Nayntinsenchuri End after." We do not know whether Voight, editor of the magazine, a member of the club captain Ramsey, if he was a friend of Joyce during the life of the latter, but he was true to his voice during the war. Between shows Joyce in Berlin against the Soviet Union and Articles go in London there was no difference. They made common cause.

Of course, not all the English during the war the Nazis were agents of Hitler. But they were all enemies of democracy and freedom of peoples and called for the strengthening and expansion of the rule of the British imperialists of the world. These fascist bigots completely sided with the reactionaries of the other parties, who, just as they were interested in strengthening and weakening of the British imperialist forces of democracy and progress. Mellali means assistance provided Nazis influential circles of British Industry, but says very incomplete without bringing his research to the end. He calls with precision and certainty only one name — Lord Rothermere.

But Rothermere was not the only major newspaper publisher who supported Mosley: "From time to time, and other major newspapers — said Mellali — burst into praises at BS F …". (P. 81).

At the cradle of British fascism, as the cradle of the Italian and German fascism, was a major industrial and banking capital. Who are those industrialists who gave Mosley funds for the activities of his organization? Why give them the money?

These are questions that are not only of historical interest. These are highly relevant, topical issues. However Mellali extremely fluent touches the subject — or rather, it bypasses the bottom panel. This is all that we learn from it:

"To any new political movement, in addition to supporting the press, need money, lots of money. That's where Mosley had the opportunity to use the location, which evinced a certain group of capitalists against fascism, wherever he raised his head. A number of big manufacturers back in the days of the "New Party" began to heavily subsidize the development of fascism in England. Some of them, though the most prominent, stopped to help a year later — after the foundation of the other B. SF, but at the end of 1936, in an interview for the "Giornale d'Italia," Mosley said that still " receives support from the English manufacturers. " Moreover, he said that "a number of industrialists northern England, still supported him secretly for fear of a boycott of their products, are now openly admits his unity with the Nazis." And when before the war with William Joyce asked, "is it correct to say that big business provides financial support for the Nazis?" — This, now, fortunately, been hanged traitor replied with one word: "Yes" (p. 84).

The importance of this evidence Mellali needless to say. It is also characteristic that the criminal connection between large manufacturers and the government has not been traitors to the government investigation nor the conservative government, under Labour. If the "Red Book" of the relationship between the Nazis and the aristocratic circles was not published, then the relationship between the Nazis and the industrialists and publish nothing: there is no such book. In this way the investigating authorities were afraid to throw a glance before the war and during the war — when the still had to arrest Mosley and some of his supporters — and after the war, when brought before the English courts Joyce Emery and other traitors. The names of patrons, supporters, financial guardians Mosley? Silence, anonymity! And Mellali not able to break the conspiracy of silence.

Meanwhile, some of the names are well known. They have repeatedly been named in the press. This Deterding, the most influential representative of the British oil imperialism. It's Le Monde, the king of the chemical concern, the most prominent leader of British imperialist policy. Enough of these two names to reveal the true nature of British fascism as the most reactionary form of British imperialism. Become clear and the motives that encourage moguls of British monopoly capital to support the bandits Mosley.

Mellali trying to list these motives. It. First, the Mosley fight against communism. This is the second Mosley fight against the unions, his plan for submission to the dictatorship of the working class "corporate" state.

The presence of these motifs in the British capitalists who supported the Nazis, you can not deny. But that's not all motives. It's not even the most important motives. In the imperialist foreign policy of the British fascists, in full agreement with the kings of oil and chemicals, do not pursue defensive and offensive purposes — the seizure of foreign markets, capture the world market. It's excellent to understand the British imperialist. One of them wrote in the newspaper "Evening News":

"Blackshirts came at just the right moment. British lion roaring days of Palmerston was purring cat benevolent internationalism. "

However, after 1937 clearly indicated by the decline of British fascism. What was he called? In what he called?

He expressed primarily in the fact that Mosley apparently subsided. After a series of clashes between the Nazis and the workers on the streets of London, ending with the defeat of Mosley and his gang, he became less arrogant. His organization, as it were left to itself. She continued intense activity, recruiting new supporters, but declined provocative antics. Gangster Chronicle fascism pale.

We denote the internal strife in the leadership of the Nazi Party. The meaning of the gap between Mosley and Joyce became quite clear only later, when the war broke out between Germany and England, and Joyce disappeared to suddenly come up in Berlin. But before the war, for many it remained unclear why Joyce came out of the "British Union of Fascists" and founded the "National Socialist League" and why Mosley turned away from some of his influential patrons.

The main reason for this split among British fascists and external decline fascist movement Mellali sees that borrowed from the Italian and German forms of direct and severe physical violence, pogroms and beatings were alien to the customs and habits of the majority of the British people. For the same reason the British workers gave the Nazis a cohesive and impressive fight back. Mosley would have stepped in front of a British democracy.

Some truth in it, but only a fraction. The whole truth — to the political situation that has developed in international relations before World War II. At this Mellali stops as usual only in passing and passing. Accounted for it dorisovyvat picture.

This picture is called "Munich." Needless to say that Mosley zealously supported the Munich policy of the conservative government. However, the consequences of Munich have made political trouble in various circles of English society. Events began to develop not so myopic as some British politicians: they hoped to use Hitler's Germany for the war against the Soviet Union in the interests of British imperialism, but it turned out that Hitler intends to use the English response to the war against France. The Soviet Union, across Europe, in the interests of German domination over the entire world. Go consistently on the Munich road — meant to go straight to the vassals of German imperialism. Is not that sought bosses of British monopoly capital when encouraged German, Italian and English fascism. They strive for world domination.

On the other hand, they had to reckon with the opinion of the British people, and the vast majority of the British people did not want the war against the Soviet Union and hostile to Hitler's Germany. English fascism, finding your Germanophile, anti-Soviet look, armed themselves against the best the British working class. This primarily explains the resistance that was given to the working class of England fascist provocations.

When the war against Nazi Germany, the British fascism could not speak openly. Under the banner of fascist could not keep the British people to war against the Germans. In these circumstances, the British fascism was temporarily out of business. Moreover, in the military situation, he compromised even Bayern, who rebuilt and repainted on the go.

The war exposed the Mosley and his supporters. Under the pressure of the masses, who sought to defeat the dark forces of fascism, Mosley was arrested. But then he was released Labour Home Secretary Morrison and got a full opportunity to reopen.

What fate befell his party? Along with Mosley were arrested many of his associates. But the investigation has touched only the direct participants of the fascist conspiracy, but guilty was essentially a whole lot Mosley. More than 600 fascists were released. The investigation respectfully spared. influential patrons of the titled aristocracy and of the industrial and financial bourgeoisie were retained and the main Nazi footage. After the war, "the British Union of Fascists" uncool in 1942, restored under the guise of publishing Mosley at first as an organization for the dissemination of Nazi literature, the benefit of the Labour government refers to this literature with good-natured tolerance. The company "Editions Mosley" publishes a monthly newsletter "News Latter Mosley" in which smears democracy, the labor movement. The Soviet Union.

Released from prison Mosley said: "My political beliefs does not change." He's not going to give up, and from political activity. He published the book "My answer" — English rehash "My Struggle" Hitler. However, in this book, he still does not advertise its direct solidarity with Hitler. He openly in the second book "Alternative", published in October 1947, he believes that the political intentions of Hitler were correct, but he laid the fight against democracy by one Germany, Hitler committed a grave error, however, Mosley "upgrade" their problems. Now he, along with Churchill for the "Western bloc". He does not oppose the British Conservatives, and sees himself as the most consistent exponent of Anglo-American imperialism. Mosley evaded a direct answer to the question of the organization of his own party. He prefers to develop temporary illegal fascist activities under legal cover "book clubs." Officially, it is only the "publisher". But on its behalf are straight thugs, heralding the imminent return Mosley to active political life. Mosley is the leader of all the fascist groups in Britain.

Of course, the word "fascism" is compromised. Its far avoided. But even now in the league of former soldiers joined the people who throughout their appearance is no different from former Nazis. Reborn 'British People's Party', led by the Duke of Bedford, author of numerous Nazi pamphlets, speaking during the war for a separate peace with Hitler. According to "News Chronicle", the number of members of several thousand people. Its charter is in many ways the same as the articles of association of the former fascist organization.

Leaders of the party argued that the basic principle of the party is the creation of a "union of countries that speak English."

There continues to be set up in 1944 under the chairmanship of the Duchess Attolskoy "League of European freedom." Around this Anglo-fascist center grouped Polish-fascist rabble led by Anders and Bor-Komorowski.

Revive and also appear clearly fascist organizations. Such is the "Imperial Fascist League," which was disbanded in 1939 In March 1947 its leader Leah Arnold, a preacher of racial theories, along with seven of his companions had been convicted by the British court for organizing the shoots of German prisoners of war. The trial revealed the existence of an underground Nazi organization.

Started again wield a "British League action alert" and the "Union for the world." All of them are supported by the already mentioned the influential Committee of imperial policy.

There is a reinforced campaign for the unification of all fascist gangs England. In particular, it has agreed to merge the "Union of British freedom" and "Sons of St. George."

Gradually English fascism goes from words to actions. In Blackpool known in trade unionists received threatening anonymous letter with the stamp in the shape of the Nazi swastika. The same letters demanding to abandon political activities were the editor of the newspaper "Reynolds News" and Labour MP, Member of Parliament Dryburgh ..

Finally, most recently, the Nazis began to openly terrorist acts.

At the end of 1946 the population of the East End of London were thrilled arson synagogues. On the streets there were beatings of Jews. On the walls of houses began to appear swastikas.

In August 1947 in Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, London and other cities in England were real Jewish pogroms, accompanied by looting and destruction of property. The culprits escaped the pogroms in small fines. It's more encouraging on the court than the car.

Early in the morning of 19 October 1947 on the premises of the governing bodies of the Communist Party in Bristol was attacked with explosives. Was knocked out all the window displays of the room. The explosion was deafening, shards of broken glass scattered on the 20 feet to the side. Secretary of the Communist organization of Bristol Harry Bourne said: "In recent weeks, it is the seventh attack on our premises."

All riots and terrorist raids and hooligan antics fascist thugs takes a prominent part "League of ex-servicemen." In September 1947 it was arranged ostentatious demonstrations in London. The leaders of the openly called themselves Nazis, calling for violence against the Communists and Jews practiced wild slanderous cries against the Soviet Union. The leader of the Black Hundreds Jeffrey Hamm declared soon "Mosley coming to power. Participants of the rally shouted, "We want Mosley," "Hail Hitler". The rally was attended by German prisoners of war.

The Metropolitan Police was forced for a time to ban fascist rallies, as they began to turn into violent clashes between fascists and anti-fascist workers. At a rally on September 18 Hamm is not allowed to speak, the meeting was disrupted, melee skirmishes occurred between the fascists and the workers. Were arrested for "offensive" some Nazis, among them, and Hamm, and some anti-fascists.

Police court is very easy on the Hamm who behaved arrogantly, and released him the next day and fined by a small amount. And the anti-fascist workers were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment.

Thus, the British fascists ungird more and more, taking advantage of the benevolent condescension and incentive inaction of police and judicial authorities. Otpor, which they received from workers, shows that there is no support for the broad masses of working people, they do not have. But they have their influential supporters in parliament, in political conservative circles, and the governments of the Dominions. Suffice it to mention the Government of the Union of South Africa, which holds in fact openly fascist, racist policy of discrimination against blacks and Indians.

The representatives of the fascist government led by Smuts, come to this shamelessness, which were opened at the United Nations in violation of its charter, the protection of Nazi racial policies. At the General Assembly in November 1947, delegates of the South African Union defended their unrestricted right to oppress the powerless "colored" population of Africa. They repeated in the UN Hitler nonsense about the superiority of the "Aryan race" over all the other races and the vocation of the "white" keep in bondage "colored." Representatives of the Labour Government supported the Nazis in South Africa. What is surprising is that in one of the Dominions of the British Empire controlled by the Labour Party, is a wild rout of all democratic organizations!

British fascists put the problem settle in England orders of the South African Union.

British fascists are trying to break into the enterprise, where it is possible to deploy subversion. The newspaper "Daily Worker" opened the backstage machinations of air services — a major capitalist enterprise. Among the leaders of the company are Donovan, a former aide to the leader of "the British Union of Fascists," Thompson, a former head of the Union of Political Affairs. The company publishes a political newsletter. It advocated a fascist dictatorship as "the best form of government." Aircraft Companies Make flights to Spain and Greece, and in one of the rooms of the bulletin is printed photograph showing the pilot of a Spanish airport with a bunch of flowers — a gift from "a grateful people", I mean the Spanish fascists.

Mellali not describe the activities of resurgent fascist organizations in England. It is limited only by the mention of some of them, looking away for this purpose are only two pages in the last chapter of his book. Nevertheless, in this last chapter, entitled "Hydra began to move again," he opposes those who dodges the issue of the dangers of "returning" of fascism's dismissive attitude towards him. He has no doubt that fascism revived in England under whatever name. He writes:

"Out of respect for the memory of our fallen friends, we have to seriously respond to the threat of fascism, wherever it reared its ugly head."

Mellali believes that fascism is returned to England with the reactionary circles of the opposition to the current government. These reactionary circles tend to use existing discontent of the population economic condition.

"… The opposition — writes Mellali. — Seeks to exploit the discontent, and not to find out the cause. Before the war, many staunch anti-socialist, from the small shopkeeper to industrial magnate, openly supported the fascist movement, not because they liked Mosley's Blackshirts or authoritarian program, but out of fear that the Conservative Party, although it was at that time the most powerful political force in the England fails to stop the forces of socialism capture parliamentary authority "(p. 124-125).

Mellali quite right when he calls the views and sentiments of reactionary circles in Britain fascism, although many of the proponents of these views and attitudes of trying to distance itself from the nickname "fascist." He says, "These people — the Nazis, although it never occurred to them."

British fascists see conservatives of his closest allies. One of the activists of the fascist organization said in July 1945 the correspondent of "Reynolds News": "We support the Tories, because we know that our chances are better at their direction. In addition, we know that the world — it's just a disguise. We believe that the Tories believe a war against Russia imminent. That's why we support Churchill. "

What characterizes the fascist nature of the reaction? Mellali indicates its three characteristics:

"First of all, it's racist theory, usually brought to life in the form of violent anti-Semitism. Then — the theory of the corporate state, which, though existed long before the advent of modern fascism, is now associated exclusively with him. And finally — fierce hatred and contempt for democracy. A person or organization that share any of these three theories do not necessarily advocate "of fascism, but one who shares them all, is entirely at the Nazi positions."

Limitations of this proposition follows directly from the fact that Mellali limits the scope of Nazi policy solely to the internal life of England. True, his book is called literally "Fascism in England." But this is done only in order to conceal the origin and purpose of the imperialist fascism. It is clear that the reactionary circles yaruyu nourish hatred not only for British democracy, but also to democracy in all countries, especially the Soviet Union — the bastion of democracy and progress. These circles are considered the most important task of preparing a war of aggression against it. The Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

These circles are pushing England to the complete subordination of the "dollar imperialism" of the USA, on the rejection of an independent foreign policy of England, to enslave the working people of British American bankers willing to finance any adventure directed against the Soviet Union. British fascists who served before the war Hitler aggressors, now serve American. Ignore this side of the fascist threat — then view the most important aspect of the whole process.

Mellali rightly requires laws against fascism. "Political freedom — he says — forms the essence of a healthy democracy, and it can not trample. On the other hand, it would be folly to tolerate in the name of freedom and democracy movement that seeks the complete destruction and freedom, and democracy. Privileges associations should logically belong only to those who want to maintain these privileges. " The statement Mellali expressed the mood of the British public sector, worried intensification of fascist elements.

In various cities of England workers began to speak with direct petition addressed to the government to end the licentiousness of fascist thugs. September 17 deputation visited the London Trades Council of Minister of Internal Affairs Chater Ida and handed him a protest against the activation of Nazi activities in London.

The deputation said that members of trade unions and the working population of London is deeply concerned about the serious threat to democracy and the labor movement, represented by the activation of fascism recently. The statement said: "London council of trade unions can not agree with the view that the numerical insignificance of fascist organizations in England can put up with their work, or that the commitment to the principles of democracy means giving freedom of speech and democratic rights of the preachers of fascism."

The deputation requested the Minister of Internal Affairs to take the following measures:

1) to prohibit the fascist rallies in London;

2) to prosecute those responsible for the Nazi incitement to violence and disorder;

3) to introduce legislation that puts all fascist organizations and their activities outside the law;

4) to prohibit anti-Semitism;

5) again to put Mosley in jail.

Chater Eid responded to these demands the publication of an official report, in which he said that the current, if the law would not allow him to pursue the Nazis, as long as they have not committed criminal offenses.

For the trade unions to protest began to address the municipal councils of various parts of London and various cities in England. To the Minister of the Interior asked the deputation of 12,000 engineering workers in London to demand the immediate release of all the arrested members of anti-fascist demonstrators and imprisoning all fascists who under Article 18-B of the law on the protection of the state (canceled after the war) must be prosecuted as traitors.

Under the pressure of public indignation, cover a wide range of the working class, the issue of the threat of fascism in England was discussed in late September by the National Council of Labour, made up of representatives of the Executive Committee of the Labour Party. General Council of the British Congress of Trade yunionz, the parliamentary faction of the Labour Party and the Co-operative Union. The debates were not published. Reuters columnist Robert Lloyd reported that the National Labour Council made no decision to demand from the government of publication of the law prohibiting the activities of fascist organizations. It was decided to insist on a "more stringent regulations the police against anti-fascist hooliganism and incitement to violence."

This is a half-hearted decision does not satisfy, of course, the working masses. But nothing else could we expect from the organizations supporting the government, which for the sake of international reaction and the Anglo-American warmongers openly violates international agreements established in the Crimea and Potsdam, the destruction of remnants of fascism in Germany and in other countries where fascism is celebrated LUT bloody orgy.

The workers' struggle against fascism in England continues and will become increasingly acute forms as increasing activation of fascism. This struggle is centered around the question of introducing laws forbidding activities Nazis, as contrary to the very root of the principles of democracy.

However, no matter how important laws that criminalize all sorts of manifestations of fascism, they alone do not solve the problem. True democracy requires the destruction of sources of fascism. But just about the destruction of the sources of fascism does not say a book by Frederick Mellali. Drawing a very incomplete and one-sided threat of fascism in England, Mellali as incomplete and one-sided considering the fight against fascism, reducing it to measures of judicial and police repression.

In the last chapter, trying to determine what is the danger of fascism, the author writes: "The power of fascism in the person of some one man, not in any one party's vitality: it is inherent in the doctrine of fascism, in doctrine, aimed at to awaken to a life of violence, racial intolerance and self-righteousness, available in any society, and to use these savage instincts lengths to achieve their political goals "(p. 123). The author is silent on who exactly is using those instincts "for their own political purposes." And then it all manifest weakness and depravity of the concept's interior. He concentrates all signified attention — and the reader — on the external manifestations of fascism and the reference to "eternal", "universal" properties, "available in any society," moves away from the concrete historical understanding of the essence of fascism. The real danger of fascism in our time is that in capitalist countries, it is the financial oligarchy, fearful for their dominance, with cold calculation and Kindle uses mentioned by the author brutality and racial self-righteousness for their own political purposes: It was she who, by the Nazis, playing in small strastishkah middle-class youth and ignorance. This is not the author recalls trying to Chapter II («What led them to Mosley") explain the reasons for the entry of certain groups of young people in black shirts, and because it is so one-sided and unconvincing heard his explanation.

The book ends with an appeal to the working class of England to lead a relentless struggle against fascism. She looks forward to the "socialism" of the Labour Party, but reliable and groundless appeal if they are not accompanied by strong policy response to combat all forms. Can we call the strong policies that, as we see in the book Mellali bypasses the most important aspect of the British imperialism — its foreign policy, it is uniform and the Government of Churchill and Attlee government? ..

Mellali book deserves attention because it collected interesting facts, and because it signals the threat of the "return" of fascism, which, however, and did not leave the scene. But, as already mentioned, and requires sharp critical attitude.

The facts collected in the book, clearly and conclusively say that the pre-war fascism in England was neutralized only to the extent that he was faced with the unanimity of the working class. Influential backers of fascism could not help him when columns of workers took to the streets and squares of London and blocked the path of the Nazi march. It was a heavy blow to fascism. After that, Mosley and his band abandoned the demonstrative, outdoor performances and took refuge in the aristocratic and capitalist underground, conspiratorial clubs and richest estates, such Klayvdenu — that's Lady Astor. From there, they tried every unclean means to disrupt the Allied victory, engaged in espionage and sabotage.

The unity of the working class, and now, after the war, is the main tool that can tie the hands of fascism. This conclusion is obvious from the book Mellali.

Activities aimed to split the working class and thus is a direct by fascism. But it is in this direction is the treacherous politics of right heads the Labour Party, in the same direction operates the "independent" magazine "Tribune."

Zaslavsky.

Read the book Fascism in Britain

See also Charles Higham. Trading with the enemy. How America helped Hitler

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