One of the leading Russian companies in the development and practical use of the funds for the unmanned exploration of outer space and celestial bodies — NPO Lavochkin name. Work on the creation of space-based observatories "Spectrum" circuit training missions to Mars and the Moon, "Interfax-AVN," said chief designer and CEO of the company Lavochkin Victor Hart.
— Viktor, Lavochkin company in January after nearly five-year hiatus has successfully launched its apparatus. What does this event for the company?
— Run the weather satellite "Electro-L" was not easy, both in terms of technology, and from the point of view of psychology. There is such a thing as the inertia of rest. The firm has a long time there was no evidence that would inspire the team confidence. So they had to mobilize people to ensure that the required time to carry out planned.
And the launch gave a tremendous result, has inspired people. Distinctive touch: after the start, I flew from the spaceport, came to our mission control center, walk, listen to reports of the experts — and people do not know. Especially one hit: says, his eyes are burning, smile, and I can not remember who it is. Then only I understand: a, so it’s the one who sat there forever dull, gloomy. And then if younger, so full of life.
In short, start very strongly changed the mindset of people. Now the main task — to give further momentum to this development. This is speaking from the point of view of the development of human resources and abilities of people.
In space technology, the 26 th February, "Electro-L" obtained the first image. According to experts of Hydrometeorology, "Planet Center", they are of high quality. In addition, the included "trunk" of the international search and rescue system "COSPAS-SARSAT system." And already, as far as I know, is the first evidence through our satellite reception of distress calls. Of course, this is only the beginning of the process, the study of the characteristics of the payload will continue.
— This launch also marks the start of flight testing a radically new space platform "Navigator."
— I have dramatically improved assessment of the school Lavochkin company after a completely new platform without any "tricks" is beginning to work cleanly. That is shown very good accuracy characteristics and fulfills its tasks.
Because of this, we now have a much greater degree of certainty and confidence in the work of our next device — observatory "Spectrum-Radioastron" where is the same satellite platform, as in "Electro-L". We are much more confident, more active can position themselves as potential manufacturers of vehicles under the "Arctic". Yes, and in general, we will increase the activity to market the devices based on this platform.
— For your advanced upper stage "Fregat-SB" it, too, was a debut?
— Yes, we have the first case of removing the device into geostationary orbit using an improved upper stage "Fregat-SB". This is the maximum version of "Frigate" in terms of the number of filled fuel, which used all methods of increasing the capacity of its tanks. This ball inserted into the main tank and the use of the glider unit tanks. The upper stage brought the device is very accurate, guaranteed. This is also a big plus.
Thus, a new scheme of satellite launch: rocket "Zenit" in combination with "Frigate" at the start from Baikonur allow injection into geostationary orbit vehicles weighing about two tons. This is in principle a very good niche in the market launches. However, if we can solve the problem with "Zenith" — to supply with the Dnepropetrovsk plant "Pivdenmash" moving in the right quantity, at an affordable price.
— "Frigate" and will take the part of the start-up program "GLONASS", which were previously used in conjunction with the "Proton" boosters "DM" Corporation "Energia"?
— Virtually already taken. In late February, "Frigate" orbited spacecraft "Glonass-K", launched from Plesetsk. Rocket "Soyuz" delivered a head unit with high accuracy transfer orbit and then "Frigate" practically "zero in" led the satellite into its target orbit. Until the end, our "frigate" and boosters "Union" will provide single launches one more satellite "Glonass-K" and one "Glonass-M".
And this makes sense — when the orbital system is complete, there is often a need for a specific plane to replace one device instead of running hard, "Proton" from Baikonur three satellites at once.
So then, as I understand it, will be a mixed scheme: the withdrawal of vehicles from Baikonur threes when it is needed, and a single output from the Russian territory.
— And how many "frigate" will start this year?
— Now in the program for a year — 12 starts with "frigate". But the programs in the field of space, we must admit we do, and Europeans and Americans have a tendency to a certain drift to the right. So it turns out. Appliances fact complicated. So I’m not 100 per cent sure that all take place in 12 starts this year. But even if they will be 8 — it will be a record number.
— You mentioned apparatus "Spektr-R". As we are working on it?
— Now we have about the same rate as over the "Electro-L", working on the machine, "Spektr-R". Recently he has taken to the testing center in the suburban Peresvet. Soon the device will be placed in a thermal vacuum chamber, where we’ll work with him at first without closing the lid. This is despite the fact that before in my shop, we set with all test equipment, which will work in Relight, fully carried out the work. That is, we are sure, that this scheme will work well there.
Once the cycle is complete vacuum BURN, around April, the unit will return from Peresvet in Khimki. Next we go on to the finishing steps. In order to be able to send the unit to Baikonur in May. Go to the chart. I think the launch will take place around the middle of June.
At the same time preparing for the launch and our 160-pound satellite MCA FCI. This is a small spacecraft for fundamental space research. The other day he is laid in a container and is ready to be shipped to Baikonur.
Our ICA-FCI to be launched together with the Russian remote sensing satellites, "Canopus-V" and the Belarusian satellite. While the start is scheduled for May 7. But the final date depends on the willingness of fellow travelers MCA FCI. Our upper stage "Fregat" as ICA-FCI, too, is ready.
— Not so long ago there was a pick between the RAS and the Russian Space Agency on the topic of who is responsible for the formation of the space research program. So who is?
— Actually, long ago set up a council of the Russian Academy of Sciences on outer space, where, except for figures of the academy, composed of the heads of Roscosmos. It is this collective body responsible for the development of space research program.
With that all is clear. Another thing is that today in Russia there is no ambitious integrated program of research space. Yes, there are some projects. For example, "Spektr-R" — for the study of cosmic radiation in the radio spectrum, "Spectrum-Ultraviolet" or "Spectrum-X." There are plans for single mission Russian vehicles to the Moon. But this is some specific solutions, which in my opinion, should be included in the most advanced space research program, wherever objectives were for 10, 20, 30 years.
— Why is it so important?
— In my opinion, today it is an extremely important area of human activity, which is associated with the next stage of knowledge about the world. Remember, once a mechanistic theory of the universe. Then people learned about electricity. Time passed, and were disclosed secrets of the atom. And each level of this knowledge gave humanity a new step, a new chance, a push to development. For example, when there was no electricity, life was one. Once the cranks with delays, katushechkami gone his way, life changed in many ways.
Now, many scientists believe that the next step humanity can do, knowing how all turned universe, why is gravity, what is its essence, that is dark energy and dark matter. Answers to these questions are sought now or in the Hadron Collider, or in astrophysics. Both are practically solved one problem — the full knowledge of the nature of matter and the universe. Therefore, the task is very important, and Russia should it play a role.
Projects "Spektr-R", "Spectrum-UV", "Spektr-RG" — all these are steps in this direction. Well, what then? The idea is that these devices — only part of the puzzle. And it is necessary to have a common mosaic. It must be designed and then go to her.
The same goes for planetary exploration. Ambitious plan of study and development of the solar system planets in our country do not. There is no strategy that responds to the questions of why and where to fly, what goals to reach.
— So all the same to fly to Mars or the moon?
— I do not believe that a person with the current development techniques need to fly to Mars. In my opinion, a manned mission to Mars — a kind of process that someone would like to draw everyone to eat around this process. Humanity must first develop to such an extent that it was possible to solve the problem of human flight to Mars. Now this can be done only with great loss to humanity.
Not by chance, even in the United States began to talk about travel to Mars at one end. It’s all kind of nonsense. Yes, it is easier to organize than a return man back. But who would say: why? Today, no one can say what the problem in the study of Mars can not solve robots, machines. Then why there’s a man?
Yes, the man in contrast to the robot can work something out. Well, so it is necessary to come up here on earth, so that the robot with the necessary amount of knowledge could adopt, on Mars the necessary decisions. Well, err, and to hell with it — will send another. This is not the person still lose.
On the other hand, as far as the Martian mission complicates the presence of man? After all, it must be fed, to provide oxygen to the water. It’s a tear. And it makes no sense. Also not yet solved the problem of protection from radiation in the Mars mission. While the crew will fly there, the radiation is over it will do this kind of work, which, according to some estimates, it is on this planet will not be able to function.
Mars — the planet is extremely tough. Search there for a refuge for humanity, disfiguring their own greens, pretty planet — is at a standstill.
Robots as human messengers, the study of other planets should be used more actively. They have to absorb human knowledge and carry on another planet all the work that will either help find the answer to the question why there needs a person or, if necessary, will begin to make the base. For a man, if it still comes to a flight to Mars, was not just thrown in the Martian desert, and has already had an initial level arrangement.
So much for Mars. But I think there are much more interesting thing in terms of learning and development — is the Moon. Because the views of scientists on Earth satellite has been some upheaval. Yes, 40 years ago, people have been there. We collected soil samples. Soviet units cumulatively brought a few hundred grams, the Americans — a few hundred pounds. By the way, the difference in science, in principle, no no. To carry out the analysis of materials, lack insignificant speck. But all of these lunar material was collected in the same area — around the lunar equator. They investigated, found nothing of interest. In addition, over the lunar race of the USSR and the USA. And attention to the moon waned.
But now there is evidence that the polar regions of the moon have water in decent quantities. So there may be produced oxygen, make rocket fuel, and anything else. That is, there is already quite makes sense to do some kind of base.
— For what purposes can be used such a base?
— To answer this question, we need detailed studies. For example, the very first thing that comes to mind — the Moon seems to be well suited to the task of astrophysical observations: the lack of atmosphere, there is no limit on the size of telescopes and antennas, as opposed to space-based platforms.
But first we need to understand if there is some kind of seismic activity, would not interfere with the observations of dust, which probably raise jet landing modules. How much it will hang there? Maybe it will create a shading that there is generally no good to put a telescope. Therefore it is necessary to hold a series of initial work that led to the conclusion: whether there is basis for a specific function. This work must be done only by robots. Therefore, there must be established a whole program of robotic operations on the moon.
While in the federal space program prescribed flight back two spacecraft "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resource". Last characteristic that is created along with India and has to fly on their launch vehicle. This, incidentally, is of some concern, because all is not well with the Indian rocket GSLV. While it is not very positive statistics.
However, one of these days will be another meeting with Indian partners, and we will continue to refine all — mutual joints, interaction.
The second project — "Luna-Glob" — totally Russian. We need to sit down on the lunar surface, soil intake to activate the device, a sort of drill that will take to the deep layers of the lunar surface materials and they will be there to explore. The novelty of the tasks that need to somehow collect, store and to work with so-called volatile substances — particularly with frozen water.
— But there was already a similar project — "Luna-24". Drilled the ground at 1.5 meters. A pillar of the soil sealed and taken to the ground. Why again?
— First, it will explore other areas of the moon. And "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resource" will sit in the areas of the lunar poles — one on the north, the other — on the south. In the areas of vehicles not yet been. A more specific objective of the mission was — search and identification of water supplies.
In the longer term it is beautiful, in my opinion, the project — sending a powerful rover on the moon, lunar rover. It will be a long ride and collect the best examples. And then right next to it, on the beacon, runs re-entry vehicle that will take away all that moonwalker "has acquired through hard work" and it will take away home to Earth.
This is what is in the draft Federal Space Program. And then what? And then, in theory, it is necessary to continue to colonize the moon’s these robots, which must carry out thorough investigations. The works will suffice them. For example, as I have said, it is necessary to deal with the seismic situation on the moon. In addition, there is, as it turned out, some mysterious caves. So, you need a robot that will carry out the work inside the cave. But again, it all fragments of a future large-scale long-term picture to be created.
And we have already started in this part of the discussion with academician Lev Green, who heads the Institute of Space Research. Because right now a large-scale, extende
d time-space research programs, including with respect to the moon, alas, no.
— At this year’s planned another long-awaited experiment — the flight over Mars satellite Phobos soil. How is the work when running? Some experts have called a beautiful date — 11.11.11.
— I’ve seen you laugh. I think this is some smart guys who are looking for all the numerology. In fact, starting a "window" for the "Phobos-Grunt" opens Oct. 28 and closes at the end of November. Now we have all the plans to build a 1-day "window" that was some kind of stock, time to maneuver. Everything is going according to schedule.
Of course, there were problems. If you remember, had a claim to the former dredge device. Therefore, it held, shall we say, more diversified. It used to be one unit, one "hand" with the capture of the collet type. Now put the second arm, extended types of capture. Also applied polish penetrator — a sort of jack-hammer with a pipe, which should hammered into the ground. Then this tube together with the soil will be placed in the returned container. In addition, the Polish penetrator can be used simply to break up the rock into pieces, easy to transport to the ground.
We also found defects in some devices. Now all of them have been repaired. Once the "Spektr-R" will return after the tests in thermal vacuum chamber, in Relight leave "Phobos-Grunt".
Chinese satellite that flies with our apparatus in the direction of Mars, has already been delivered in Khimki. He put on our farm, which is specially made for him — between the seat section and migratory module.
— Ukrainians, like, will participate in the organization due to the "Phobos-Grunt"?
— Ukrainian station will not solve the problem of communication, and location. To communicate with the "Phobos-Grunt" station until the remodel. This planetary locator first. To communicate with the device are preparing two Russian stations, including one in Ussuriysk.
— Viktor, the importance of scientific satellites understandable. But maybe it’s time to create devices that affect the climate? At least last year, when two months in the European part of Russia was unbearably hot, really wanted to influence it?
— In my opinion, this will have to wait. First you have to create a completely accurate model of what all climatic processes occur on Earth. And it still is not.
The logic is simple: in order to apply some kind of action, you need to be very clear, as of now there are processes that need and where to apply. Because it would be possible to improve the situation or not — this is a question, and spoil easily. Climate change on Earth are global. But, on the other hand, in any global process is always a sensitive point, the type of resonance, acting on which we can ensure that the process will be a giant is not so.
Therefore proceed to any exposed to the same climatic processes can not be until the absolutely precise knowledge about the subject. It is necessary to gain the sum of knowledge. While they typed a little.
For example, on our machine "Electro-L", among other things, is still heliophysical special equipment. Because the influence of the Sun on the Earth, too, has to be understood. As long as humanity does not have the normal model of such effects. Super-computers loaded with some models, but until convergence is not such that you can apply some active steps already.
— The College of Roscosmos set a target speed up the restructuring of the industry. What is done in the Lavochkin in this regard?
— Last year, we have been actively preparing for the corporatization. The difficulty is that our company has a pre-war history. A large farm — land, about 200 capital construction projects. And many of them from the Soviet era did not have any documents. Well, the building was built sometime in the 50’s, well, it stood and stood. Now, with the change of ownership, the registration requirements of real estate quite stiff and formal.
So all this time we ‘brushes’ documents, working with Companies House. The process of preparing for corporatization complicated, multi-way. We have a bar — May-June, when we have finalized all the work, and we will endeavor to fulfill this task.
After that, to be held government decision to allow us to be privatized. All the shares will remain in the state. But this is changing ownership. The state represented by the Federal Property Agency and the Russian Space Agency will select the board of directors, who will appoint the CEO.
— What will change for the company after incorporation?
— For the company operate absolutely eat other laws. In a sense, life is more complicated for us. For example, government support, the issuance of any trust money to build a shop or buying a machine becomes outright impossible. It is necessary to issue shares, to issue additional, transfer the shares to the state, etc.
But there are obvious advantages. Now we, as a Federal State Unitary Enterprise, we can not build housing for their employees without special money without government solutions. Get them is almost impossible. And housing is vital for the company as the only way to attract young professionals. Unfortunately, the salary increase of 2 or even 3 times the current level of the problem is not solved. To raise wages, we must first improve the efficiency of the company, the production per person.
So, after the incorporation of housing problem will be solved easier. It will be able to invest part of their profits in some social projects to attract investors who can make money for the construction in exchange for some land. That is, there is an additional freedom in economic activity.
Oh, and most importantly, what we aktsioniruemsya — the integration. After a while, Lavochkin NPO shares will be transferred to the parent company. Now, on the present government securities, it is a large integrated company — "Information Satellite Systems Reshetnev."
This strategic objective. It is, and I see the sense in it from the point of view of the case, in terms of technology. ISS Reshetnev company launches a year a lot of satellites, and it seems to me very important to use in the apparatus of the Lavochkin, which are quite unique, the maximum number of solutions, proven by numerous space missions.
For example, this year is flying observatory "Spektr-R". Made telescope 20-25. The second such in Russia in our lives do not. And, you would be wrong and a shame to lose such a satellite because of some unfortunate element of the performance of the system suddenly has failed. It is clear that all design decisions should have been a significant flight experience, which reduces the risks.
Therefore, the meaning of unity and rapprochement with the company Reshetnev just a combination of satellite technology, deep application of standardized solutions. This seems a convenient and correct.
— When merging with the ISS could happen?
— In my opinion, the task this year is theoretically solvable, if the relevant government decision, etc. The plans Roskosmos designated in 2012. Most likely, the problem will be solved in the period.