One of the major innovative projects in Russia, able to be the engine of development, supports the global navigation satellite system GLONASS. About her condition and how to further develop the readers ‘NVO’ in an interview with Viktor Myasnikov says General Director — General Designer of the corporation "Russian Space Systems", General Designer Yuri GLONASS Matevich Urlichich. (Pictured)
— Yuri Matevich, this year completed the creation of the GLONASS satellite constellation. But this does not mean that it has ended its development. In terms of technical progress GLONASS system must inevitably reach a new level, to acquire new qualities. How do you see the further development of GLONASS?
— You are absolutely right in saying that the system should evolve. Proposals for the development of GLONASS, which have been discussed in the government and is now based on them creates a federal target program "Maintenance, development and use of the GLONASS system" for 2012 — 2020 years. While there is a multilateral discussion on how government funding will be allocated under it, which will be involved in extra-budgetary funds. And, accordingly, the intensity with which will develop the GLONASS system. There are a couple of ways — more innovative, less innovative, but it all depends on budget allocations. Now some customers. I mean the departments and agencies. The shape of the federal program is determined not only traditional customers — the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Ministry of Defense, but the Ministry of Industry and, Rosreestr, Russian Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Emergencies and Affairs of Russia. From their positions will depend on the overall shape of the system as a whole. I have in mind not only the constellation, but also terrestrial component. For what, in fact, we are working on.
The order book of the corporation "Fazotron-NIIR" — more than $ 500 million
A separate question — is international cooperation. Here we understand that we have much to do. Because now everyone can see: the GLONASS orbital constellation provides virtually complete access to global navigation services. There are only small breaks in the navigation service in the equatorial region. Really no one feels them, because the ships do not go there so often. Plus, our competitive advantage — we have almost all the civil navigation equipment is dual-system GLONASS / GPS. Accordingly, with some shading of one or the other constellation that can be caused by terrain, trees, tall buildings, we have a guaranteed solution navigational task. This suggests that the use of GLONASS has the advantage that a number of countries, of course, will want to take advantage of. Now these questions are solved with Latin America, with India and many other countries. A Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and the Russian Federation signed an agreement in fact a single information space navigation. That is, we tackle the problem, including high-definition, safe for all of these states.
— This means that ground-differential correction stations GLONASS system will step outside of Russia?
— Is the system of differential correction and monitoring of a control and correction stations, which are primarily located in the territory of the Russian Federation. Since the easiest way outside the RF to put such stations in Antarctica. In accordance with the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, which provides for its use in the exclusively peaceful purposes, and an openness to scientific research, we were able to put on a "sixth continent" two stations. They are already in operation. It is assumed that there are deployed two more stations. One — in the framework of the Russian Antarctic Expedition 57, which will begin in November of this year. And we will see how we will develop relations with other countries, which should enable the host to place such civilian station. First of all, it’s Australia, a number of South American countries. And if that happens, we will be able to fourth station in Antarctica do not put. If these countries refuse, we will supply a fourth station in Antarctica. Of course, the conditions out there in terms of geographic location and conditions of reception of GLONASS satellites are ideal. But in terms of travel and maintenance of equipment — extreme. If it were not for the political difficulties, we would have two years ago put our equipment in Cuba and Australia and, say, Nicaragua and South Africa. But the negotiations — a difficult thing. What is the accommodation for us? This will give us the option of using ground-based system continuously monitor all of the satellites. And in the case of any abnormal operation immediately communicate to the consumer that a particular satellite will not provide the required accuracy. In addition, of course, a function of the differential correction and monitoring — to give the so-called differential corrections that will help to within a meter to the consumer to know their position. And with the launch of the spacecraft as "Luch-5A" and "Luch-5B", we will be able to give the consumer the amendment of the space actually on the same hardware as the satellites at the same frequencies are broadcast. The only thing that you need to program the receiver can process this information.
— Sputnik "Luch-5A" in geostationary orbit will be working in the interests of consumers in the European part of Russia. What are the perspectives of consumers in Siberia and the Far East?
— As part of the orbital group of the differential correction and monitoring will be three spacecraft that will ensure delivery of correcting information to consumers in most parts of the country except for the polar regions. Consumers in the European part of the country will be able to use the service in the winter. We can now using other communication systems deliver such information. Spacecraft Differential Correction and Monitoring derived in geostationary orbit, provides the convenience of simply because you have a satellite dish that is on the same frequencies receives a signal. You need only the software processing. You do not need a separate Internet, fiber communication lines, 3G, «wi-fi" and so on.
It should be noted that in order to achieve an accuracy of 2-3 cm navigation definitions consumer must use the regional or local differential systems. The principle of operation of these systems is based on the relative definitions, ie We have one or several base stations, the absolute coordinates are known and are attached to the national reference system. The user can produce high-precision determination of their origin in relation to the data base stations, and then calculate its absolute location using the absolute coordinates of the base stations. This all makes it possible to say that the navigation system is global now with such systems are refined. They allow you to get exactly those that are needed today in construction, particularly in the monitoring of complex engineering structures, such accuracy is sufficient for most survey work.
— So, the accuracy of the coordinates in the GLONASS system in such a way you can bring to the centimeter and millimeter?
— Up to centimeters. For millimeter accuracy requires the use of special algorithms, and the distance to the base station is not more than 3-5 km. This allows to determine the displacement and vibration of dams, bridges and other complex engineering structures. Moreover, with GLONASS can be determined by the oscillation amplitude of the resonance frequencies of structures with millimeter precision in real time
. We have such equipment.
— For an era of network-centric warfare with unmanned machinery, precision weapons. What is the role of the GLONASS system in the sphere of military security?
— Almost all the military equipment and gear fighter it will be applied. I am deeply convinced of this. As no communication, and without navigating modern war can not be conducted. One can say that the special forces behind enemy lines for a while there should be no connection, not to unmask. But the navigation signal they will still take in order to know where they are, what has changed around. And you know what these connected channels will still work on the application of information. Therefore, General Vladimir Shamanov recently announced that it literally comes up every fighter. We are convinced that all mobile equipment must be referenced by the global navigation system. In any case, Russia. Many countries realize that on one system to be bad, and see how to incorporate into their army two systems. You know that a united Europe is building a system of "Galileo", China is building KOMPASS / Beidou. And they, of course, will try to apply them to their art, and not only for the civil war. The world is arranged so that the thoughts come in parallel, and is now a union of connected, control, navigation systems with artificial intelligence makes it possible to solve problems with the help of robots. And there are planes, drones, helicopters, drones, robot rescuers. Even a robot doctor, which is believed to customers of its development in the United States, should provide a few hours of life of a wounded soldier, to evacuate him from the battlefield. There are various shooting system, which without human intervention can work. But without the navigation, you know, all of them simply can not do. Otherwise, where to shoot, where you are is not defined. And it is necessary to know all the time changing coordinates. Now the army is equipped and will be equipped with not only the equipment that is put on the armor or equipment fighter, but differential correction stations that increase the accuracy of using the equipment.
— A new navigation satellite "GLONASS-K" first transmits signals at three different frequencies, wherein the third frequency to code division multiplexing. This is also in the interests of national security?
— Yes, indeed, the signal at a third frequency, there are code division and is intended for civilian use in contrast to the previously used and obsolete method of application frequency signals. We all arrive at the conclusion that there will be a system that will increase the signal code division for civil and military purposes. But again, this will determine the customer within FCP.
— Taking into account future increases in the number of national and satellite navigation signals are obtained, it is necessary to develop the chipset is capable of simultaneously receiving signals 50-100 spacecraft?
— I can say that the firm Trimble and our joint venture with her "Rusnavgeoset" engaged in the creation of high-precision positioning equipment is made with 400 channels and more.
In a conventional geodetic receiver 440 channels! I want to say that our foreign partners have begun to ask why so many? Indeed, they have 200-250, and we — as many as 440.
Let’s count. Take, for example, a typical satellite navigation. He is involved 5 channels at once — three bands L1, L2, L5, two more for the ranging sequence. Looking channels for differential corrections, and for broadband systems such as Omnistar. And then there is redundancy.
In general, if you take everything into account, it turns out that at the same time you can see about 40-50 of navigation satellites. Lots of it. Today, consumers are only available American GPS and Russian GLONASS, allowing to receive signals from 20 satellites. But we hope that in the near future navigation systems will be deployed united Europe and China, and then 440 channels is not overkill, and the need for quality work.
— It was reported that the Federal Target Program "Maintenance, development and use of the GLONASS system" (2012-2020) are planning to take in December.
— In general, it is ready. I hope that it still will be in the near future.