The Russian anti-ship missile system "Granite" Source:
An unbeatable weapon
In a post-war confrontation began the main threat to this country came from the ocean. And if by land, our country militarily did not concede the U.S., its allies in NATO and other military blocs, the sea of their superiority was absolute.
So, in 1968, was founded the first American nuclear strike aircraft carrier CVN 68 new generation "Nimitz" — the ancestor of a large series of ships of this class. Compared with its predecessors, "Nimitz" had a higher survivability and enhanced striking power. New interceptor interacted with deck AWACS aircraft (AWACS), which had the ability to simultaneously track dozens of aircraft and cruise missiles flying at different altitudes (including extremely low), at a range of 300 km and imposing on them interceptors . Frontier and missile defense of the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier connections has expanded, reaching the 450-500km.
As a result, "protivoavianosnye" capabilities of the Soviet SSGN 675 project already looked insufficient to guarantee the destruction of its factions. Required the creation of a new, much more powerful and "long-range" missile system with underwater launch, ensuring the application of the masked blows out of the water on the ships with large distances to selectively engage targets.
Thus, in accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of 10.07.1969 № 539-186 years started to develop anti-ship missile complex "Granite" long-range weapons for new nuclear missile submarines and missile cruisers.
The essence of the design was to create a powerful group attack submarines with supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles long range. This is the "machine" was created by a team of NGOs rocket engineering "Granite".
As conceived by the design team rocket can be used as a surface ship and submarine.
But not only excellent flight characteristics and is protected by electronic countermeasures homing missile can "Granite" stably maintain their unique combat capabilities. The main advantage of the rocket — the realization of the original ways of targeting. It embodied experience of NGOs to develop electronic engineering of artificial intelligence, which allows the ship to operate against a single missile or salvo against the order ships. It is all revealed in a volley unrivaled tactical possibilities of Russian weapons.
The missiles themselves and distribute classified by the importance of the aim, choose the tactics of attack and plan it out. To avoid mistakes when choosing maneuver and defeat is certain goal in the onboard computer rockets laid electronic data on modern classes of ships. Also in the car is a purely tactical information, such as the type of ship orders, allowing the rocket to determine who is in front of it — the convoy, the aircraft carrier or amphibious group and attack the main objectives in its composition.
Also on-board computer has data to counter enemy electronic warfare capable of jamming to withdraw missiles from the goal, the tactics of evasion from the fire of air defense. After missile launch themselves to decide which of them will attack what purpose and what maneuvers it needs to be carried out in accordance with laid down in the program behavior of mathematical algorithms. The missile has a means of countering the attackers and its anti-missile missile. After destroying the main goal in the ship’s band, the remaining rocket attack other ships orders, eliminating the possibility of defeat two missiles at the same target.
After long and extensive testing, the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of 19.07.1983 № 686-214, the complex "Granite" was adopted for the nuclear submarines of the new generation pr.949, 949A, heavy nuclear missile cruisers pr.1144, and 1144.2 pr.1143.5 heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser.
Today JSC "MIC" NPO Machine Building "is implementing a program to support high performance missiles" Granit "throughout its lifetime. Implemented in the design of the rocket "Granite" technical solutions already provided the basis for the concept of a new type of anti-ship missiles.
Chief designer of the direction