How is tooth decay?

How is the development of caries.  Photo from

Every day from the TV screen scare us tooth decay. Now even a child knows that protect teeth from this terrible disease will help fashion toothpaste and chewing gum. One thing is not clear where does this unpleasant disease? Really and truly — tricks "carious monsters"?

What are they — "carious monsters"?

Although lately about caries say more often than other diseases, few know exactly what it is. About caries and its causes is known only dentists, but to share their knowledge they are not in a hurry. What we can only watch in between movies and news commercials, which are bent graphics mysterious pH, which somehow afraid of this very decay and see how charming women in white coats smear "Blendamed 'eggs. And is there and why caries yet toothache?

The word "decay", as well as many medical terms, it's from the Latin and means "destruction," a disease in which the dental hard tissues are destroyed, and a cavity or "hole", dental caries and call. It would seem that the teeth are hard to do in their opening except that you can iron drill. How, they may receive a cavity? Unfortunately, in the teeth is their secret enemies — the acid and bacteria.

Our teeth composed of dentin, which resembles normal bone structure. On top of the tooth dentin is protected by enamel substance yellowish white color. There are no cells, and most importantly, no nerve endings, so brush your teeth and chew is not painful. Hardness and toughness teeth attach mineral salts, mainly calcium salts: phosphates and carbonates. These salts impregnate the dentine, but most of them are contained in dental enamel. Due to this rigid frame made of inorganic, the strength of the tooth is close to the strength of cast iron. Teeth and would remain so strong, if not grow in the mouth, andsomewhere on the skin surface, such as scales of a fish. People would never hurt tooth decay, if not the biochemical processes that occur in the oral cavity during chewing.

Scientists have long struggled with deciphering the causes of tooth decay. The very first suggestion originator of the disease was made in the I century AD Bukhara physician Avicenna and the Roman physician Largo Scribonia. They suggested that in the teeth there is a special worm that gnaws and holes in them. However, to prove its hypothesis, scientists could not. Crumble and studied a lot of bad teeth, worm, they have not been found. Whether it is running too fast, or the assumption is incorrect, and the tooth worm does not exist.

A more convincing theory of tooth decay appeared with the development of microbiology and biochemistry in the XX century. It was proved that the dental tissue softening fault acids which react with tooth mineral salts. Subsequent discoveries showed that in this process, microorganisms play an important role. Here's how.

Sometimes after eating a stick to teeth tiny bits of food, very often they are sticky remnants of bread, sweets. If this plaque is not removed in time, very soon to the nutrient object will attach tiny bacterium Streptococcus mutans, which feed on carbohydrates. It used to be that this is harmless micro-organisms that are more or less may be found in the saliva of any healthy person. However, the metabolism of these bacteria has its own peculiarity, absorbing glucose, they instead secrete lactic acid. If the owner of the teeth — a sweet tooth, but also does not like to brush their teeth, the bacteria in his saliva becomes too much. As a result, life of Streptococcus mutans saliva becomes more acidic, the organic acid reacts with minerals enamel substitution is one other salts, enamel loses minerals, together with them, and strength.

Even worse is the case when the set of streptococcus secretes acid on a tiny portion of the tooth, where the stuck bits of food. Acid becomes so corrosive that almost completely supplanted salts of enamel and enamel in this place is so soft that streptococci have access to the deeper layers of the tooth to the dentin. There, in the absence of glucose, changing the diet of bacteria, they begin to eat the dentin collagen and continue to excrete acid. During these processes, the tooth gradually die off, and a cavity filled to the brim filled with bacteria and dead tooth mass. If decay time does not heal, it can and does lose a tooth.

Dentists identify several stages of tooth decay. First, the tooth is formed spot, white or dark. Tooth still hurts, but leaching of enamel mineral salts has already begun. At this stage, emerging disease can be detected only a specialist for this, and there checkups.

The second stage — surface caries. The enamel is damaged, and microbes are preparing to infiltrate into the main part of the tooth consists of dentin. The owner of the carious tooth is already experiencing discomfort when eating very hot or cold foods. However, a dentist on this "inessential" about almost no one goes. And then comes the next stage — the medium and deep caries.

Streptococcus mutans have begun to destroy the dentin, resulting in a tooth is cavities at first small, but over time more and more deep. A person gets hurt to chew, also an unpleasant smell from the mouth. If at this stage the tooth is not treated, then followed by deep caries come the last stage of the disease — the pulp. This means that dental caries reached the tooth nerve. The patient can only regret. He swallows handfuls analgin and aspirin, not sleeping at night because of hell of a toothache. And finally, going with the spirit and goes to the dentist, that's just from the tooth has left quite a bit.

Caries — the disease wealthy

Caries torturing people at all times, but to start a serious fight with him the doctors decided only in recent years. An important role was played by medical statistics. It turns out that in the world today suffer tooth decay 99% of the population! And in many countries — 100%! The figures obtained are not only terrified of dentists, but also their patients.

Interestingly, in the remaining 1% of healthy people, except for the rare lucky ones of different nationalities, covers absolutely everything Eskimos and all members of the Hunza tribe inhabiting the southern regions of the Pamirs. As if by magic, the decay passes them by. Perhaps the causative microbe bysome why not caught in the teeth of these people, but rather, they just never ate sweets.

No wonder, in the Middle Ages was considered a disease of dental caries and gourmet sign of prosperity. Only the poor and the non-rich citizens, feeding rough plebeian food, different healthy teeth. The rest is to have healthy teeth Signoret was just not right, and the poor guy who "unlucky" by nature got straight white teeth and tried to smile less. Noble knights and their noble ladies muffled breath scented water, smiling fashionable rotten teeth and visit the dentist often. Thank God, this awkward fashion long gone. We all want to be the owners of healthy teeth, and, at heart, envy Eskimos.

5 ways to save

What can we advise dentists, 99 percent unhappy? First of all, the elementary prevention! After all, like any other disease caries is easier to prevent than to cure. Tip One — Dental. Every six months, at least once a year, be sure to visit the dentist. Sooner or later, we'll be there, so better sooner and with less loss of money, nerves and teeth.

Tip two — diet. The bacteria that cause tooth decay, big sweet tooth. To pamper them less desirable reasonably consume carbohydrate-rich foods. It must be remembered that candy, cakes and sugar — their favorite food. But after the fruits, vegetables, lean meat and milk plaque is virtually no, microbes have to switch to starvation rations.

Tip Three — fluoro-calcium. Dentists have proved that protects teeth fluoro outside and calcium attaches them inside strength. With water and food, these substances enter the body, but often this is not enough. So, just in case, should be reserved packaging calcium tablets and toothpaste with fluoride and calcium. A sense ostochertevshih commercials with eggs is to ensure that, after such acid paste does not work even on eggshells. And, therefore, to protect our teeth from leaching minerals can easily.

Tip Four — navyazshy on the teeth. After the meal, you can use chewing gum, sugar-free is better. It is possible that it is easy to take the seal, but it will bring bad stuck in his teeth leftover food, and if you are very lucky — normalizes the pH of saliva. By the way, the mystical pH — acidity it. If the pH is low — we are acid, medium — water, high — alkali. Cariogenic bacteria becomes acidic saliva, threatening the strength of the teeth and gum with special chemical additives restores the pH.

Council last — brush your teeth and wash as you need in the mornings and evenings. Even better, if it is possible to do after each meal. With the help of toothpaste and brush removes plaque, kills bacteria, strengthens enamel and gums are massaged.

Paradoxically, the means to clean teeth existed in ancient times. The first such structure invented by the Romans, who paid great attention to oral hygiene. This powder is a little like a modern tooth powders and pastes. It consisted of rose petals, nuts and myrrh, and served as the basis for the powder of crushed shells and animal bones, mixed with honey. Frequently such agents in the sodium carbonate. Perhaps the Romans first guessed it bleaching properties. In Arab culture oral hygiene has introduced the prophet Muhammad. According to the Qur'an, rinse your teeth to five times a day, and cleaned when dirty or if you smell from the mouth. Instead toothbrushes used Arab trees which were soaked in water until they are not yet peeled from the core. The same brush was in the Prophet. The story goes that he was so fond of brushing your teeth, even before his death asked him to bring his toothbrush. By the way, since all the dead before burial necessarily Arabs began to brush their teeth. That's just the prevention of dental caries, this tradition is not related.

People and continued to brush your teeth with twigs, pieces of cloth and cotton wool until the XVIII century has not been patented real toothbrush, which is almost unchanged, come down to our days.

Dentistry also has its own interesting history. The first doctors who have undertaken to save the patient from a toothache, often relieves him of the tooth.

Tongs or a toad?

The earliest extant, the mention of the removal of the teeth have at the VI century BC. For the first time this complex process has been described in the ancient Indian treatise "Ayurveda". To remove the teeth ancient healers used special tongs, and in order not to frighten patients, biting part of forceps made in the form of the muzzle small animals, mostly cats.

In ancient China, the removal of the teeth fit even more creative. On patient tooth previously put arsenic or local fat green frog to the tooth gradually die, and to shatter, and then pulled out a tooth and with the help of forceps.

But in ancient Japan teeth tore his bare hands, however, for the convenience of taking potshots at him for a long time, tapping on the tooth with special hammer. The ancient Scythians, too, are not strained dental treatment, and removed them as depravity. This is evidenced by the drawings on vases found by archaeologists in Scythian burial IV century BC.

Even Greek and Roman physicians did not ignore your teeth pulled out with pliers and hurl. Great, Aristotle, for example, is particularly recommended for the purpose of curling bronze. But the scientist Roman Cornelius Celsus, who lived in the I century AD, did not advise patients to rush to the removal of teeth. He forced the patient to rinse teeth special infusions and perfumed with incense them. If the patient does not get any easier, the Celsus and delete bad teeth, but a more progressive manner than contemporaries. He fills a cavity threads or flooded lead trimmed gum, shakes the tooth, and then picked up the knacker's yard curling. All these measures helped to quickly pull tooth and not be afraid that during the procedure, it will break.

Walked century, doctors have continued to pull teeth, and theirforceps-zubodery more improved. Soft metal tongs antiquity to the tenth century AD, replace hardened steel. Today, the descendants of forceps can be found on the desktop of any dentist.

However, not all of Aesculapius antiquity sought to remove diseased teeth. For example, in ancient Egypt, it was not accepted. Caries treated with pastes and grindings. This is testified by archaeologists toothy mummies of pharaohs and surviving papyri with prescription medications from tooth decay.

Not only Egyptians were looking for a remedy for bad teeth. The Arabs, Romans and Greeks also tried to find a panacea for tooth decay. Celsus recommended a poultice of herbs, inhalation, and even cathartic. Avicenna considered the best remedy for tooth decay fumigation patient smoking a mixture of onions, henbane and fat goat. But most of the other distinguished Pliny the Elder. His recipe fromdental the pain was, "the night of the full moon comes, catch a toad spit in her mouth and say medical words." What exactly do you need to say toad, history is silent, perhaps, something like "take away my pain" or "pain in the mouse, a frog's pain, and the patrician such and such no pain. " It is unlikely that after a magical ritual tooth recovered, but many people still continue to believe in the treatment.

The worse the recipe Pliny the wonderful folk remedy for tooth decay, "tie a clove of garlic to the wrist on the hand opposite to the aching tooth, and, to complete the effect on Shove peeled garlic clove in your ears." Or "get rid of toothache, boil the earthworm in the wine, and the resulting drug use as ear drops."

The most progressive method of treatment of carious teeth — sealing — also came from the ancient times. It turns out that cavities are reams another eight thousand years ago. During the archaeological excavations on the territory of present-day Pakistan, scientists have discovered an ancient human skull, a tooth which was smooth hole that can only be done bit. This discovery changed everything scientists' ideas. After all, it was previously believed that the first physician to have been removed from tooth decay, was Roman Arhigen surgeon, a doctor of the Emperor Trajan, which for medicinal purposes holed sick tooth likeness hand drill.

Experience brilliant Roman quickly forgotten. Only in the XV century Arhigena successfully repeated the experiment Arkolani Giovanni, a professor of Bologna, and the first cauterized a cavity, filling it with gold. It was a real breakthrough in dentistry now has bad teeth do not need to uninstall. Gradually, dental drills have become necessary thing for the dentist. The very first dental drills were driven by his hands, and after a few centuries they were replaced with a dental drill. The first such unit constructed in the XVIII century French dentist Pierre Foshar. The model was improved long, and in the early XX century, these mechanical monsters have replaced the elegant drill, running on electricity.

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