How many aircraft carriers should Russia
With repairs, recreation and combat training of the Navy to at least three or four ships of this class
In the memorable years of perestroika, communicating with one of the U.S. Navy admirals, our leaders of the Soviet Navy was shocked to read his statement. "Is any country would risk arrest or capture of even one U.S. citizen, as will our aircraft carrier and everything will be decided as it should. And to you, even if we would treat one of the carriers of the "Forrestal» c air wings, it does not help, since its development will have to pay in blood pilots and "run" the way that we have come a long 60 years, but during that time we go away even further. "
It turns out that the American taxpayer has clearly knows that no matter what happens, "His Majesty the aircraft carrier (AB)" The U.S. Navy did not give up and always try to save him. And they pay for Russian citizens? For a huge number of tanks that will not go in to rescue the needs of our merchants and tourists in Thailand or Singapore, and in a very ghostly hope that the Minister will save them?
Projecting power will bring clarity
If necessary, can only be saved projecting force. AB and the amphibious assault ship (OFT) — that the ships are able to project power for doubtful regions. If, in the South China Sea maneuvered Russian AB and UDC with several escort ships, based on the user-friendly with Vietnam naval base in Da Nang, Thailand’s leadership is unlikely to be granted U.S. Russian businessman Viktor Bout. Most likely it would be "quietly" sent by projecting force in Russia. So in a silent way this "respectable" Thailand did and deal with American, French and other violators of its laws, and even with the representatives of these countries, who were caught on the drug trade, although most of Thailand is punishable by the death penalty. But it does have a projecting force. Thailand is not a member of NATO, and all of its air force in 2011-2012 consisted of only 45 combat-capable multirole fighter aircraft F-16A / B, apparently unable to withstand the 50 Su-33 or MiG-29K, based on AB-type "Ulyanovsk". In Asia, the smart people are and why they little "peace enforcement". But on the Thai submarine periscopes guide before, and now obviously not paying attention. Thai Navy have a small AB and submarines in the structure does not have at all.
- How many aircraft carriers should Russia
You can continue to remember the results of the projection of force in Yugoslavia, Libya and finally to Syria. One does not just "tired" our only AB "Admiral Kuznetsov", which went to the last campaign with only 10 Su-33 (the remaining aircraft are likely to have been sent to upgrade), and had to collect without help in Syria "Tsushima squadron "ships of the North, Baltic and Black Sea fleets. What are the submarines will fight anti-submarine ships that are included in these, our forces? Frightened of this force terrorists? Defenseless air three companies of Marines on our amphibious ships, too, do not scare anyone. But the roar of jet engines fighting the Su-33 or MiG-29K, constantly flying in the Mediterranean, could get to draw the head in many shoulders.
By the way, now becomes a very relevant question: who after Syria? And many experts believe that among them will be those countries that buy Russian weapons and are actively penetrate or already penetrated the Russian capital. So that our entrepreneurs have to finance their taxes in the first place with his Navy AB and UDC and Russian strategic aviation. They are capable and in peacetime project real power almost anywhere in the world, and to protect domestic capital and our guests taxpayers.
Where should be based AB
Going back to the future domestic carrier, we emphasize: we need a ship the size of the project with AB 11437 "Ulyanovsk" displacement of 70-80 thousand tons. These two constructs AB England and France is going to build. Is Russia these poorer countries? It must be admitted that the use of a springboard for our AV is not science-based solution, as a tribute to those leaders of the USSR, which would in principle for the development of new technology to get the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, USSR. It is a springboard "eaten" for about 12-16 aircraft air group because of the inability of their placement in the bow. This year, the "Admiral Kuznetsov" are going to send to the overhaul and modernization. Perhaps, the new commander of the Navy will have enough sense to remove the ship all the "nonsense", to increase the hangar and, therefore, the air group. And with the power plant and the "circus springboard" something must be done. Now for the sake of funding from the state order any foreign aviation company of his plane will do all that would require the military. The U.S. and China have produced electromagnetic catapults, the Americans put on their aircraft carrier catapults and this is still work in some frost. A Russian Navy engaged in "circus" and can raise the deck of his AB aircraft with a maximum combat load. Soon we will avoid this issue the Chinese, the electromagnetic catapult they already operate even while on earth, but they are going to build aircraft carriers, nuclear power, with a displacement of 65-70 thousand tons.
- How many aircraft carriers should Russia
We think that there is no need to repeatedly emphasize the importance of AB in war (from the standpoint of lovers of global nuclear war), and in times of peace. Many of today is clear: the main threats to Russia come from the south. Continuing in the Mediterranean Sea to the south or to be one AB, which means that, subject to repair, recreation and combat training in the Navy, you must have at least three or four aircraft carriers. It is clear, however, how many of these AV necessary and where they should be based. It is not in the Far East, from where the troubled south is several times more than from the North, Baltic and, of course, the Black Sea. Probably the largest Russian taxpayers quite obvious where and how much should be their advocates, or our military will again be scaring all of NATO, China and Japan. The military department continues to harp on the Sino-Japanese threat in the east. However, even the students understand that the competition in this region is possible for us only economic. A growing military confrontation here clearly does not affect Russia as this is not it, but China is moving in the "inland sea" of the U.S. — the Pacific Ocean and has already started to put pressure on Japan.
But if you are more or less becomes clear why and what needs to AB modern Russian Navy should consider the real problems of their building and training.
Before you start to build the AB must decide on a radical reform of the training for the Navy and, accordingly, have to take all or part of the system that exists in the U.S. and other carrier-based powers. Of course, it is primarily concerned with the training of naval pilots. Candidates need to recruit graduates of flying schools, not only the Air Force, but also conventional naval schools and young naval officers who have served for several years on ships. Here, only the time of flight training will be dif
ferent, but the total time is probably the same as Air Force pilots have long "omoryachivat" to erase the psychological problems of the relationship with the sailors.
We should also mention another aspect that usually do not advertise. The fact that the pilots have always been treated with the utmost respect for seafarers and sailors to the pilots. Probably, these two relatively dangerous alike in their military specialty.
Ranks naval pilots — the same until an insoluble problem, as well as the construction of the AB. But it is foolish to have, for example, the commander of the group decked multi-role fighters, solving virtually all of the major tasks of the fleet, an officer in the Army rank of "Major" and the commander of the air defense system on the AB complex, almost no current at all times, with the rank of "Captain 3rd rank . " It is time to return the Russian naval aviators of Marine ranks, restoring justice, impaired during the Soviet era after 1917. Prior to that time in naval aviation were naval rank.
Cost of construction
Now let’s deal with the economic problems of construction AB.
What are the costs to be our new AB with ETA? Let’s try to count them. Guessing on the contract value does not make sense (it will lay the illegal profits and "kickbacks"), and the real costs of our "market" economy is defined by comparison. For example, in the United States last serial Ohio class SSBNs were worth $ 1.5 billion, and serial-type AB "Nimitz" to be submitted at the same time — $ 3.5 billion. That is one AB at a price equivalent to 2.34 subs. Cost of domestic SSBN project 955 "Yuri Dolgoruky" — 23 billion rubles. If one makes the design and construction of our AB similar-sized project 11437 ("Ulyanovsk") by analogy with the United States, that is not to load it useless things, the price will be about 54 billion rubles, or at the rate of 2011 — about $ 1.8 billion. Suppose that due to inflation, it will rise to 2-2.1 billion dollars.
Some may disagree with this approach, since the cost of retrofitting "Admiral Gorshkov" in the AV project 11430 for the Indian Navy already exceeds 1.93 billion. But first, it is the contract price and that there is still includes, apart from works of the ship is unknown. Second, any major repairs to renovations are always at the price close to the cost of a new ship. Just look at the work that is performed on the ship Sevmash (SMP) removed and replaced with new ones all the old cable lines and many lines, all of hull structures cleaned of rust, partially replaced and re-painted, new housing construction, dismantled all the boilers and almost all the support mechanisms they have been repaired or replaced with new ones, and then loaded onto the ship; dismantled virtually all weapons systems and placed new ones. In short, just put a new mechanism to build a pipeline and cable — this one work, and work to dismantle them and then re-installing and even through new technological hatches costs twice as much. Metal cutting and fabrication of his body — the easiest and cheapest thing on the plant as compared to the installation and commissioning of equipment.
For information: scheduled at the end of the 70s the costs of AB "Admiral Kuznetsov" Project 11435 550-650 million rubles were in 1990 at the time of its fleet and made up less than 521 million rubles.
Now the cost of the air group (AG). If hypertension is not the absence of AB, then it (the aircraft) will go to the jurisdiction of the Air Force. And because still have to attract aviation for the action of the sea, the state will also pay these costs, but in a different structure. So there is AB or not, have to pay for the air force.
Now take inflated contract prices (also illegal profit and "kickbacks") modern foreign and domestic aircraft we will not. We define the real value of naval aircraft and helicopters through their value in the Soviet Union, as virtually all of our "modern and advanced" aircraft and helicopters were created in the 70’s and 80’s, but now they only improve. It will be useful to determine the real costs of the state order.
At the beginning of 1990 the indicative prices in millions of rubles were as follows: Su-27K (Su-33) — 5.6, multirole fighter MiG-29K — about 5 aircraft reconnaissance and target designation Su-27KRTS — 8-10 AWACS aircraft Yak -44 — 20-23, the Ka-27 — 1-2. The cost of building under AB "Ulyanovsk" Project 11437 in 1990 was 800 million rubles, and its air group, composed of the above aircraft and helicopters, estimated at 382 million. Really a fraction of the cost of the AB project will cost 11437: multi-role fighter — 0,007-0,0125, AWACS aircraft — 0,029, helicopter — 0.0025. Thus, the true sell without taking into account the price of a new AB for the Russian Navy $ 2.1 billion cost of airplanes and helicopters for him in millions of dollars will be: multi-role fighter to — 26, AWACS aircraft — 60, the helicopter — 5. Therefore, if we take the maximum — 50 multi-role fighters (IIC), four AWACS aircraft and eight helicopters — a new wing for the AV will cost 1.58 billion dollars. By the way, one of the authors in the mid-90s participated in the verification of one of the manufacturers of components for the new ship. When it’s pretty easy to figure out that the cost of components has been overestimated by 15-20 times, it quickly recalled that it does not interfere with "saw" money. In the parking lot of the businesses were brand new "Mercedes" of different denominations with the proven payroll management and workers, allowing them to buy through 50-75 years.
In the U.S., the number of air groups smaller one than the number of aircraft carriers, but because AB and reserve aircraft at them a lot. Even in the 80 years of the national experts have suggested a willingness to 1.5 Air Group One AB. This allowed us to provide continuous combat readiness of each active at a different length of AB aircraft operating on domestic AV compared with the U.S. Navy. Thus, the real cost of domestic air group for combat-ready AV is 2.37 billion dollars in the presence of 75 IIC, six AWACS aircraft and 12 helicopters.
The cost of operating
Now let’s define what is more expensive to operate — AB or other ships. Has provided data that the cost domestic carrier is equivalent to two submarines, or 1.5 CD, or six patrol ships, or 35 RCA. As expressed in the press criticism prohibitively high costs AB operation of the project 11435 "Admiral Kuznetsov" displacement of 60,000 tons with 52 aircraft on board, we will start with an assessment of the comparative cost of operation.
Throughout the world, most of the operating expenses AB falls on wages of the crew. Crew AB 11435 project consists of the ship’s crew arriving on the campaign staff of the air group, and hiking staff. Actually ship (constant), the crew has on staff 170 officers, warrant officers and 1,130 sailors, the crew AG employs 350 officers, flight and technical personnel, warrant officers and 310 sailors and 40 officers and warrant officers of Staff. Staff will be marching on any vehicle and should be excluded from the comparison, as well as the personnel of the air group, as he gets paid by the maritime aviation.
The crew of the RCA 12418 project, the construction of which is active in the export of five officers and 36 warrant officers and sailors, that is, 35 of the RSA will provide 165 officers and warrant officers and 1,260 sailors. If we add to this that the wage "katernikov" also multiplied by the magnification factor, the cost of the crew salary AB will be lower by about 20 percent. What about the new frigates for the Black Sea Fleet Project 11356.7? Accurate data on the number of crews, but there are data on the Project 11356 frigates, which were taken as a prototype of 11356.7: 35 officers, 188 warrant officers and sailors. Thus
, the six frigates will serve 210 officers and warrant officers and 1,128 sailors. Again, it turns out that six frigates on wages rose by 10-15 percent.
Some may ask about fuel costs. Well, you can count this as well. So, for 8000 miles at a speed of 18 knots our AB spends 10,000 tons of fuel oil. But 35 12418 RCA project for 1600 miles at a speed of 14 knots consume about 2,500 tons of diesel fuel and 8,000 miles — 12,500 tons, at a speed of 18 knots (like AB) — 15 000 tons. Well, as compared with the six Black Sea frigates? For them, it turns out 3,000 tons of diesel 2,800 miles at a speed of 18 knots. Consequently, by 8000 miles will be spent almost 9,000 tons of diesel fuel. Fuel oil and diesel oil only under the Soviet regime were worth the same as now? It turns out that the main consumables during operation AB is cheaper by about 10-30 percent, if not more. It is not necessary in this case to forget that our AB should have been with ETA, and the usual boiler-turbine was it an arbitrary decision of Soviet Defense Minister Marshal Ustinov. Therefore, comparison of the cost of fuel is purely theoretical.
It should also be noted that one member of the ship’s crew in the domestic AB accounts for about 46 tons displacement, and in the United States AB — 32 tons per aircraft on our AB — 12-13 persons flight and technical personnel, and the United States AB — up 40 flight and technical staff. This is due to different organizational and staff structure, which in the United States AB provides for a large number of repair units and special workshops that resemble small repair plants, which do not have. This leads to what AV Russian can be continuously separated from the base (not more than four months), and the U.S. may AB. On the U.S. aircraft carrier and carried a large amount of maintenance and repair work on the aircraft and helicopters, many of which are on the Russian ship simply unacceptable under the current rules. Therefore, even if an equal number of our AG and American displacement AB AB and our cost of its construction will always be less than the U.S.. It will happen, of course, only if it re not "equip" is not his usual powerful missiles (ASM, a variety of air defense missile systems and other "nonsense"), a chic two-level flagship command post (a "meeting room" to "Admiral Kuznetsov "is almost never used, but" ate "with PKR cellar over 30 meters hangar and, therefore, 6-10 aircraft in it). In the U.S., this flagship AV command post just one tier, smaller in size and is located on the gallery’s deck.