In Russia, drunk man smoking almost everything: to use the subway, walk to work, ride the elevator and, of course, get behind the wheel. And if you really need, then only one solution — to sober up. The Russians — are experienced, and anyone can figure out how much he drank, and when you can drive a car. But then that's often turns out that the traffic police and other experts of addiction arithmetic. On it will be discussed.
A bit of theory
Ethanol (C2H5OH, ethanol, ethyl alcohol) — a colorless transparent volatile liquid density of 0,813-0,816 g / cm3with a characteristic pungent odor and taste. Ethanol is highly flammable, burning is not smoky little luminous flame and, of course, is used inside.
Approximately 20% ethanol absorbed in the stomach, 80 — in the small intestine. Begins the process of absorption in 5-10 minutes after ingestion, and the maximum concentration in the blood after about an hour. You can significantly slow the absorption (up to 3 hours), if coupled with alcohol use potatoes, meat and fatty foods, and speed it up, if you do not snack at all, or to interfere with a strong alcohol with beer, wine or soda. One hour after intake of alcohol it gradually goes from the blood and appear in the urine, sweat, saliva, breath (10%). Rest alcohol oxidized by the body to carbon dioxide and water. It is important that when the blood alcohol scarcely remains and its concentration in urine and cerebrospinal fluid is high.
Most of regulations prescribing the sobriety test, the main criterion is the alcohol content in the blood. Knowing the strength and amount of alcohol consumed, this concentration can be calculated by a simple formula:
C = A / (P * r)-b60* T, where:
- C — concentration of alcohol in blood
- A — The number of alcohol drinking in grams (alcohol volume multiplied by its density — 0.79384 g / cm3)
- P — Body weight in kilograms
- r — The factor of reduction. This value indicates the share taken alcohol, which falls into theblood. For men, on average, 0.68 for women — 0.55. This figure is less than the norm in obese people and more children
- b60— Lowering the blood alcohol concentration for 1 hour. Typically, b60lies in the range 0.100 — 0.160 g / l. This figure is higher when taking high doses of alcohol
- T — Time after alcohol consumption in hours.
As can be seen from the formula, the speed of processing the alcohol does not depend on the amount of alcohol consumed, and the body weight. It is believed that it is 100 — 125 mg of ethanol per 1 kg of body weight perhour. In addition to this formula, it is useful to know that concentration alcohol in blood and urine after 1 hour after the alcohol corresponds to 1/1 2 hours — 1/1, 3, 3 hours — 1/1, 43, and after 4 hours — 1/1, 33. When the calculations are typically used index 1.33.
As for the maximum permissible concentration of alcohol, the survey for the drivers, for example, it is 0.5 ppm. This figure we will use in our calculations.
On the fingers
Given: a man weighing 70 kilograms drank 100 ml of vodka strength of 400three hours ago. Does he sobered up, to get behind the wheel? If not, when one can will drive the car?
Having the formula C = A / (P * r)-b60* T, substitute the known values:
- A = 40% * 100 ml * 0.79384 g / ml = 31.7536 g
- P = 70 kg
- r = 0,68
- b60= 0.13
- T = 3
We find that C = 31,7536 / (70 * 0.68) 0.13 * 3 = 0.277092437 per thousand.
At the same time, the concentration in the urine will be 1.33 * 0.277092437 = 0.36853294121 ppm.
Specifically, such an analysis is used by experts. As we explained, concentration Blood alcohol males are slightly below the limit set by Ministry of Health. But this calculation does not take into account the individual characteristics of the organism. That is, he can stay sober. Therefore, for the sake of safety, the driver is better not to drive a couple of hours.
In order to expedite processing of ethanol medical preparations using succinic acid. The intensity of this process is also slightly increases the vitamin B6. But, first of all, for those who want to quickly sober up, we should not aggravate his intoxication. Namely, refuse tranquilizers, antipsychotics and hypnotics.
Do not forget, too, that the absorption of alcohol, and thus the process of excretion, inhibited intake of fatty foods or meat. In addition to alcohol, you need to get rid of its processed product — acetaldehyde. It is this substance causes poor health in the morning, headaches, etc.