In the wake of Monomachus troops … to 899 anniversary of the accession to the throne of Vladimir Monomakh

By the beginning of XI century the struggle against Russia polovtsev lasted almost half a century. During this period, Kuman little known failures. First truly serious defeat was inflicted Polovechens April 3, 1103 at the river Suteni army under the command of Svjatopolka Izyaslavich Kiev and Vladimir Monomakh. Final battle was to a large extent predetermined literate intelligence and subversive actions of the Russian soldiers. As a result of successful operations commandos who had left the army polovtsev without care, it was caught by surprise and did not have time to readjust from marching in order of battle. Beldyuzya Khan was captured and executed. It seemed like a long time now nomads not come close to Russian borders, but the respite was rather short. Russian-Kipchak latest confrontation came in the decisive phase.

Polovtsian attacks resumed after two years. In winter 1105 in the Russian land came Polovtsian Khan Bonyak. In the spring of 1107 Bonyak Founded under Pereyaslavl. In the summer of Kuman decided to take revenge for their defeat four years ago and went up to the fortress Luben. Against them were 6 Russian princes, including Oleg Svyatoslavich Chernigov, until now adhere to peaceful policy towards Polovechens, indirectly suggesting a weakening of their political influence.

Having made a forced march, united Russian army appeared before the Polovtsian camp on August 12 and, on the run crossed the river Sulu rushed to the cavalry attack. According to the chronicler, "Polovtsov same ouzhasoshasya. From fright vzmogosha not put any banner of the … "Polovtsov captured the panic, and they fled. During the chase began Khan's brother was killed and captured several Bonyak Polovtsian leaders.

As in times past, a sudden shock and high-spirited defeat polovtsev was provided by experienced Russian intelligence actions and failures to provide reliable polovtsev escort camp. Polovtsian commanders are very very enthusiastic robbery and ended consider the situation appropriately. While, in fact, on a hostile terrain Polovtsian generals do not have caused the concentration area of the enemy, and their outposts woke surprise attack on the camp. Russian generals due to perfect intelligence, by contrast, had a one hundred percent decor.

On the wave of success the Russian intention to take the battle to the enemy area. And at the end of 1109 sent Monomahom Governor Dmitry Ivorovich, went up to the Don, capturing a number of the Polovtsian nomads. So Makar, raids planned polovtsy the subsequent summer, were thwarted.

Subsequent Russian hike in the Polovtsian steppe was undertaken in the spring of 1111 Monomakh. The campaign began back in the snow — it was possible to extensively use the sledge, which in itself was a real breakthrough. Sani significantly speeds up the movement and to save energy, fodder and provisions. On the fourth week of the campaign the army came to the Donets. Here warriors dressed in battle armor. What they did not do this earlier, indicating full conviction of Russian governor of failing to provide them polovtsev resistance on the march, after a day's shift from the main body of the column, as usual, there were reliable outposts.

In one of the vernal days army Polovtsian came to the city, will become entitled Sharukan. Polovtsian "city" was an assemblage of walled cottages and yurts for an impromptu short wall. Out of town towards the inhabitants of the Russian army came and bowed to the princes gave them the manner of fish and wine. After which the Russian population has deposited all he possessed was a tool. Christians, held in bondage to the local rich landowners, have been released.

After a day or three army acted differently, "the city" — Sugrovu. The garrison resisted, and the town was burned. Soon the Russian army marched into working the way, but Kuman ventured into vengeance. On March 27, on the banks of the river Dege "the former as sostupu kreptse and abuse." Details of the Battle of the chroniclers do not report, known only by its result: Russia won a complete victory.

Russian troops surrounded Polovtsian roving remained in the final battle. Resuming recycling movement would be unwise. Voivod long hesitated to move in the way, but the morning of Palm Sunday, it was decided to continue the campaign. A day Kuman overtook Russian and zacherneli "Thou Thy great hog and tmami tmy", surrounded by troops from all sides.

A Kivshenko D. Dolobsky congress of princes — a date with Prince Vladimir Monomakh Prince Sviatopolk

Russian troops march was accomplished by several parallel columns with setting side sentinel barriers, allowing not so much advance warning of the attack, how many carts keep intact the carts to the extraction and stolen cattle. "And poidosha polovetstii half and half rustei and zrazishasya first with polkom and tresnu, like a grom, srazivshema brow, and the battle is fierce landmark byst them and decays wallpaper. And in doing Volodimer with its shelves and David with their shelves. And vozrevshe Polovtzy vdasha splashing on her beg … "

This description conveys the plan and progress of the battle briefly and clearly. Russian troops continue their movement dense colonies. At one point, Kuman did not move aside and arranged for a frontal attack, located at the mouth of the river Salnitsy. Front collision Polovtsian Russian cavalry and horse also could be a totally avant-garde "like grom." It is logical and that "fierce scolding byst landmark them" — Kuman, whose side have numerical advantages, is not going to surrender. The fate of the Russian avant-garde was unflattering — it accounted for a tough test. The situation turned the entry into the main battle force Perejaslavskogo and Chernigov princes, which began to replace Polovtsian. The Russian broke through the encirclement and continued their advance, failing to capture prisoners, and herds of cattle.

From the standpoint of strategy, battle Salnitsky battle was the first battle in which, in the language of modern military science, the troops marched and being under the threat of attack front, lined up in a few columns, thus increasing the pressure on the enemy on all fronts and, ultimately, to break through the encirclement.

Military leadership genius of Vladimir Monomakh realized not only in the specific construction of the troops on the march, and in the plan of the future battlefield. CONTRIBUTE to slow down the movement of infantry. Surrounded by a cavalry troop vegetable garden as wall shields infantry, having formed the order of battle, then won the title of "city". Infantry protection, weakness hungry Polovtsian stallions and continuous movement — three main components of success of Russian troops. Bristled with spears system, not counting the rest of the still and moving without annoying. The Russian army, to destroy all of the major centers of the Polovtsian-wintering is gone unpunished, inflicting a serious material and moral damage.

Polovtsian hike Monomakh was characterized by unprecedented increase in the role of the clergy in the army. As throughout the campaign in the army remained harsh discipline, committed common p
rayers, after which the army became even more united. Heathen Kuman wavered under the pressure of Orthodox soldiers and more than were unable to seriously threaten the Russian lands. Polovtsi went with Don, migrated across the Danube, and even in the South Caucasus. Russian the farmer was able to breathe a sigh of relief — no longer nomads were taken from him bread.

Cap of Monomakh. End of 13 — the beginning of the 14th century

According to the materials published by Yuri Sukharev, "Don hike Monomakh", "Rodina», N 3-4, 1997

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