Intestinal infections

Intestinal infections.  Photo from www.sciencephoto.com

Buying marinated mushrooms grandmothers near the subway, eating expired canned food, going on a journey, or simply forgetting to wash hands before meals andfruits and vegetables, we run the risk of catching an intestinal infection. At best, it threatens many hours sitting out in the dressing room. At worst — the infectious diseases clinic and even death.

Intestinal infections — this is a group of infectious diseases that primarily damage the digestive tract. Infection occurs when a pathogen enters through the mouth, usually by consumption of contaminated food and water. Total of more than 30 diseases. Of these, the most harmless — the so-called food poisoning, and the most dangerous — cholera, typhoid, botulism, etc.

Causes

The agents of intestinal infections may include: bacteria (salmonellosis, typhoid fever, cholera), their toxins (botulism), and viruses (enteroviruses, rotavirus), etc.

Of patients and carriers of infection bacteria released into the environment with feces, vomit, sometimes with urine. Almost all the agents of intestinal infections is extremely tenacious. How long they live in the soil, water and even on different subjects. For example, spoons, plates, door handles and furniture. Intestinal bacteria are not afraid of the cold, but still prefer to live where the heat and humidity. Especially they multiply rapidly in dairy products, minced meat, jelly, jelly, as well as in the water (especially in summer).

In the body of a human intestinal infection pathogens enter through the mouth: with food, water or dirty hands. For example, dysentery can start if drink fresh (unboiled) milk or eat yogurt made from it, cottage cheese or sour cream. E. coli can be eaten together with poor kefir or yogurt. Staphylococcal infection feels comfortable in spoiled cakes with cream. Salmonellosis (there are about 400 species) fall to any person through contaminated food: chicken meat and eggs, cooked sausage, hot dogs, poorly washed or washed with dirty water vegetables and herbs.

What's going on?

Bacteria from the mouth into the stomach and then into the intestine where begin to proliferate. After getting germs in the body comes asymptomatic incubation period, which lasts, in most cases,6-48 hours.

Symptoms of the disease causing microbes like themselves, and they emit toxins. Intestinal infections can occur as acute gastritis (With vomiting and pain in the stomach) enteritis (C diarrhea) Gastroenteritis (With vomiting and diarrhea) Colitis (With blood in the feces and a violation of the chair) enterocolitis (Affecting the entire intestine).

One of the most unpleasant consequences arising from the enteric infections — dehydration due to vomiting and / or diarrhea. Especially hard these diseases occur in early childhood and in the elderly. The result can be a sudden dewatering renal failure and other serious complications, in particular dehydration (loss associated with the liquid) shock.

As shown?

Intestinal infections, like all other infectious diseases, always happen unexpectedly. At the very beginning of human concern weakness, lethargy, loss of appetite, headache, fever — symptoms resembling normal ARD. However, after some time, nausea and vomiting, appear cramping abdominal pain, diarrhea with mucus, pus or blood (such as dysentery). May be concerned about thirst and chills.

For infections of the group characterized by the following symptoms (alone or in combination with one another)

  • fever;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • abdominal pain;
  • diarrhea;
  • excessive flatulence (bloating).

Sometimes intestinal infection have no visible symptoms, but accompanied by the release of pathogens. In terms of the spread of infection is particularly dangerous carrier — an unsuspecting person becomes a constant source of germs, infecting others.

Diagnosis and treatment

It is important to distinguish intestinal infection from other diseases with similar symptoms: a non-bacterial food poisoning (e.g., drugs), acute appendicitis, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, ectopic pregnancy, etc.

When symptoms that resemble acute intestinal infection, consult an infectious disease specialist. In order to properly diagnose, your doctor bacteriological examination of feces or vomit. Extras can be used serological diagnostic methods (to detect antibodies to the agents of infection).

If the patient's condition is deteriorating rapidly, urgently call "ambulance", and before her arrival is helping affected first aid.

Treatment of intestinal infections is complex and includes: fight microbial toxins, microbes themselves and with dehydration. In addition, patients must follow the right diet and use of special drugs to restore normal intestinal microflora.

Prophylaxis

To protect against acute intestinal infections, simply follow these simple rules: drink only water and milk was boiled and wash fruits and vegetables with hot water and soap, to comply with the rules and terms of food storage, wash hands before eating and do not bite his nails.

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