Irkutsk historical

Irkutsk — one of the oldest cities in Siberia. Its origin dates back to the first city of Irkutsk fortress, pledged by the Cossacks under the leadership of James Pohabov July 6, 1661. Irkutsk almost from its inception has been an important reference point for trade with China. Through the city were all Russian-Chinese trade caravans. In the first decade of its development the city was the center of a vast agricultural and ohotopromyshlennogo edge that helped the formation of Irkutsk in economic terms. In 1686, Irkutsk jail was officially elevated to the level of the city, and four years later, February 18, 1690, from the Siberian orders were received coat of arms and seal. In 1764 Irkutsk became a provincial town, and in 1787 was opened City Council. Since the end of XVIII century is a Siberian Irkutsk Province, in 1822 became the residence of the governor-general of Eastern Siberia. This gave the all-new impetus for the development of Irkutsk. The major impetus for the development of science was the discovery of the Siberian Department of the Imperial Geographical Society in 1851.

During the Civil War, Irkutsk briefly became the seat of the Russian government of the Supreme Ruler of Admiral Kolchak. In 1920, at the mouth of the river Ushakovka Kolchak was executed and dumped the ice.

At the turn of the XIX — XX centuries Irkutsk was the largest Siberian city, with a population of 10,000 people. At all times the backbone of the economy of Irkutsk was trading merchants, patrons were built in the city of mansions, offices, churches. The beauty of the city is not inferior to the capital St. Petersburg. Up to now the historic center remained almost unchanged, only officially registered more than 2500 monuments. In 2011, the city celebrated the 350th anniversary of its founding. The fate of Irkutsk enviable: here is one of the oldest museums in Russia — local history, born in 1782 on the initiative of the governor Nicknames. Here the efforts of Vladimir Platonovich Sukacheva in the nineteenth century, was born the first art gallery in the Urals, which became the basis of the richest collection of Irkutsk Regional Art Museum, which in 1989 was named after the founder of the gallery. At the beginning of the new century regional art museum has returned to his roots — the estate VP Sukacheva. It so happened that no part of Irkutsk fires or fire of the revolution, no cleaning of the city in the 1950-1960’s, when the old houses were demolished for the construction of the first post-war modern housing, not destroy this wonderful monument. Probably somewhere on the genetic level in Irkutsk, the city authorities lived name VP Sukacheva, the memory of his good deeds. Siberians are very fortunate that at the intersection of busy streets preserved estate, constructed from all the laws of the nineteenth century. How did Vladimir Sukachyov, who grew up in Irkutsk, where there was no private gardens and trees in front gardens — a rarity, break of nearly four acres of park and arrange the Gentry? Perhaps interest in the manor way of life, an understanding of the role of the estate as a special cultural center formed our countryman was a student in Ukraine.

After the end of the Irkutsk gymnasium Sukachyov Vladimir entered the natural history department of Physics and Mathematics of the University of Kiev, Vladimir behalf of Sts. In practice, and in a vacation he had ever come in many estates. It should be noted that in the early 80’s Irkutsk people have not yet recovered from the terrible fire of 1879, began to be built outside the traditional boundaries of the city: Moscow-Laninskaya Street (now the events of December) will be continued, slowly climbing up the mountain, forested. From the cemetery boom went to the east of Jerusalem (now the 1st Soviet), parallel to the 2nd, 3rd … Jerusalem, crossed extension Rusinovskaya (Baikal), Salomatovskoy (Karl Liebknecht). Sukacheva bought some forest areas with villas built somewhere in the interval from the streets of Jerusalem to Laninskoy Salomatovskoy and within three to four years, rebuilt the manor house in the best tradition of the noble estates: Manor house, outbuilding, which housed the servants and kitchen, office with stables, house Guest, greenhouse, toboggan, a gazebo, a grotto, a cellar, blacksmith shop, outbuildings — a total of 17. Among them are two buildings that had social meaning: art gallery and a school for girls from poor families. The building was a two-story gallery, mounted on the roof with a coat of arms in the form of an anchor entwined with the letter «S». The school building porch looked out on Jerusalem and different from the other farmstead buildings absence of carved decoration. By the 1880s, when the estate was constructed Sukacheva and broke up the park, changed the aesthetics of the estate construction: steel-like manor house, when in the first place are not ostentatious splendor and magnificence, and the poetry of the natural environment, the proximal landscape plan becomes more important. The photographs from the family archives show how the young trees come close to the houses, branches looking in the window. From a high cliff overlooking the city, down to the Tikhvin area on the one hand and on the other side as the palm lay Working suburb with white and red temples.

Architecture blended with the natural environment, reflecting society’s desire to revive the Russian tradition: the house at Sukacheva richly decorated with carvings. Homestead on Laninskoy became the center of social life of the city. It brings together scientists, travelers, local and visiting musicians and artists. Under the auspices of the hosts, with the participation of their children, live music concerts and literary, which are carefully prepared and printed in the printing program. The museum has several such programs. Guests enjoyed listening to plays music Nadezhda, hears a host that "he can tell the story of each of his paintings." Sukacheva left the estate in 1898, after moving to St. Petersburg to give the children an education, but leaving Irkutsk almost all the pictures and reserving the homestead. From Irkutsk they maintained regular contact. In March 1918, the estate was nationalized, but the Soviet government lasted until the summer. In early July 1918 the city rumors that the Bolsheviks in the number of strategic facilities will blow Sukacheva house. But the rumors remained rumors: the manor house and survived the retreat of the Red Army, and when you return it to Irkutsk at the end of 1919.

In 1920, the Art Gallery Sukacheva was transferred to the State: pictures taken
in Meretskov store building (now the "Children’s World"), which have been gathered from across the city and works of art which was created by the art department of scientific (now — Local History) Museum. In 1936, the department became a separate legal entity — Regional Art Museum, has changed several addresses: Halturina 1, Marx, 23-25, Lenin, 5. The estate passed to the jurisdiction of the Board of Education: school classes continued, as warm recollections in his "Notes Irkutsk woman" honorary citizen of Irkutsk LI Tamm. In the art gallery in the 1920-1930 school she worked commune "New Life". When the country is committed to the homeless, a few years before the war, it is located orphanage. In 1950 — a kindergarten. Services were held in the catering department, laundry, the houses was given to the shelter. As dilapidated, in the absence of proper care, buildings dismantled for firewood. During the construction of the monument was dismantled tank manor house.

It is equally sad story took place in the park. Part of it remained for child care, most also been turned into a recreation park named after May 1. Irkutsk people for some reason called it "Dunkinym garden." To arrange a dance floor, set rides, ruthlessly cut down cedars, and lilac. Strange trees, plants brought scientists from around the world drawn by Sukachyov of botanical gardens, died. In the second half of the twentieth century was the Children’s Park. In 1954, the school moved to new premises, it housed tenants. In 1986, he received a new building and a kindergarten. The staff of the Irkutsk Regional Art Museum at the initiative of AD Fatyanova appealed to the city council with a request to transfer the museum gallery. Thanks to the perseverance of director IOHM ES City Council adopted a wonk for a number of years, several decisions for which the museum was not only a gallery, but the six surviving buildings, and 3.42 hectares of the park. Were initiated design and conservation and restoration work. Due to financial difficulties, they had to be suspended for several years.

In February 1995, the Russian president signed a decree number 176, on which the estate VP Sukacheva ranked among the monuments of federal significance. Work resumed in 1998. In November 2000, handed over to the museum conservators restored guest house. In the new age of accelerated due to the fact that they are funded not only of regional but also from the federal budget. In 2003, the City of Irkutsk is committed to work for the arboretums and park fence. Manor continues to live, she lives for VP Sukacheva, as a meeting place with him, with his epoch-soaked sincerity and spirituality. Gazebo in the park. The threads on the arbor. Art gallery and a greenhouse. Coat of Sukacheva. Old houses on Zhelyabov. In this house was born and lived as a child constructor ML Mil helicopters. Manor Yegorov. Irkutsk "Actor’s House" Museum of Architecture. Old house on ul.Marata. Homes.
Management of architectural and ethnographic museum "Taltsy."

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