Irkutsk: the history of architecture

On the development and planning of Irkutsk put the stamp of his more than three centuries of development. The oldest part of the city is situated between the rivers Angara and Ushakovka. In the first century the city was the basis guard fortress, which were located inside residential, commercial and state-owned buildings. Burg occupied an area of 336 square meters. m, looked impressive and beautiful. Formed around it planted. Streets arose spontaneously and were a fairly complex system of streets and blind alleys, side streets. From the middle of the XVIII century. development of construction going in the direction of the main trade routes: the continuation of the Moscow road — street. Laninskaya (street of the events of December), Big pershpektivnaya (St. Marx) passed into the path of Yakutsk, st. Overseas (Lenin Street) deduced towards Lake Baikal. In 1768 creates a basic plan, which included straightening and widening of streets, a breakdown of the areas, the construction of public buildings. A fire in 1779 destroyed the central part of the city. In 1792, he was made the first general plan of the city. On the streets of Irkutsk can be traced to a change of architectural styles characteristic of Russian architecture of XVII-XX centuries., Baroque, Classicism, Modernism. The bridge across the Angara River, opened in 1935. Area Labor. Musical Theater N.M.Zagurskogo. Freezing, Angara. Irkutsk Synagogue — April 5, 1879 in the synagogue, the first service was held with the participation of the Governor-General and his entourage. In the newly-built walls in gratitude sounded prayer for the Tsar-Liberator. Just a couple of months after the opening of the House of the Jewish community in Irkutsk was a fire suffered by the synagogue. The building was restored in 1881. While the Irkutsk Synagogue was the largest in Siberia and the Far East. May 4, 1932 it was decided to eliminate the synagogue. The property was confiscated by the Jewish community and handed over to the first museum of atheism, and then in art and local museums. The building housed various government agencies, at one time there was a sports hall and living room. In 1947, the second floor of the synagogue was returned to the Jewish community, but the building has been completely transferred only in 1991. In 1999, the House of the Jewish community there was a second fire. The building was renovated, but even then there was a question about the dire need of renovation. A factor that significantly speed up the process, became the third most destructive fire, which happened in 2004. The synagogue, never having seen a major overhaul of its founding, and which had wooden floors, burned to the ground — leaving only the outer walls. Restored synagogue opened in March 2009. Armenian Church. Kirov Square. Chapel in memory of Irkutsk cathedral that was blown up in the 30s. Library name Molchanov-Siberian. High ancient building with turrets and Stars of David on the front of familiar Irkutsk citizens. In the years 1902-1905 the house rented to suit your needs for the construction of the Circum-Baikal Management then. etc. From 1906 — 1918 the Irkutsk Military District, from 1923 — 1951 Department of History Museum. In the former home of merchant Feinberg today are parts of local history and bibliography of literature on art and historical and cultural heritage Regional Library. Molchanov-Siberian. House Feinberg — a unique structure, the monument of the beginning of the last century. Isai Matveevich Feinberg — was born in 1846 in Selenginsk, where he spent his childhood and youth. Later, in 1870, he moved to Irkutsk. He successfully doing business, holding the ranks of meat on the market, selling products, earning an income from their own gold mines. Isai Matveyevich was a major property owner who built and a rental house. In short, it was one of the wealthiest and most influential citizens of the city. Back in the early years in Irkutsk, in the early ’70s, Feinberg drew attention to the estate of the widow of the peasant Zhitkova is ideally located on the corner of Medvednikovskoy and flea market (now the streets and Halturina Gusarova). And the young entrepreneur bought the estate. Feinberg bought a wooden house was the victim of a famous Irkutsk fire destroyed the better part of the city in 1879. After the fire, in October of the same year, Feinberg began construction of a two-storey wooden house on the street Medvednikovskoy. In 1899, having already solid capital, Feinberg has already started the construction of a stone house on Medvednikovskoy — brick and sandstone. These materials are widely used then for the construction of houses of wealthy people who are trying to protect their homes from the city of frequent fires. Architect not yet been established, but probably it is Alexey Kuznetsov — the author projects the Grand Hotel (in Soviet times shop "Spring"), hospitals (resort "Angara") and other prominent city buildings. Feinberg had built the house for three years, until 1902 inclusive. He had his own "town" in this city, not flashy, but very lucrative. By the time he owned several houses down the street Basninskoy (Sverdlov), a small house on Third Street Soldier (Graznova), the two houses of the Grand Trapeznikovskoy (Zhelyabov). Feinberg himself with his large family was not living in a house on Medvednikovskoy, as many think, but far more modest dwelling. Built a mansion rented out and get a good income, as with his other houses. During the First World War, the house Feinberg housed the headquarters of the military district of Irkutsk, then — lithograph, art gallery, museum. In 1924, the second floor of the building handed over to Irkutsk Regional Museum, housed on the first floor of geological, zoological and historical departments of the museum. Keepers of the museum were Constantine orange and Boris Lebedinskij. In 1928, the decision of the City Council of Irkutsk
in the house Feinberg put classrooms and dormitory slaughterhouse, but soon returned again to the museum building, which was in the house Feinberg until 1951. In 1952, the building was handed over OBLPOTREBSOYUZA but a few rooms downstairs, which occupied artists, and in 60 years it housed Computing Center of the East Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1984, the Computer Center has moved to the Academic, freeing the room. In the early eighties of the twentieth century-from-home Feinberg, a struggle — it was very much willing to stay here. Submitted house Faynbrega Regional Library. I. Molchanov-Siberian in 1985. Architectural restoration work brought about changes inside the house, but minor: restorers saved layout of the rooms, the configuration of doors, windows, all the changes inside the house Feinberg took place under the strict control of the SPC. The architectural style of the current library building is not defined. Some would say that this is simply eclectic mix of styles, some — modernism. Feinberg house is very similar to the building of the Irkutsk regional museum. Irkutskgiprodornii. Pension fund. Wedding Palace. The old fire station. Russian street. Clinic for skin diseases med.universiteta. City Archives. Street Kanazawa, a monument to Russian-Japanese friendship. Clinic of Otolaryngology. Playwright Vampilov. Management East-Siberian Railway. The Moorish-style building on the corner of Karl Marx and Gagarin Boulevard Irkutsk belongs to Regional Museum. The museum is located on the corner of ul. Karl Marx and Gagarin Boulevard, surrounded by monuments of the first half of the XIX century. The building was built in the years 1883-1891. by architect G.V.Rozena to host the East-Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society. VSORGO — the first research institution in Eastern Siberia. In 1879 a fire killed the old building department together with rich collections and exhibits, collected over many years of studying the region. Was destroyed by a unique library. In the revival of the lost was attended by many scientific organizations of Russia and Siberia, the citizens of Irkutsk. In a short time, funds were raised to build a new building, which today serves as a decoration of the city. It worked well-known scientists who have enriched science with new discoveries and research: VAObruchev, DAKlemenz, NMPrzhevalsky and many others. The frieze of the building are built of stone plaques with the names of scientists who have made great contributions to the study of Siberia (Bering, Steller Gmelin, Pallas, Wrangel Island, George, Miller, Ledebour, Humboldt, Middendorf, Kolchak), etc. In 1891 the main building of the museum made a two-story ppistpoyku — was attached two new facilities. With those pop building almost did not change its appearance utpachena only ogpada of stone pillars with azhupnoy depevyannoy grille. Irkutsk Academic Drama Theatre named after Okhlopkov. Thought "to have its own theater with all accessories" originated in Irkutsk society at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries. Acquired the status of a professional theater in 1850, when a wandering troupe of actors remained in Irkutsk for a permanent job. During its history, the theater has changed several wooden theater buildings. Since 1897, the theater is located in a stone building, which was designed by the chief architect of the Directorate of the Imperial Theatres VA Shreter the traditional scheme "tiered theater." Construction was carried out under the direct patronage of Governor Alexander Goremykina. The theater building and now affects not only the decoration of the hall, but the most perfect acoustics. A masterpiece of architecture of the XIX century, the building of the theater was the "pearl" of the city’s architecture. In 1995, the building was given the status of a historical and cultural heritage of federal importance. In 1999 he finished the reconstruction and restoration of the architectural masterpieces of the nineteenth century — the building Drama Theatre. VostSibUgol. Roman Catholic (Polish) Parish Church was founded in 1826. The original building was made of wood. It housed the city’s first organ, the music of the organ was married in 1852, the daughter of a Decembrist MK Kuechelbeker — Anna. In 1850 the building underwent extensive repairs, the old organ in 1856 replaced by a new factory in Paris Debena. In 1879, during the great fire of Irkutsk, the cathedral burned to the ground. Brick church was built in 1881 by architect Josef Tamulevich, it also housed the body. In 1938, the church ceased to exist as a religious cult institution. After long research and restoration work in 1978, the building was opened in Irkutsk Philharmonic Organ Hall. According to the census in 1835 in Irkutsk, 350 population of Muslims. By 1897, the number of Muslims in the Irkutsk region reached 7599. In 1887, a wealthy Tatar merchants Shafigullina bought a house on ul.Salomatinskoy with a view to placing a house of worship for Muslims. In 1897, the mosque was held the first service. The first imam was appointed county Mukhamet Garyf Baimuratov. A small wooden building could not accommodate all the parishioners. Shortly after the start of the service has been organized to raise funds for the construction of a new stone building. The largest cash contribution made Shafigullina brothers. The basis of the architecture of the new mosque lay samples of stone mosques of the Middle Volga region, in particular Kazan. The building is made of massive blocks of natural stone. Construction of the stone of the mosque was completed in 1902. Irkutsk mosque became a place of social and educational activities Irkutsk Muslims. There were organized library, a school, an orphanage and disabled persons, a dining room for the poor. After the Soviet authorities several times under various pretexts, made attempts to close the mosque and the mosque managed to save only through the solidarity of the Muslim community. However, most of the building was transferred to other organizations, the minaret disassembled. Several decades in the building housed the driving school, motorcycle club DOSAAF, a communal apartment. By the end of the 80’s mosque completely handed community. In 2011, work began on the restoration of the wooden minaret. Academic bridge across the Angara. Institute of Foreign Languages.

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