Katyusha against Vanya: 70 years of the Soviet miracle weapons

On Thursday, July 14, the 70th anniversary of the establishment of the legendary fighting vehicle rocket launchers BM-13, better known under the name of "Katyusha" first shots which rocked in fierce fighting July 14, 1941 near the town of Orsha (Vitebsk region., Belarus). Two sudden firing stroke of the new plants fired by the enemy incredible, overwhelming any desire to resist the effect. According to some historians, it is "Katyusha" played a crucial role in several battles of the Great Patriotic War and the Soviet Union in the final victory over Nazi Germany.

The first battery "Katyusha" (7 triaxial ZIS-6 and 44 cars with ammunition), commanded by Captain Ivan Flyorov. That it has been used for the destruction of the Soviet military trains with weapons, ammunition and fuel, which in the morning on July 14, were captured by the Germans at the railway station Orsha. BM-13 for 15-20 seconds could produce 16 missiles at a distance of up to 8 km. The blow was sudden and vseunichtozhayuschim, and the Germans did not even understand where he was struck.

Only a few months after the capture of one intact BM with a stock of missiles for her, German intelligence was able to report on the new Russian "a multilateral automatic gun, flame thrower." The fate of Captain Flerov and his battery was tragic. In early October 1941 the battery was surrounded, and the Flerov blew himself up along with the parent plant. Of the 160 persons of staff to his troops came only 46 fighters.

"Katya? Sha" — the informal collective name armored rocket launchers BM-8 (82 mm), BM-13 (132-mm) and BM-31 (310-mm), which are actively used in the course of the Great Patriotic War. Subsequently, based on them have been set up multiple launch rocket systems (MLRS) "Grad" (BM-14, BM-21, 122-mm), "Hurricane" (220 mm) and "Twister" (300 mm). As of 1929-1933. a group of scientists have developed and tested rockets of various calibers, which became the prototype for shells "Katyusha".

In the years 1937-1938. missiles were adopted by the Soviet Air Force. In the 1938-1941 years. was created by multiply charged launcher (PU) on a truck in March 1941 — successfully tested launchers BM-13 (combat vehicle, the 132-mm projectile) with a 132-mm projectile M-13, and for a few hours prior to the war on June 21 signed a decree on their mass production.

06/26/1941 at the plant in Voronezh im.Kominterna collected the first two production BM-13 launchers on the chassis ZIS-6, and on June 28, after they were successful, and 5 launchers, made in RNII, have joined in the battery and sent to the front. The first eight regiments were formed 36 cars August 8, 1941 BM-13 produced in Voronezh Plant. Comintern and the Moscow plant "Compressor", rockets produced Moscow Plant. Vladimir Lenin, and some other

In 1943 he was created an improved modification of the BM-13H and the end of the Second World War was made about 1800 of PU. In 1942, there were 310-mm shells of M-31, and in April 1944 was created for self-propelled launchers BM-31-12 with 12 runners. In the period from July 1941 to December 1944 produced about 30 thousand BM "Katyusha" and more than 12 million pieces of rockets to them all calibers. First BM established on the basis of domestic chassis (about 600 pcs.), Then — to "lend-lease" truck company "Studebaker» (Studebaker US6, about 20 thousand).

November 2, 1937 Director RNII-3 IT Kleimenov and chief engineer of GE Langemak were arrested, and 10 and 11 January 1938 at the site of the NKVD shot "Kommunarka." Decree of the President of the USSR on June 21, 1991 IT Kleimenova, GE Langemak, VN Luzhin, BS Peter and Paul, BM Slonimeru and NI Tikhomirov was posthumously awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor.

Germans were the first to use MLRS — June 22, 1941 9 4 Regiment mortar batteries for special purposes have been used against the Brest fortress. It was the six-barrel 150 mm mortars "Nebelverfer" (named after Rudolf Nebel). They are different from the thick smoke plume unmasks position, and that they were towed (truck, horse sled). Their shells had feathers and flight stabilized by rotation, as a bullet or artsnaryad.Smotret …..

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